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THE 

THEOSOPHICAL 

GLOSSARY 



BY 



H. P. BLAVATSKY 

AUTHOR OF "ISIS UNVEILED," "THE SECEET DOCTRINE," "THE KEY TO THEOSOl'HY," ETC., ETC. 



FIRST EDITION 1892 
REPRINTED 1918 



THEOSOPHICAL PUBLISHING HOUSE 

Krotona, 

Hollywood, Los Angeles, 

California. 

1918. 



PREFACE 



The Theosophical Glossary labors under the disadvantage of being 
an almost entirely posthumous work, of which the author only saw the 
first thirty-two pages in proof. This is all the more regi'ettable, for 
H.P.B., as was lier wont, was adding considerably to her original copy, 
and would no doubt have increased the volume far beyond its i)resent 
limits, and so have thrown light on many obscure terms that are not in- 
cluded in the present Glossary, and more important still, have furnished 
us with a sketcli of the lives and teachings of the most famous Adepts 
of the East and West. 

The Theosuphiced Glossary purposes to give information on the princi- 
pal Sanskrit, Pahlavi, Tibetan, Pali, Chaldean, Persian, Scandinavian, 
Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Kabalistic and Gnostic words, and Occult terms 
generally used in Theosophical literature, and principally to be found in 
Isis Unveiled, Esoteric Budelhism, The Secret Doctrine, The Key to Theo- 
sophy, etc.; and in the monthly magazines, The Theosophist, Lucifer and 
The Path, etc., and other publications of the Theosophical Society. The 
articles marked [w.w.w.], which explain words found in the Kahcdah, or 
which illustrate Rosierucian or Hermetic doctrines, were contributed at 
the special request of H.P.B. by Bro. W. W. Westcott, M.B., P.M. and 
P.Z., who is the Secretary General of the Rosierucian Society, and Prae- 
monstrator of the Kabalah to the Hermetic Order of the G.D. 

H.P.B. desired also to express her special indebtedness, as far as the 
tabulation of facts is concerned, to the Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary of 
Eitel, The Hindu Classical Dictionary of Dowson, The Vishnu Parana of 
Wilson and the Royal Masonic C yclopeedia of Kenneth Mackenzie. 

As the undersigned can make no pretension to the elaborate and ex- 
traordinary scholarship requisite for the editing of the multifarious and 
polyglot contents of H.P.B. 's last contribution to Theosophical literature, 
there must necessarily be mistakes of transliteration, etc., which special- 
ists in scliolarsliip will at once detect. Meanwhile, however, as nearly 
every Orientalist has his own system, varying transliterations may be ex 
cused in the present work, and not be set down entirely to the "Karma 
of the editor. 

G. R. S. MEAD. 

London, January, 1892. 



1 5 



THEOSOPHICAL 
GLOSSARY 



A. 

■*>^» — The first letter in all the world-alphabets save a few, such for in- 
stance as the Mongolian, the Japanese, the Tibetan, the Ethiopian, etc. 
It is a letter of great mystic power and "magic virtue" with those who 
have adopted it, and with whom its numerical value is one. It is the 
Alcph of the Hebrews, symbolized by the Ox or Bull; the Alpha of the 
Greeks, the one and the first ; the Az of the Slavonians, signifying the 
pronoun "I" (referring to the "I am that I am"). Even in Astrology, 
Taurus (the Ox or Bull or the Alcph) is the first of the Zodiacal signs, 
its color being white and yellow. The sacred Alcph acquires a still more 
marked sanctity with the Christian Kabbalists when they learn that this 
letter typifies the Trinity in Unity, as it is composed of two Yocls, one 
upright, the other reversed with a slanting bar or nexus, thus — x. 
Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie states that "the St. Andrew cross is occultly 
connected therewith". The divine name, the first in the series corre- 
sponding with Alcph, is AeHeleH or Ahih, when vowelless, and this is a 
Sanskrit root. 

Aahla (Eg.). One of the divisions of the Kerneter or infernal re- 
gions, or Amenti ; the word means the "Field of Peace". 

Aanroo (Eg.). The second division of Amenti. The celestial field 
of Aanroo is encircled by an iron wall. The field is covered with wheat, 
and the "Defunct" are rei)resented gleaning it, for the "Master of Eter- 
nity"; some stalks being three, others five, and the highest seven cubits 
high. Those who reached the last two numbers entered the state of bliss 
(which is called in Theosophy Devachan) ; the disembodied spirits whose 
harvest was but three cubits high went into lower regions {Kdma- 
loka). Wheat was with the Egyptians the symbol of the Law of Retribu- 
tion or Karma. The cubits had reference to the seven, five and three 
human "principles". 

Aaron (Ilch.). The elder brother of Moses and the first Initiate of 



2 THEOSOPHICAL 

the Hebrew Lawgiver. The name means the Illuminated, or the En- 
lightened. Aaron thus heads the line, or Hierarchy, of the initiated 
Nahim, or Seers. 

Ab (Heh.). The eleventh month of the Hebrew civil year; the fiftli 
of the sacred year beginning in July. [w. w. w.] 

Abaddon (Heh.). An angel of hell, corresponding to the Greek 
Apollyon. 

Abatur (Gn.) In the Nazarene system the "Ancient of Days'", 
AntiquKS Alius, the Father of the Demiurgus of the Universe, is called 
the Third Life or "Abatur". He corresponds to the Third "Logos" in 
the Secret Doctrine. (See Codex Nazaroius.). 

Abba Amona (Heh.). Lit., "Father-Mother"; the occult names of 
the two higher Sephiroth, Chokmah and Binah, of the upper triad, the 
apex of which is Sephira or Kether. From this triad issues the lower 
septenary of the Sephirothal Tree. 

Abhamsi (Sk.). A mystic name of the "four orders of beings" 
which are, Gods, Demons, Pitris and Men. Orientalists somehow connect 
the name with "waters", but esoteric philosophy connects its symbolism 
with Akdsa — the ethereal "waters of space", since it is on the bosom and 
on the seven planes of "space" that the "four orders of (lower) beings" 
and the three higher Orders of Spiritual Beings are born. (See Secret 
Doctrine I. p. 458, and "Ambhamsi".) 

Abhasvaras (Sk.). The Devas or "Gods" of Light and Sound, 
the highest of the upper three celestial regions (planes) of the second 
Dhydna (q.v.) A class of gods sixty-four in number, representing a cer- 
tain cycle and an occult number. 

Abhava (Sk.). Negation, or non-being of individual objects; the 
noumenal substance, or abstract objectivity. 

Abhaya (Sk.). "Fearlessness" — a son of Dharma; and also a re- 
ligious life of duty. As an adjective, "Fearless", Abhaya is an epithet 
given to every Buddha. 

Abhayagiri (Sk.). Lit., "Mount Fearless?" in Ceylon. It has an 
ancient Vihdra or Monastery in which the well-known Chinese traveller 
Fa-hien found 5,000 Buddhist priests and ascetics in tlie year 400 of our 
era, and a School called Ahhayagiri Vasinah, "School of the Secret 
Forest". This philosophical school was regarded as heretical, as the 
ascetics studied the doctrines of both the "greater" and the "smaller" 
vehicles — or the Mahdydna and the Hinaydna systems and Triydna or the 
three successive degrees of Yoga ; just as a certain Brotherhood does now 
beyond the Himalayas. This proves that the "disciples of Katyayana" 
were and are as unsectarian as their humble admirers the Theosophists 
are now. (See "Sthavirah" School.) This was the most mystical of all 
the schools, and renowned for the number of Arhats it produced. The 
Brotherhood of Ahhayagiri called themselves the disciples of Katyayana, 
the favorite Chela of Gautama, the Buddha. Tradition says that owing 



GLOSSARY 3 

to bigoted intolerance and persecution, they left Ceylon and passed be- 
yond the Plimalayas, where they have remained ever since. 

Abhidharma .('.'?/fJ. The metaphysical (third) part of Tripitaka, 
a very philoso])lneal Buddhist work by Katyayana. 

Abhijfia (Sk.). Six phenomenal (or "supernatural") gifts which 
Sakyamuni Buddlia acquired in the night on which he reached Buddha- 
ship. This is the "fourth" degree of Dhyana (the seventh in esoteric 
teachings) wliich has to be attained by every true Arhat. In China, the 
initiated Buddhist ascetics reckon six such powers, but in Ceylon they 
reckon only five. The first Abhijiia is Divyachakchus, the instantaneous 
view of anything one wills to see ; the second, is Divyasrotra, the power 
of comprehending any sound whatever, etc., etc. 

Abhimanim (Sk.). The name of Agni (fire) the "eldest son of 
Brahma, in other words, the first element or Force produced in the iini- 
verse at its evolution (the fire of creative desire). By his wife Swaha, 
Abhimanim had three sons (the fires) Pavaka, Pavamana and Suchi, and 
these had "forty-five sons, who, with the original son of Brahma and his 
three descendants, constitute the forty-nine fires" of Occultism. 

Abhimanyu (t<k.). A son of Arjuna. He killed Lakshmana, in 
the great battle of the Mahabharata on its second day, but was himself 
killed on the thirteenth. 

Abhutarajasas (8k.). A class of gods or Devas, during the 
period of tlie fifth Manvantara. 

Abib (Hch.). The first Jewish sacred month, begins in March; is 
also called Nisan. 

Abiegnus Mens (Lot.). A mystic name, from whence as from a 
certain mountain, Rosicrucian documents are often found to be issued — 
"Monte Abiegno". There is a connection with Mount Meru, and other 
sacred hills, [w.w.w.] 

Ab-i-hayat (Pers.). Water of immortality. Supposed to give 
eternal youth and sempiternal life to him who drinks of it. 

Abiri (Gr.). See Kabiri, also written Kabeiri, the Mighty Ones, 
celestials, sons of Zedec the just one, a group of deities worshipped in 
Phoenicia : they seem to be identical with the Titans, Corybantes, Curetes, 
Telchines and Dii Magni of Virgil, [w.av.w.] 

Ablanathanalba (Gn.). A term similar to "Abracadabra". 
It is said by ('. W. King to have meant "thou art a father to us"; it 
reads the same from either end and was used as a charm in Egypt. (See 
"Abracadabra".) 

Abracadabra (Gn.). This symbolic word first occurs in a medi- 
cal treatise in verse by Samonicus, who flourished in the reign of the 
Emperor Septimus Severus. Godfrey liiggins says it is from Ahra or 
Ahar "God", in Celtic, and cad "holy"; it was used as a charm, and 
engraved on Kamcas as an amulet, [w.w.w.] 



4 THEOSOPHICAL 

Godfrey Higgins was nearly right, as the word "Abracadabra" is a 
later corruption of the sacred Gnostic term "Abrasax", the latter itself 
being a still earlier corruption of a sacred and ancient Coptic or Egypt- 
ian word : a magic formula which meant in its symbolism "Hurt me not", 
and addressed the deity in its hieroglyphics as "Father". It was gen- 
erally attached to an amulet or charm and worn as a Tat (q.v.), on the 
breast under the garments. 

Abraxas or Abrasax (Gn.). Mystic words which have been 
traced as far back as Basilides, the Pythagorean, of Alexandria, a.d. 90. 
He uses Abraxas as a title for Divinity, the supreme of Seven, and as 
having 365 virtues. In Greek numeration, a. x, b. 2, r. 100, a. i, x. 60, 
a. I, s. 200=365, days of the year, solar year, a cycle of divine action. 
C. W. King, author of The Gnostics, considers the word similar to the He- 
brew Shemhamphorasch, a holy word, the extended name of God. An 
Abraxas Gem usually shows a man's body with the head of a cock, one 
arm with a shield, the other with a whip, [w.w.w.] 

Abraxas is the counterpart of the Hindu Abhimanim (q.v.) and 
Brahma combined. It is these compound and mystic qualities which 
caused Oliver, the great Masonic authority, to connect the name of Ab- 
raxas with that of Abraham. This was unwarrantable ; the virtues and 
attributes of Abraxas, which are 365 in number, ought to have shown 
him that the deity was connected with the Sun and solar division of the 
year — nay, that Abraxas is the antitype, and the Sun, the type. 

Absoluteness. When predicted of the Universal Principal, it 
denotes an abstract noun, which is more correct and logical than to apply 
the adjective "absolute" to that which has neither attributes nor limita- 
tions, nor can it have any. 

Ab-Soo (Chald.). The mystic name for Space, meaning the dwelling 
of ^& the "Father", or the Head of the source of the Waters of Knowl- 
edge. The lore of the latter is concealed in the invisible space or akasic 
regions. 

Acacia (Gr.). Innocence; and also a plant used in Freemasonry as 
a symbol of initiation, immortality, and purity; the tree furnished the 
sacred Shittim wood of the Hebrews, [w.w.w.] 

Achamoth (Gn.) The name of the second, the inferior Sophia. 
Esoterically and with the Gnostics, the elder Sophia was the Holy Spirit 
(female Holy Ghost) or the Sakti of the Unknown, and the Divine 
Spirit; while Sophia Achamoth is but the personification of the female 
aspect of the creative male Force in nature ; also the Astral Light. 

Achar (Heh.). The Gods over whom (according to the Jews) Je- 
hovah is the God. 

Achara (Sk.). Personal and social (religious) obligations. 

Acharya (Sk.). Spiritual teacher. Guru; as Sankar-ac/iariya, lit., a 
"teacher of ethics". A name generally given to Initiates, etc., and 
meaning "Master". 



GLOSSARY 5 

Achath (Hib.). The one, the first, feminine; achad being mascu- 
line. A Talmudic word applied to Jehovah. It is worthy of note that the 
Sanskrit term ak means one, ekata being "unity", Brahma being called 
dk, or cka, the one, the first, whence the Hebrew word and application. 

Acher (Ilch.). The Talmudic name of the Apostle Paul. The Tal- 
mud narrates tlie story of the four Tanaim, who entered the Garden of 
Delight, i.e., came to be initiated; Ben Asai, who looked and lost his 
sight ; Ben Zoma, who looked and lost his reason ; Acher, who made depre- 
dations in the garden and failed; and Rabbi Akiba, who alone succeeded. 
The Kabbalists say that Acher is Paul. 

Acheron (Gr.). One of the rivers of Hell in Greek mythology. 

Achit (8k.). Absolute «07i-intelligence; as Chit is — in contrast — 
absolute intelligence, 

Achyuta (Sk.). That which is not subject to change or fall ; the 
opposite to Chyuta, "fallen". A title of Vishnu. 

Acosmism (Gr.). The precreative period, when there was no Kos- 
mos but Chaos alone. 

Ad (Assyr.). Ad, "the Father". In Aramean ad means one, and 
ad-ad ' ' the only one ". 

Adah (Assyr.). Borrowed by the Hebrews for the name of their 
Adah, father of .Tubal, etc. But Adah meaning the first, the one, is 
universal property. There are reasons to think that xik-ad, means the 
first-horn or Son of Ad. Adon was the first "Lord" of Syria. (See 
Isis Unv. II., pp. 452, 453). 

Adam (Heh.). In the Kahalah Adam is the "only-begotten", and 
means also "red earth". (See "Adam-Adami" in the Sec. Doct. XL, p. 
452). It is almost identical with Athamas or Thomas, and is rendered 
into Greek by Didumos, the "twin" — Adam, "the first", in chap, i of 
Genesis, being shown, "male-female." 

Adam Kadmon (Heh.). Archetypal Man; Humanity. The 
"Heavenly Man" not fallen into sin; Kabbalists refer it to the Ten 
Sephiroth on the plane of human perception, [w.w.w.] 

In the Kahalah Adam Kadmon is the manifested Logos corresponding 
to our Third Logos; the Unmanifested being the first paradigmic ideal 
Man, and symbolizing the Universe i)i ahscondito, or in its "privation" 
in the Aristotelean sense. The First Logos is the "Light of the World", 
the Second and the Third — its gradually deepening shadows. 

Adamic Earth (Alch.). Called the "true oil of gold" or the 
"primal element in Alchemy. It is but one remove from the pure homo- 
geneous element. 

Adbhuta Brahmana (Sk.). The Brahmana of miracles; treats 
of marvels, auguries, and various phenomena. 

Adbhuta Dharma (Sk.). The "law" of things never heard be- 
fore. A class of Buddhist works on miraculous or phenomenal events. 



g THEOSOPHICAL 

Adept (Lat.). Adeptus, "He who has obtained". In Occultism 
one who has reached the stage of Initiation, and become a Master in the 
science of Esoteric philosophy. 

Adharma (8k.). Unrighteousness, vice, the opposite of Dharma. 

Adhi (Sk.). Sui:)reme, paramount. 

Adhi-bhautika duhkha (Sk.). The second of the three kinds of 
pain; lit., "Evil proceeding from external things or beings." 

Adhi-daivika duhkha (Sk.). The third of the three kinds of pain. 
"Evil proceeding from divine causes, or a just Karmic punishment". 

Adhishtanam (Sk.). Basis; a principle in which some other princi- 
pal inheres. 

Adhyatmika duhkha (Sk.). The first of the three kinds of pain; 
lit., "Evil proceeding from Self", an induced or a generated evil by 
Self, or man himself. 

Adhyatma Vidya (Sk.). Lit., "the esoteric luminary". One of 
the Fancha Vidyd Sdstras, or the Scriptures of the Five Sciences. 

Adi (Sk.). The First, the primeval. 

Adi (the Sons of). In Esoteric philosophy the "Sons of Adi" are 
called the "Sons of the Fire-Mist". A term used of certain adepts. 

Adi-bhuta (Sk.). The first Being; also primordial element. 
Adhhuta is a title of Vishnu, the "first Element" containing all ele- 
ments, "the unfathomable deity". 

Adi-Buddha (Sk.). The First and Supreme Buddha — not recog- 
nized in the Southern Church. The Eternal Light. 

Adi-budhi (Sk.). Primeval Intelligence or Wisdom; the eternal 
Budhi or Universal Mind. Used of Divine Ideation, "Mahabuddhi" be- 
ing synonymous with Mahat. 

Adikrit (Sk.). Lit., the "first produced" or made. The creative 
Force eternal and uncreate, but manifesting periodically. Applied to 
Vishnu slumbering on the "waters of space" during "pralaya" {q.v.). 

Adi-natha (Sk.). The "first" "Lord"— ^(Zi "first" (masc), ndtha 
"Lord". 

Adi-nidana (Sk.). First and Supreme Causality, from Adi, the 
iirst and Niddna the principal cause (or the concatenation of cause and 

effect). 

Adi-Sakti (Sk).. Primeval, divine Force; the female creative 
power, and aspect in and of every male god. The Sakti in the Hindu 
Pantheon is always the spouse of some god. 

Adi-Sanat (Sk.). Lit., "First Ancient". The term corresponds 
to the Kabalistic "ancient of days", since it is a title of Brahma — called 
in the Zohar the Atteekah d Atteekeen, or "the Ancient of the An- 
cients", etc. 

Aditi (Sk.). The Vedic name for the Mulaprakriti of the Vedan- 



GLOSSARY 7 

tists ; the abstract aspect of Parabrahman, though both unmanifested and 
unknowable. In the Vcdas Aditi is the "Mother-Goddess", her terrestrial 
symbol being infinite and shoreless space. 

Aditi-Gaea. A compound term, Sanskrit and Latin meaning dual, 
nature in theosophical writings— spiritual and physical, as Gtea is the 
goddess of the earth and of objective nature. 

Aditya (Sk.). A name of the Sun; as Marttanda, he is the Son of 
Aditi. 

Adityas (SkJ. The seven sons of Aditi; the seven planetary gods. 
Adi Varsha ^S'A-.;. The first land; the primordial country in which 
dwelt the first races. 

Adonai (Heh.). The same as Adonis. Commonly translated 
"Lord". Astronomically — the Sun. When a Hebrew in reading came to 
the name IHVH, which is called Jehovah, he paused and substituted the 
word "Adonai", (Adni) ; but when written with the points of Alhim, 
he called it "Elohim". [w. w. w.] 

Adonim-Adonai, Aden. The ancient Chaldeo-Hebrew names 
for the Elohim or creative terrestrial forces, synthesized by Jehovah. 

Adwaita (Sk.). A Vedanta sect. The non-dualistic (A-dwaita) 
school of Vedantic philosophy founded by Sankaracharya, the greatest 
of the historical Brahmin sages. The two other schools are the Dwaita 
(dualistic) and the Visishtadwaita ; all the three call themselves Ve- 
dantic. 

Adwaitin (Sk.). A follower of the said school. 

Adytum (Gr.). The Holy of Holies in the pagan temples. A name 
for the secret and sacred precincts or the inner chamber, into which no 
profane could enter; it corresponds to the sanctuary of the altars of 
Christian Churches. 

.ffibel-Zivo (Gn.). The Metatron or anointed spirit with the 
Nazarene Gnostics ; the same as the angel Gabriel. 

.ffiolus (Gr.). The god who, according to Hesiod, binds and looses 
the winds ; the king of storms and winds. A king of^olia, the inventor 
of sails and a great astronomer, and therefore deified by posterity. 

.ffion or JEons (Gr.). Periods of time; emanations proceeding 
from the divine essence, and celestial beings ; genii and angels with the 
Gnostics. 

JEsir (Scand.). The same as Ascs, the creative Forces personified. 
The gods who created the black dwarfs or the Elves of Darkness in 
Asgard. The divine ^sir, the Ases are the Elves of Light. An allegory 
bringing together darkness which comes from light, and matter born of 
spirit. 

iEther (Gr.). With the ancients the divine luminiferous sub- 
stance which pervades the whole universe, the "garment" of the Su- 



g THEOSOPHICAL 

preme Deity, Zeus, or Jupitor. With the moderns, Ether, for the meaning 
of which in physics and chemistry see Webster's Dictionary or any other. 
In esotericism ^ther is the third principle of the Kosmic Septenary; 
the Earth being the lowest, then the Astral light, Ether and Akdsa (pho- 
netically Akdsha) the highest. 

JEthrobacy (Gr.). Lit., walking on, or being lifted into the air 
with no visible agent at work; "levitation". 

It may be conscious or unconscious ; in the one case it is magic, in the 
other either disease or a power which requires a few words of elucidation. 
We know that the earth is a magnetic body ; in fact, as some scientists 
have found, and as Paracelsus affirmed some 300 years ago, it is one vast 
magnet. It is charged with one form of electricity — let us call it posi- 
tive — which it evolves continuously by spontaneous action, in its interior 
or centre of motion. Human bodies, in common with all other forms of 
matter, are charged with the opposite form of electricity, the negative. 
That is to say, organic or inorganic bodies, if left to themselves will con- 
stantly and involuntarily charge themselves with and evolve the form of 
electricity opposite to that of the earth itself. Now, what is weight? 
Simply the attraction of the earth. "Without the attraction of the earth 
you would have no weight", says Professor Stewart; "and if you had 
an earth twice as heavy as this, you would have double the attraction". 
How then, can we get rid of this attraction ? According to the electrical 
law above stated, there is an attraction between our planet and the or- 
ganisms upon it, which keeps them upon the surface of the globe. But 
the law of gravitation has been counteracted in many instances, by levi- 
tation of persons and inanimate objects. How account for this? The 
condition of our physical systems, say theurgic philosophers, is largely 
dependent upon the action of our will. If well-regulated, it can produce 
"miracles"; among others a change of this electrical polarity from 
negative to positive ; the man 's relations with the earth-magnet would 
then become repellent, and "gravity" for him would have ceased to 
exist. It would then be as natural for him to rush into the air until the 
repellent force had exhausted itself, as, before, it had been for him to 
remain upon the ground. The altitude of his levitation would be 
measured by his ability, greater or less, to charge his body with positive 
electricity. This control over the physical forces once obtained, altera- 
tion of his levity or gravity would be as easy as breathing. (See I sis Un- 
veiled, Vol. I., page xxiii.) 

Afrits (Arab.). A name for native spirits regarded as devils by 
Mussulmen. Elementals much dreaded in Egypt. 

Agapae (Gr.). Love Feasts; the early Christians kept such festi- 
vals in token of sympathy, love and mutual benevolence. It became nec- 
essary to abolish them as an institution, because of great abuse ; Paul in 
his First Epistle to the Corinthians complains of misconduct at the feasts 
of the Christians, [w.w.w.] . 



GLOSSARY 9 

Agastya (Sk.). The name of a g:reat Rishi, much revered in South- 
ern India ; the reputed author of liymns in the Rig Veda, and a great 
hero in the Rdmdyana. In Tamil literature he is credited with having 
been the first instructor of the Dravidians in science, religion and phil- 
osophy. It is also the name of the star "Canopus". 

Agathodaemon (Or.). The beneficent, good Spirit as contrasted 
with the bad one, Kakodiemon. The "Brazen Serpent" of the Bible is the 
former ; the fiying serpents of fire are an aspect of Kakodaemon. The 
Ophites called Agathodaemon the Logos and Divine Wisdom, which in 
the Bacchanalian Mysteries was represented by a serpent erect on a pole. 

Agathon (Gr.). Plato's Supreme Deitv. Lit., "The Good", our 
ALAYA, or "Universal Soul". 

Aged (Kah.). One of the Kabbalistic names for Sepliira, called also 
the Crown, or Kcthcr. 

Agla (Hch.). This Kabbalistic word is a talisman composed of the 
initials of the four words "Ateh Gibor Leolam Adonai", meaning "Thou 
art mighty for ever Lord". MacGregor Mathers explains it thus: 
"A, the first; A, the last; G, the trinity in unity; L, the completion of 
the great work", [w.w.w.] 

Agneyastra (Sk.). The fiery missiles or weapons used by the 
Gods in the exoteric Purdnas and the Mahdhhdrata; the magic weapons 
said to have been wielded by the adept-race (the fourth), the Atlanteans. 
This "weapon of fire" was given by Bharadwaja to Agnivesa, the son of 
Agni, and by him to Drona, though the Vishnu Purdyia contradicts this, 
saying that it was given by the sage Aurva to King Sagara, his chela. 
They are frequently mentioned in the Mahdhhdrata and the Rdmdyana. 

Agni (Sk.). The God of Fire in the Veda; the oldest and the most 
revered of Gods in India. He is one of the three great deities: Agni, 
Vayu and Surya, and also all the three, as he is the triple aspect of fire ; 
in heaven as the Sun; in the atmosphere or air (Vayu), as Lightning; on 
earth, as ordinary Fire, Agni belonged to the earlier Vedic Trimurti 
before Vishnu was given a place of honour and before Brahma and Siva 
were invented. 

Agni Bahu (Sk.). An ascetic son of Manu Swavambhuva, the 
"Self-born". 

Agni Bhuvah (Sk.). Lit., "born of fire", the term is applied to 
the four races of Kshatriyas (the second or warrior caste) whose ancestors 
are said to have sprung from fire. Agni Bhuvah is the son of Agni, the 
God of Fire ; Agni Bhuvah being the same as Kartti-keya, the God of 
War. (See Sec. Doct., Vol. II., p. 550.) 

Agni Dhatu Samadhi (Sk.). A kind of contemplation in Yoga 
practice, when Kundalini is raised to the extreme and the infinitude 
appears as one sheet of fire. An ecstatic condition. 

Agni Hotri (Sk.). The priests who served the Fire-God in Aryan 
antiquity. The term Agni Hotri is one that denotes oblation. 



10 THEOSOPHICAL 

Agni-ratha (SI:). A "Fiery Vehicle" literally. A kind of flying 
machine. Spoken of in ancient works of magic in India and in the epic 
poems. 

Agnishwattas (Sk.). A class of Pitris, the creators of the first 
ethereal race of men. Our solar ancestors as contrasted with the Bar- 
hishads, the "lunar" Pitris or ancestors, though otherwise explained in 
the Purdnas. 

Agnoia (Gr.). "Divested of reason", lit., "irrationality", when 
speaking of the animal Soul. According to Plutarch, Pythagoras and 
Plato divided the human soul into two parts (the higher and lower 
manas) — the rational or 7ioetic and the irrational, or agnoia, sometimes 
written "annoia". 

Agnostic (Gr.). A word claimed by Mr. Huxley to have been 
coined by him to indicate one who believes nothing which cannot be 
demonstrated by the senses. The later schools of Agnosticism give more 
philosophical definitions of the term. 

Agra-Sandhani (Sh.). The "Assessors" or Recorders who read 
at the judgment of a disembodied Soul the record of its life in the heart 
of that "Soul". The same almost as the Lipikas of the Secret Doctrine 
(See Sec. Doct., Vol. I., p. 105.) 

Agruerus A very ancient Phoenician god. The same as Saturn. 

Aham (Sk.). "I"— the basis of Ahankara, Self-hood. 

Ahan (Sk.). "Day", the Body of Brahma, in the Purdnas. 

Ahankara (Sk.). The conception of "I", Self-consciousness or 
Self -identity ; the "I", the egotistical and mdydvic principle in man, 
due to our ignorance which separates our " I " from the Universal One- 
Self Personality, Egoism. 

Aheie (Hch.). Existence. He who exists; corresponds to Kether 
and Macroprosopus. 

Ah-hi (Sensar), Ahi (Sk.), or Serpents. Dhyau Chohans. "Wise 
Serpents" or Dragons of Wisdom. 

Ahi (Sk.). A serpent. A name of Vritra, the Vedic demon of 
drought. 

Ahti (Scand.). The "Dragon" in the Eddas. 
Ahu (Scand.). "One" and the first. 

Ahum (Zend). The first three principles of septenary man in the 
Avesta ; the gross living man and his vital and astral principles. 

Ahura (Zend). The same as Asura, the holy, the Breath-like. 
Ahura Mazda, the Ormuzd of the Zoroastrians or Parsis, is the Lord 
who bestows light and intelligence, whose symbol is the Sun (See "Ahura 
Mazda"), and of whom Ahriman, a European form of "Angra Mainyu" 
(q.v.), is the dark aspect. 

Ahura Mazda (Zend). The personified deity, the Principle of 



GLOSSARY 11 

Universal Divine Light of the Parsis. From Ahura or Asitra, breath, 
"spiritual, divine" in the oldest Rig Veda, degraded by the orthodox 
Brahmans into A-sura, ''no gods", just as the Mazdeans have degraded 
the Hind^^ Devas (Gods) into Dfeva (Devils). 

Aidoneus (Or.). The God and King of the Nether World; Pluto 
or Dionysos (Jhthonios (subterranean), 

Aij Taion Tlie supreme deity of the Yakoot, a tribe in Northern 
Siberia. 

Ain-Aior (Chald.). The only "Self -existent", a mystic name for 
divine substance, [w.w.w.] 

Ain (Hch.). The negatively existent; deity in repose, and absolutely 
passive, [w.w.w.] 

Aindri (Sk.). Wife of Indri. 

Aindriya (Sk.). Or IndrCuu, Indriya; Sakti. The female aspect 
or "wife" of Indra. 

Ain Soph (Hch.). The "Boundless" or Limitless; Deity emanating 
and extending, [w.w.w] 

Ain Soph is also written En Soph and Ain Siiph, no one, not even 
Rabbis, being sure of their vowels. In the religious metaphysics of the 
old Hebrew philosophers, the One Principle was an abstraction, like 
Parabrahmam, though modern Kabbalists have succeeded now, by dint of 
mere sophistry and paradoxes, in making a "Supreme God" of it and 
nothing higher. But with the early Chaldean Kabbalists Ain Soph is 
"without form or being", having "no likeness with anything else" 
(Franck, Die Kabbala, p. 126). That Ain Soph has never been consid- 
ered as the "Creator" is proved by even such an orthodox Jew as Philo 
calling the "Creator" the Logos, who stands next the "Limitless One", 
and the "Second God". "The Second God is its .(Ain Soph's) wis- 
dom", says Philo (Quacst. et Solut.). Deity is No-thing; it is nameless, 
and therefore called Ain Soph ; the word Ain meaning nothing. (See 
Franck 's Kabhala, p. 153 ff.) 

Ain Soph Aur (Hch.). The Boundless Light which concentrates 
into the First and highest Sephira or Kether, the Crown, [w.w.w.] 

Airyamen Vaego (Zend). Or Airgana Vaega; the primeval land 
of bliss referred to in the Vendiddd, where Ahura Mazda delivered his 
laws to Zoroaster (Spitama Zarathustra). 

Airyana-ishejo (Zend). The name of a prayer to the "holy 
Airyamen", the divine aspect of Ahriman before the latter became a 
dark opposing power, a Satan. For Ahriman is of the same essence 
with Ahura Mazda, just as Typhon-Seth is of the same essence with 
Osiris {q.v.). 

Aish (Jleh.). The word for "Man". 

Aisvarikas (Sk.). A theistic school of Nepaul, which sets up Adi 



12 THEOSOPHICAL 

Buddha as a supreme god (Isvara), instead of seeing in the name that 
of a principle, an abstract philosophical symbol. 

Aitareya (8k.). The name of an Aranyaka (Brahmana) and a 
Upanishad of the Rig Veda. Some of its portions are purely Vedantic. 

Aith-ur (Chald.). Solar fire, divine ^ther. 

Aja (Sk.). "Unborn", uncreated; an epithet belonging to many of 
the primordial gods, but especially to the first Logos — a radiation of the 
Absolute on the plane of illusion. 

Ajitas (Sk.). One of the Occult names of the twelve great gods in- 
carnating in each Manvantara. The Occultists identify them with the 
Kumaras. They are called Jnana (or Gnaua) Devas. Also, a form of 
Vishnu in the second Manvantara. Called also Jayas. 

Ajnana (Sk.). or Agyana (Bengali). Non-knowledge; absence 
of knowledge rather than "ignorance" as generally translated. An 
Ajnani, means a "profane". 

Akar (Eg.). The proper name of that division of the Ker-neter 
infernal regions, which may be called Hell, [w.w.w.] 

Akasa (Sk.). The subtle, supersensuous spiritual essence which 
pervades all space ; the primordial substance erroneously identified with 
Ether. But it is to Ether what Spirit is to Matter, or Atmd to Kdma- 
rupa. It is, in fact, the Universal Space in which lies inherent the eternal 
Ideation of the Universe in its ever-changing aspects on the planes of 
matter and objectivity, and from which radiates the First Logos, or ex- 
pressed thought. This is why it is stated in the Piirdnas that Akdsa has 
but one attribute namely sound, for sound is but the translated symbol 
of Logos — "Speech" in its mystic sense. In the same sacrifice (the 
Jyotishtoma Agnishtoma) it is called the "God Akasa". In these sac- 
rificial mysteries Akasa is the all-directing and omnipotent Deva who 
plays the part of Sadasya, the superintendent over the magical effects 
of the religious performance, and it had its own appointed Hotri (priest) 
in days of old, who took its name. The Akasa is the indispensable agent 
of every Krityd (magical performance) religious or profane. The ex- 
pression "to stir up the Brahma", means to stir up the power which lies 
latent at the bottom of every magical operation, Vedic sacrifices being 
in fact nothing if not ceremonial magic. This power is the Akasa — in 
another aspect, Kundalini — occult electricity, the alkahest of the alche- 
mists in one sense, or the universal solvent, the same anima mundi on the 
higher plane as the astral light is on the lower. "At the moment of the 
sacrifice the priest becomes imbued with the spirit of Brahma, is, for 
the time being, Brahma himself". {Isis Unveiled). 

Akbar. The great Mogul Emperor of India, the famous patron of 
religions, arts, and sciences, the most liberal of all the Mussulman 
sovereigns. There has never been a more tolerant or enlightened ruler 
than the Emperor Akbar, either in India or in any other Mahometan 
country. 



GLOSSARY 13 

Akiba (Jlch.). The only one of the four Tanaim (initiated prophets 
who, entering the Garden of Delight (of the occult sciences) succeeded 
in getting himself initiated while all the others failed. (See the Kab- 
balistic Rabbis). 

Akshara (Sk.). Supreme Deitv; lit., "indestructible", ever per- 
fect. 

Akta (Sk.). Anointed: a title of Twashtri or Visvakarman, the 
highest "Creator" and Logos in the Rig-Veda. He is called the "Father 
of the Gods" and "Father of the sacred Fire". (See note page 101, Vol. 
II., Sec. Doct.). 

Akupara (Sk.). The Tortoise, the symbolical turtle on which the 
earth is said to rest. 

Al or El (Hch.). This deity-name is commonly translated "God", 
meaning mighty, supreme. The plural is Elohim, also translated in the 
Bible by the word God, in the singular, [w.w.w.] 

Al-ait (Phani.). The God of Fire, an ancient and very mystic name 
in Koptic Occultism. 

Alaparus (Chald.). The second divine king of Babylonia who 
reigned "three Sari". The first king of the divine Dynasty was Alorus 
according to Berosus. He was "the appointed Shepherd of the people" 
and reigned ten Sari (or 36,000 years, a Saros being 3,600 years). 

Alaya (Sk.). The Universal Soul (See Secret Doctrine Vol. I. pp. 
47 et seq.). The name belongs to the Tibetan system of the contemplative 
Mahdydna School. Identical with Akdsa in its mystic sense, and with 
Mulaprakriti, in its essence, as it is the basis or root of all things. 

Alba Petra (Lot.). The white stone of Initiation. The "white 
cornelian" mentioned in St. John's Revelation. 

Al-Chazari (Arab.). A Prince-Philosopher and Occultist. (See 
Book Al-Chazari) . 

Alchemists. From Al and Chemi, fire, or the god and patriarch, 
Kham, also, the name of Egypt. The Rosicrucians of the middle ages, such 
as Robertus de Fluctibus (Robert Fludd), Paracelsus, Thomas Vaughan 
(Eugenius Pliilalethes), Van Helmont, and others, were all alche- 
mists, who sought for the hidden spirit in every inorganic matter. Some 
people — nay, the great majority — have accused alchemists of charlatanry 
and false pretending. Surely such men as Roger Bacon, Agrippa, Henry 
Khunrath, and the Arabian Geber (the first to introduce into Europe 
some of the secrets of chemistry), can hardly be treated as impostors — 
least of all as fools. Scientists who are reforming the science of physics 
upon the basis of the atomic theory of Democritus, as restated by John 
Dalton, conveniently forget that Democritus, of Abdera, was an alche- 
mist, and that the mind that was capable of penetrating so far into the 
secret operations of nature in one direction must have had good reasons 
to study and become a Hermetic philosopher. Glaus Borrichius says 



l^ THEOSOPHICAL 

that the cradle of alchemy is to be sought in the most distant times. 
(I sis Unveiled.) 

Alchemy, in Arabic Ul-Khemi, is, as the name suggests, the chemis- 
try of nature. Ul-Khemi or Al-Kimm, however, is only an Arabianized 
word, taken from the Greek XYiiieia (chemeia) from ^J-Y^og — "juice", sap 
extracted from a plant. Says Dr. Wynn Wescott : "The earliest use 
of the actual term 'alchemy' is found in the works of Julius Firmicus 
Maternus, who lived in the days of Constantine the Great. The Im- 
perial Library in Paris contains the oldest extant alchemic treatise 
known in Europe ; it was written by Zosimus the Panopolite about 400 
A.D. in the Greek language, the next oldest is by ^neas Gazeus, 480 a.d." 
It deals with the finer forces of nature and the various conditions in 
which they are found to operate. Seeking under the veil of language, 
more or less artificial, to convey to the uninitiated so much of the mys- 
terium magnum as is safe in the hands of a selfish world, the alchemist 
postulates as his first principle the existence of a certain Universal Sol- 
vent by which all composite bodies are resolved into the homogeneous 
substance from which they are evolved, which substance he calls pure 
gold, or summa materia. This solvent, also called menstruum universale, 
possesses the power of removing all the seeds of disease from the human 
body, of renewing youth and prolonging life. Such is the lapis philoso- 
phorum (philosopher's stone). Alchemy first penetrated into Europe 
through Geber, the great Arabian sage and philosopher, in the eighth 
century of our era; but it was known and practised long ages ago in 
China and in Egypt, numerous papyri on alchemy and other proofs of 
its being the favorite study of kings and priests having been exhumed 
and preserved under the generic name of Hermetic treatises. (See "Tab- 
ula Smaragdina"). Alchemy is studied under three distinct aspects, 
which admit of many different interpretations, viz. : the Cosmic, Human, 
and Terrestrial. These three methods were typified under the three 
alchemical properties — sulphur, mercury, and salt. Different writers 
have stated that there are three, seven, ten, and twelve processes re- 
spectively ; but they are all agreed that there is but one object in alchemy, 
which is to transmute gross metals into pure gold. What that gold, 
however, really is, very few people understand correctly. No doubt 
that there is such a thing in nature as transmutation of the baser metals 
into the nobler, or gold. But this is only one aspect of alchemy, the 
terrestrial or purely material, for we sense logically the same process 
taking place in the bowels of the earth. Yet, besides and beyond this 
interpretation, there is in alchemy a symbolical meaning, purely psychic 
and spiritual. While the Kabbalist- Alchemist seeks for the realization 
of the former, the Occultist-Alchemist, spurning the gold of the 
mines, gives all his attention and directs his efforts only towards the 
transmutation of the baser quarternary into the divine upper trinity of 
man, which when finally blended are one. The spiritual, mental, psychic, 
and physical planes of human existence are in alchemy compared to the 



GLOSSARY 15 

four elements, fire, air, water and earth, and are each capable of a three- 
fold constitution, i.e., fixed, mutable and volatile. Little or nothing is 
known by the word concerning the origin of this archaic branch of phil- 
osophy ; but it is certain that it antedates the construction of any known 
Zodiac, and, as dealing witli tlie personified forces of nature, probably 
also any of the mythologies of the world ; nor is there any doubt that the 
true secret of transmutation (on the physical plane) was known in 
days of old, and lost before the dawn of the so-called historical period. 
Modern chemistry owes its best fundamental discoveries to alchemy, but 
regardless of the undeniable truism of the latter that there is but one 
element in the universe, chemistry has placed metals in the class of ele- 
ments and is only now beginning to find out its gross mistake. Even 
some Encyclopedists are now forced to confess that if most of the ac- 
counts of transmutations are fraud or delusion, "yet some of them are 
accompanied by testimony which renders them probable. . . By 
means of the galvanic battery even the alkalis have been discovered to 
have a metallic base. The possibility of obtaining metal from other 
substances which contain the ingredients composing it, and of changing 
one metal into another . . . must therefore be left undecided. Nor 
are all alchemists to be considered impostors. Many have laboured under 
the conviction of obtaining their object, with indefatigable patience 
and purity of heart, which is earnestly recommended by sound alchemists 
as the princijoal requisite for the success of their labors." {Pop. En- 
cyclop.) 

Alcyone (Gr.), or Haley one, daughter of ^olus, and wife of Ceyx, 
who was drowned as he was journeying to consult the oracle, upon which 
she threw herself into the sea. Accordingly both were changed, through 
the mercy of the gods, into king-fishers. The female is said to lay her 
eggs on the sea and keep it calm during the seven days before and seven 
days after the winter solstice. It has a very occult significance in ornith- 
omancy. 

Alectromancy (Gr.). Divination by means of a cock, or other 
bird; a circle was drawn and divided into spaces, each one allotted to a 
letter; corn was spread over these places and note was taken of the suc- 
cessive lettered divisions from which the bird took grains of corn. 

[w.w.w.] 

Alethae (Phaen.). "Fire Worshippers" from Al-ait, the God of 
Fire. The same as the Kabiri or divine Titans. As the seven emanations 
of Agruerus (Saturn) they are connected with all the fire, solar and 
"storm" gods {Mar ids). 

Aletheia (Gr.). Truth; also Alethia, one of Apollo's nurses. 

Alexandrian School (of Philosophers). This famous school 
arose in Alexandria (Egypt) which was for several centuries the great 
seat of learning and philosopliy. Famous for its library, which bears 
the name of "Alexandrian", founded by Ptolemy Soter, who died in 283 



IQ ■ THEOSOPHICAL 

B.C., at the very beginning of his reign ; that library which once boasted 
of 700,000 rolls or volumes (Aulus Gellius) ; for its museum, the first 
real academy of sciences and arts; for its world-famous scholars, such 
as Euclid (the father of scientific geometry), Apollonius of Perga (the 
author of the still extant work on conic sections), Nicomachus (the arith- 
metician) ; astronomers, natural philosophers, anatomists such as Hero- 
philus and Erasistratus, physicians, musicians, artists, etc., etc. ; it be- 
came still more famous for its Eclectic, or the New Platonic school, 
founded in 193 a. d., by Ammonius Saccas, whose disciples were Origen, 
Plotinus, and many others now famous in history. The most celebrated 
schools of Gnostics had their origin in Alexandria. Philo Judaeus, Jose- 
phus, lamblichus. Porphyry, Clement of Alexandria, Eratosthenes the 
astronomer, Hypatia the virgin philosopher, and numberless other stars 
of second magnitude, all belonged at various times to these great schools, 
and helped to make Alexandria one of the most justly renowned seats, 
of learning that the world has ever produced. 
Alhim (Hcl).). See "Elohim". 

Alkahest (Arab.). The universal solvent in Alchemy (see "Al- 
chemy"); but in mysticism, the Higher Self, the union with which 
makes of matter (lead), gold, and restores all compound things such as. 
the human body and its attributes to the primaeval essence. 

Almadel, the Book. A treatise on Theurgia or White Magic by an: 
unknown mediseval European author; it is not infrequently found, in 
volumes of MSS. called Keys of Solomon, [w.w.w.] 

Almeh (Arah.). Dancing girls; the same as the Indian nautches,. 
the temple and public dancers. 

Alpha Polaris (LaU). The same as Dhruva, the pole-star of 31,105- 
years ago. 

Alswider (Scand.). "All-swift", the name of the horse of the moon,, 
in the Eddas. 

Altruism (Lat.). From a/^er=other. A quality opposed to ego- 
ism. Actions tending to do good to others, regardless of self. 

Alze, Liber, de Lapide Philosophico. An alchemic treatise by an 
unknown German author ; dated 1677. It is to be found reprinted in the 
Hermetic Museum; in it is the well known design of a man with legs- 
extended and his body hidden by a seven pointed star. Eliphaz Levi 
has copied it. [w.w.w.] 

Ama (Hch.)., Amia, (Chald.). Mother. A title of Sephira Binah,. 
whose "divine name is Jehovah" and who is called "Supernal Mother". 

Amanasa (Sk.). The "Mindless", the early races of this planet;, 
also certain Hindu gods. 

Amara-Kosha (8k.). The "immortal vocabulary". The oldest 
dictionary known in the world and the most perfect vocabulary of class- 
ical Sanskrit ; by Amara Sinha, a sage of the second century. 



GLOSSARY 17 

Amba (Sk.). Tlie name of the eldest of the seven Pleiades, the 
heavenly sisters married each to a Rishi belong:ing to the Saptariksha or 
the seven Rishis of the constellation known as the Great Bear. 

Ambhamsi (Sk.). A name of the chief of the Kumaras, Sanat- 
Sujata, signifying the "waters". This epithet will become more com- 
prehensible when we remember that the later type of Sanat-Sujata was 
Michael, the Archangel, who is called in the Talmud "the Prince of 
Waters", and in the Roman Catholic Church is regarded as the patron 
of gulfs and promontories. Sanat-Sujata is the immaculate son of the 
immaculate mother (Amba or Aditi, chaos and space) or the "waiers" 
of limitless space. (See Secret Doctrine, Vol. I., p. 460.) 

Amdo (Tib.). A sacred locality, the birthplace of Tson-kha-pa, the 
great Tibetan reformer and the founder of the Gelukpa (yellow caps), 
who is regarded as an Avatar of Amita-buddha. 

Amen. In Hebrew is formed of the letters A M N = 1, 40, 50 = 91, 
and is thus a simile of "Jehovah Adonai" = 10, 5, 6, 5 and 1, 4, 50, 10 
=91 together; it is one form of the Hebrew word for "truth". In com- 
mon parlance Amen is said to mean "so be it", [w.w.w.] 

But, in esoteric parlance Amen means "the concealed". Manetho 
Sebennites says the word signifies that which is hidden and we know 
through Hecatasus and others that the Egyptians used the word to call 
upon their great God of Mystery, Ammon (or "Ammas, the hidden 
god") to make himself conspicuous and manifest to them. Bonomi, the 
famous hieroglyphist, calls his worshippers very pertinently the "Amen- 
oph", and Mr. Bon wick quotes a writer who says: "Ammon, the hidden 
god, will remain for ever hidden till anthropomorphically revealed ; gods 
who are afar off are useless". Amen is styled "Lord of the new-moon 
festival ' '. Jehovah-Adonai is a new form of the ram-headed god Amoun 
or Ammon (q.v.) who was invoked by the Egyptian priests under the 
name of Amen. 

Amenti (Eg.). Esoterically and literally, the dwelling of the God 
Amen, or Amoun, or the "hidden", secret god. Exoterically the king- 
dom of Osiris divided into fourteen parts, each of which was set aside for 
some purpose connected with the after state of the defunct. Among 
other things, in one of these was the Hall of Judgment. It was the 
Land of the West", the "Secret Dwelling", the dark land, and the 
doorless house". But it was also Ker-neter, the "abode of the gods", 
and the "land of ghosts" like the "Hades" of the Greeks (q.v.) It was 
also the "Good Father's House" (in which there are "many mansions"). 
The fourteen divisions comprised, among many others, Aanroo {q.v.), 
the hall of the Two Truths, the Land of Bliss, Neter-xer "the funeral 
(or burial) place", Otamer-xer, the "Silence-loving Fields", and also 
many other mystical halls and dwellings, one like the Sheol of the He- 
brews another like the Devachan of the Occultists, etc., etc. Out of the 
fifteen gates of the abode of Osiris, there were two chief ones, the "gate 
of entrance" or Rustu, and the "gate of exit" (reincarnation) Amh. 



i < 



18 



THEOSOPHICAL 



But there was no room in Amenti to represent the orthodox Christian 
Hell. The worst of all was the Hall of the eternal Sleep and Darkness. 
As Lepsius has it, the defunct "sleep (therein) in incorruptible forms, 
they wake not to see their brethren, they recognize no longer father and 
mother, their hearts feel nought toward their wife and children. This is 
the dwelling of the god All-Dead. . . . Each trembles to pray to 
him, for he hears not. Nobody can praise him, for he regards not those 
who adore him. Neither does he notice any offering brought to him." 
This god is Karmic Decree ; the land of Silence — the abode of those who 
die absolute disbelievers, those dead from accident before their allotted 
time, and finally the dead on the threshold of Avitchi, which is never in 
Amenti or any other subjective state, save in one case, but on this land 
of forced re-birth. These tarried not very long even in their state of 
heavy sleep, of oblivion and darkness, but, were carried more or less 
speedily toward Amh the "exit gate". 

Amesha Spentas (Zend). Amshaspends. The six angels or 
divine Forces personified as gods who attend upon Ahura Mazda, of 
which he is the synthesis and the seventh. They are one of the prototypes 
of the Roman Catholic "Seven Spirits" or Angels with Michael as chief, 
or the ' ' Celestial Host ' ' ; the ' ' Seven Angels of the Presence ' '. They are 
the Builders, Cosmocratores, of the Gnostics and identical with the Seven 
Prajapatis, the Sephiroth, etc. {q.v.). 

Amitabha. The Chinese perversion of the Sanskrit Amrita Bud- 
dha, or the "Immortal Enlightened", a name of Gautama Buddha. The 
name has such variations as Amita, Abida, Amitaya, etc., and is ex- 
plained as meaning both "Boundless Age" and "Boundless Light". The 
original conception of the ideal of an impersonal divine light has been 
anthropomorphized with time. 

Ammon (Eg.). One of the great gods of Egypt. Amnion or Amoun 
is far older than Amoun-Ra, and is identified with Baal. Hammon, the 
Lord of Heaven. Amoun-Ra was Ra the Spiritual Sun, the "Sun of 
Righteousness", etc., for— "the Lord God is a Sun". He is the God of 
Mystery and the hieroglyphics of his name are often reversed. ^He is 
Pan, All-Nature esoterically, and therefore the universe, and the "Lord 
of Eternity". Ra, as declared by an old inscription, was "begotten by 
Neith but not engendered". He is called the "self-begotten" Ra, and 
created goodness from a glance of his fiery eye, as Set-Typhon created 
evil from his. As Ammon (also Amoun and Amen), Ra, he is "Lord 
of the worlds enthroned on the Sun's disk and appears in the abyss of 
heaven". A very ancient hymn spells the name "Amen-ra", and hails 
the "Lord of the thrones of the earth. . . Lord of Truth, father of 
the gods, maker of man, creator of the beasts, Lord of Existence, En- 
lightener of the Earth, sailing in heaven in tranquillity. ... All 
hearts are softened at beholding thee, sovereign of life, health and 
strength! We worship thy spirit who alone made us", etc., etc. (See 
Bonwick's Egyptian Belief). Ammon Ra is called "his mother's hus- 



GLOSSARY 19 

band" and her son. (See ^'Chnoumis" and "Chnouphis" and also 
Secret Doctrine I, pp. 91 and 393). It was to the "ram-headed" god 
that the Jews sacrificed lambs, and the lamb of Christian theology is a 
disguised reminiscence of the ram. 

Ammonius Saccas. A great and good philosopher who lived in 
Alexandria between the second and third centuries of our era, and who 
was the founder of the Neo-Platonic School of Philaletheians or "lovers 
of truth". He was of poor birth and born of Christian parents, but 
endowed with such prominent, almost divine, goodness as to be called 
Theodidaktos, the "god-taught". He honoured that which was good in 
Cliristianity, but broke with it and the churches very early, being unable 
to find in it any superiority over the older religions. 

Amrita (Sk.). The ambrosial drink or food of the gods; the food 
giving immortality. The elixir of life churned out of the ocean of milk 
in the Puranic allegory. An old Vedic term applied to the sacred Soma 
juice in the Temple Mysteries. 

Amulam Mulam (Sk.). Lit., the "rootless root"; Mulaprakiti 
of the Vedautins, the spiritual "root of nature". 

Amun (Copt.). The Egyptian god of wisdom, who had only Initi- 
ates or Hierophants to serve him as priests. 

Ana (Chald.). The "invisible heaven" or Astral Light; the heav- 
enly mother of the terrestrial sea, 3Iar, whence probably the origin of 
Anna, the mother of Mary. 

Anacalypsis (Gr.), or an "Attempt to withdraw the veil of the 
Saitic Isis", by Godfrey Higgins. This is a very valuable work, now 
only obtainable at extravagant prices; it treats of the origin of all 
myths, religions and mysteries, and displays an immense fund of class- 
ical erudition, [w.w.w.] 

Anagamin (Sk.). Anagam. One who is no longer to be reborn 
into the world of desire. One stage before becoming Arhat and ready for 
Nirvana. The third of the four grades of holiness on the way to final 
Initiation. 

Anahata Chakram (Sk.). The seat or "wheel" of life; the heart, 
according to some commentators. 

Anahata Shabda (Sk.). The mystic voices and sounds heard by 
the Yogi at the incipient stage of his meditation. The third of the four 
states of sound, otherwise called Madhyama — the fourth state being 
when it is perceptible by the physical sense of hearing. The sound in 
its previous stages is not heard except by those who have developed 
their internal, highest spiritual senses. The four stages are called re- 
spectively. Para, Pashyanti, Madhyama and Vaikhari. 

Anitia (Chald.). A derivation from Ana (q.v.), a goddess identi- 
cal with the Hindu Annapurna, one of the names of Kali — the female 
aspect of Siva — at her best. 



20 THEOSOPHICAL 

Analogeticists. The disciples of Ammonius Saccas (q.v.) so 
called because of their practice of interpreting all sacred legends, myths 
and mysteries by a principle of analogy and correspondence, which 
is now found in the Kabbalistic system, and pre-eminently so in the 
Schools of Esoteric Philosophy, in the East. (See "The Twelve Signs of 
the Zodiac," by T. Subba Row in Five Years of Theosophy.) 

Ananda (Sk.). Bliss, jo}^ felicity, happiness. A name of the fa- 
vourite disciple of Gautama, the Lord Buddha. 

Ananda-Lahari (Sk.). "The wave of joy"; a beautiful poem 
written by Sankaracharya, a hymn to Parvati, very mystical and occult. 

Anandamaya-Kosha (Sk.). "The illusive Sheath of Bliss", i.e., 
the mayavic or illusory form, the appearance of that which is formless. 
"Bliss", or the higher soul. The Vedantic name for one of the five 
Koshas or ' ' principles ' ' in man ; identical with our Atma-Buddhi or the 
Spiritual Soul. 

Ananga (Sk.). The "Bodiless". An epithet of Kama, god of love. 

Ananta-Sesha (Sk.). The Serpent of Eternity — the couch of Vishnu 
during Pralaya (lit., endless remain). 

Anastasis (Gr.). The continued existence of the soul. 

Anatu (Chald.). The female aspect of Ann (q.v.) She represents 
the Earth and Depth, while her consort represents the Heaven and 
Height. She is the mother of tlie god Hea, and produces heaven and 
earth. Astronomically she is Ishtar, Venus, the Ashtoreth of the Jews. 

Anaxagoras (Gr.). A famous Ionian philosopher who lived 500 
B.C., studied philosophy under Anaximenes of Miletus, and settled in the 
Jays of Pericles at Athens. Socrates, Euripides, Archelaus and other 
distinguished men and philosophers were among his disciples and pupils. 
He was a most learned astronomer and was one of the first to explain 
openly that which was taught by Pythagoras secretly, namely, the move- 
ments of the planets, the eclipses of the sun and moon, etc. It was he 
who taught the theory of Chaos, on the principle that "nothing comes 
from nothing ' ' ; and of atoms, as the underlying essence and substance of 
all bodies, "of the same nature as the bodies which they formed". These 
atoms, he taught, were primarily put in motion by Nous (Universal In- 
telligence, the Mahat of the Hindus), which Nous is an immaterial, eter- 
nal, spiritual entity; by this combination the world was formed, the 
material gross bodies sinking down, and the ethereal atoms (or fiery 
ether) rising and spreading in the upper celestial regions. Antedating 
modern science by over 2000 years, he taught that the stars were of the 
same material as our earth, and the sun a glowing mass ; tliat the moon 
was a dark, uninhabitable body, receiving its light from the sun; the 
comets, wandering stars or bodies ; and over and above the said science, he 
confessed himself thoroughly convinced that the real existence of things, 
perceived by our senses, could not be demonstrably proved. He died in 
exile at Lampsacus at the age of seventy-two. 



GLOSSARY 21 

Ancients, Tlie. A name j?iveii by Occultists to the seven creative 
Rays, born of Chaos, or the "Deep". 

Anda-Kataha (Sk.). The outer covering, or the "shell" of Brah- 
ma's egg; the area within which our manifested universe is encompassed. 

Andragyne Goat (of Mendes). See "Baphomet". 

Androgyne Ray (Esot.). The first differentiated ray; the Second 
Logos; Adam Kadmon in the Kabalah; the "male and female created he 
them", of the first chapter of Genesis. 

Audumla (Scand.). The symbol of nature in the Norse mythology; 
the cow who licks the salt rock, whence the divine Buri is born, before 
man 's creation. 

Angaraka (Sk.). Fire Star; the planet Mars; in Tibetan, Mig-mar. 

Augiras. One of the Prajapatis. A son of Daksha; a lawyer, etc. 

Angirasas (Sk.). The generic name of several Puranic individ- 
uals and things; a class of Pitris, the ancestors of man; a river in 
Plaksha, one of the Sapta dw^pas {q.v.). 

Angra Mainyus (Zend). The Zoroastrian name for Ahriman; 
the evil spirit of destruction and opposition who (in the Vcndiddd, Far- 
gard I.) is said by Ahura Mazda to "counter-create by his witchcraft" 
every beautiful land the God creates; for "Angra Mainyn is all death". 

Anima Mundi (Lat.). The "Soul of the World", the same as the 
Alaya of the Northern Buddhists; the divine essence which permeates, 
animates and informs all, from the smallest atom of matter to man and 
god. It is in a sense the "seven-skinned mother" of the stanzas in the 
Secret Doctrine, the essence of seven planes of sentience, consciousness 
and differentiation, moral and physical. In its highest aspect it is iVir- 
vdna in its lowest Astral Light. It was feminine with the Gnostics, the 
early Christians and the Nazarenes; bisexual with other sects, who con- 
sidered it only in its four lower planes. Of igneous, ethereal nature in the 
objective world of form (and then ether), and divine and spiritual in its 
three higher planes. When it is said that every human soul was born by 
detaching itself from the Anima Mundi, it means, esoterically, that our 
higher Egos are of an essence identical with It, which is a radiation of 
the ever unknown Universal Absolute. 

Anjala (Sk.). One of the personified powers which spring from 
Brahma's body — the Prajapatis. 

Anjana (Sk.). A serpent, a son of Kasyapa Rishi. 

Annamaya Kosha (Sk.). A Vedantic term. The same as Sthula 
Sharira or the physical body. It is the first "sheath" of the five sheaths 
accepted by the Vedantins, a sheath being the same as that which is. 
called "principle" in Theosophy. 

Annapura (Sk.). See "Ana". 

Annedotus (Gr.). The generic name for the Dragons or Men- 
Fishes, of which there were five. The historian Berosus narrates that 



22 THEOSOPHICAL 

there rose out of the Erythrjean Sea on several occasions a semi-dgemon 
named Oannes or Annedotns, who although part animal yet taught the 
Chaldeans useful arts and everything that could humanise them. (See 
Lenormant Chaldean Magic, p. 203, and also "Oannes".) [w.w.w.] 

Anoia (Gr.). "Want of understanding", "folly". Anoia is the 
name given by Plato and others to the lower Manas when too closely 
allied with Kama, which is irrational (agnoia). The Greek word agnoia 
is evidently a derivation from and cognate to the Sanskrit word ajndna 
(phonetically, agnyana) or ignorance, irrationality, absence of knowl- 
edge. (See "Agnoia" and "Agnostic".) 

Anouki (Ek.). A form of Isis; the goddess of life, from which nami' 
the Hebrew Ank, life. ( See " Anuki " ) . 

Ansumat (Sk.). A Puranic personage, the "nephew of 60,000 
uncles" King Sagara's sons, who were reduced to ashes by a single 
glance from Kapila Rishi's "Eye". 

Antahkarana (Sk.), or Antaskarana. The term has various 
meanings, which ditfer with every school of philosophy and sect. Thus 
Sankaracharya renders the word as "understanding"; others, as "the 
internal instrument, the Soul, formed by the thinking principle and 
egoism" ; whereas the Occultists explain it as the path or bridge between 
the Higher and the Lower Manas, the divine Ego, and the personal Soul 
of man. It serves as a medium of communication between the two, and 
conveys from the Lower to the Higher Ego all those personal impressions 
and thoughts of men which can, by their nature, be assimilated and 
stored by the undying Entity, and be thus made immortal with it, these 
being the only elements of the evanescent Personality that survive 
death and time. It thus stands to reason that only that which is noble, 
spiritual and divine in man can testify in Eternity to his having lived. 

Anthesteria (Gr.). The feast of Flowers (Floralia) : during 
this festival the rite of Baptism or purification was performed in the 
Eleusinian Mysteries in the temple lakes, the Limnae, when the Mysta? 
were made to pass through the "narrow gate" of Dionysus, to emerge 
therefrom as full Initiates. 

Anthropology. The Science of man ; it embraces among other 
things: — Physiology, or that branch of natural science which discloses 
the mysteries of the organs and their functions in men, animals and 
plants ; and also, and especially, — Psychology or the great, and in our 
days, too much neglected science of the soul, both as an entity distinct 
from the spirit, and in its relation to the spirit and body. In modern 
science, psychology deals only or principally with conditions of the ner- 
vous system, and almost absolutely ignores the psychical essence and 
nature. Physicians denominate the science of insanity psychology, and 
name the lunacy chair in medical colleges by that designation. (Isis Un- 
veiled.) 

Anthropomorphism (Gr.). From "anthropos" meaning man. The 



GLOSSARY 



23 



act of endowing god or gods with a human form and human attributes 
or qualities. 

Anu (Sk.). An "atom", a title of Brahma, who is said to be an atom 
just as is the infinite universe. A hint at the pantheistic nature of the 
god. 

Anu (Chald.). One of the highest of Babylonian deities, "King of 
Angels and Spirits, Lord of the city of Erech". He is the Ruler and 
God of Hraven and Earth. His symbol is a star and a kind of Maltese 
cross — emblems of divinity and sovereignity. He is an abstract divinity 
supposed to inform tlie whole expanse of ethereal space or heaven, while 
his "wife" informs the more material planes. Both are the types of the 
Ouranos and Gaia of Hesiod. They sprang from the original Chaos. 
All his titles and attributes are graphic and indicate health, purity phy- 
sical and moral, antiquity and holiness. Anu was the earliest god of 
the city of Erech. One of his sons was Bil or Vil-Kan, the god of fire, 
of various metals, and of weapons. George Smith very pertinently sees 
in this deity a close connection with a kind of cross breed between "the 
biblical Tubal Cain and the classical Vulcan" . . . who is consid- 
ered to be moreover "the most potent deity in relation to witchcraft and 
spells generally". 

Anubis (Gr.). The dog-headed god, identical, in a certain aspect, 
with Horus. He is pre-eminently the god who deals with the disem- 
bodied, or the resurrected in post mortem life. Anepon is his Egyptian 
name. He is a psychopompic deity, ' ' the Lord of the Silent Land of the 
West, the land of the Dead, the preparer of the way to the other world", 
to wliom tlie dead were entrusted, to be led by him to Osiris, the Judge. 
In short, he is the "embalmer" and the "guardian of the dead". One 
of the oldest deities in Egypt, Mariette Bey having found the image of 
this deity in tombs of the Third Dynasty. 

Anugita (t^k.). One of the Upanishads. A very occult treatise. 
(See The Sacred Books of the East). 

Anugraha (Sk.). The eighth creation in the Vishnu Purdna. 

Anuki (Eg.). See "Anouki" supra. "The word Auk in Hebrew, 
means 'my life', my being, which is the personal pronoun Anochi, from 
the name of the Egyptian goddess Anouki", says the author of the 
Hebrew Mystery, or the Source of Measures. 

Anumati (Sk.). The moon at the full; when from a god— Soma— 
she becomes a goddess. 

Anumitis (Sk.). Inference, deduction in philosophy. 

. Anunnaki (Chald.). Angels or Spirits of the Earth; terrestrial 

Elementals also. 

Anunit (Chald.). The goddess of Akkad ; Lucifer, the morning 
star. Venus as the evening star was Ishtar of Erech. 

Anupadaka (Sk.). Anupapadaka, also Aupapaduka; means 



24 THEOSOPHICAL 

"parentless", "self-existing", born without any parents or progenitors. 
A term applied to certain self-created gods, and the Dhyani Buddhas. 

Anuttara (Sk.). Unrivalled, peerless. Thus Anuttarai Bodhi 
means, "unexcelled or unrivalled intelligence", Anuttara Dharma, un- 
rivalled law or religion, etc. 

Anyamsam Aniyasam (Sk.). Ano-ramydnsam (in Bhagavad 
f/itd). Lit., "the most atomic of the atomic; smallest of the small". Ap- 
plied to the universal deity, whose essence is everywhere. 

Aour (Chald.). The synthesis of the two aspects of astro-ctheric 
light ; and the od — the life-giving, and the oh — the death-giving light. 

Apam Napat (Zend). A mysterious being, corresponding to the 
Fohat of the Occultists. It is both a Vedic and an Avestian name. 
Literally, the name means the "Son of the Waters" (of space, i.e., 
Ether), for in the Avesta Apam Napat stands between the fire-yazatas 
and the water-yazatas (See Secret Doctrine, Vol. II., p. 400, note). 

Apana (Sk.). "Inspirational breath"; a practice in Yoga, Prdna 
and apdna are the "expirational" and the "inspirational" breaths. It 
is called "vital wind" in AnugUa. 

Apap (Eg.), in Greek Apopkis. The symbolical Serpent of Evil. The 
Solar Boat and the Sun are the great Slayers of Apap in the Book of the 
Dead. It is Typhon, who having killed Osiris, incarnates in Apap, seek- 
ing to kill Horus. Like Taoer (or Ta-ap-oer) the female aspect of Ty- 
phon, Apap is called "the devourer of the souls", and truly, since Apap 
symbolizes the animal body, as matter left soulless and to itself. Osiris, 
being, like all the other Solar gods, a type of the Higher Ego (Christos), 
Horus (his son) is the lower Manas or the personal Ego. On many a 
monument one can see Horus, helped by a number of dog-headed gods 
armed with crosses and spears, killing Apap. Says an Orientalist : 
"The God Horus standing as conqueror upon the Serpent of Evil, may 
be considered as the earliest form of our well-known group of St. George 
(who is Michael) and the Dragon, or holiness trampling down sin." 
Draconianism did not die with the ancient religions, but has passed 
bodily into the latest Christian form of the worship. 

Aparinamin (Sk.). The Immutable and the Unchangeable, the 
reverse of Parinamin, that which is subject to modification, differen- 
tiation or decay. 

Aparoksha (Sk.). Direct perception. 

Apava (Sk.). Lit., "He who sports in the Water". Another aspect 
of Narayana or Vishnu and of Brahma combined, for Apava, like the 
latter, divides himself into two parts, male and female, and creates 
Vishnu, wlio creates Viraj, who creates Manu. The name is explained 
and interpreted in various ways in Brahmanical literature. 

Apavarga (Sk.). Emancipation from repeated births. 

Apis (Eg.), or Hapi-ankh. The "living deceased one" or Osiris 



GLOSSARY 25 

incarnate in the sacred white Bull. Apis was the bull-god that, on 
reaching the age of twenty-eight, the age when Osiris was killed by 
Typhon — was put to death with great ceremony. It was not the Bull 
that was worshipped but the Osiridian symbol ; just as Christians kneel 
now before the Lamb, the symbol of Jesus Christ, in their churches. 

Apocrypha (Or.). Very erroneously explained and adopted as 
doubtful, or spurious. The word means simply secret, esoteric, hidden. 

Apollo Belvidere. Of all the ancient statues of Apollo, the 
son of Jupiter and Latona, called Phoebus, Helios, the radiant and the 
Sun, the best and most perfect is the one known by this name, which is 
in the Belvidere gallery of the Vatican at Rome. It is called the Pythian 
Apollo, as the god is represented in the moment of his victory over the 
serpent Python. The statue was found in the ruins of Antium, in 1503. 

Apollonius of Tyana (Gr.). A wonderful philosopher born in 
CapDadocia about the beginning of the first century; an ardent Pytha- 
gorean, wiio studied the Phoenician sciences under Euthydemus; and 
Pythagorean philosophy and other studies under Euxenus of Heraclea. 
According to the tenets of this school he remained a vegetarian the 
whole of his long life, fed only on fruit and herbs, drank no wine, wore 
vestments made only of plant-fibres, walked barefooted, and let his hair 
grow to its full length, as all the Initiates before and after him. He w^as 
initiated by the priests of the temple of J^sculapius (Asclepios) at -^gae, 
and learnt many of the "miracles" for healing the sick wrought by the 
god of medicine. Having prepared himself for a higher initiation by a 
silence of five years, and by travel, visiting Antioch, Ephesus, Pamphy- 
lia and other parts, he journeyed via Babylon to India, all his intimate dis- 
ciples having abandoned him, as they feared to go to the "land of en- 
chantments". A casual disciple, Damis, however, whom he met on his 
way, accompanied him in liis travels. At Babylon he was initiated by 
the Chaldees and Magi, according to Damis, whose narrative was copied 
by one named Pliilostratiis a hundred years later. After his return from 
India, he shewed himself a true Initiate, in that the pestilences and 
earthquakes, deaths of kings and other events, which he prophesied duly 
happened. At Lesbos, the priests of Orpheus, being jealous of him, re- 
fused to initiate him into their peculiar mysteries, though they did so 
several years later. He preaclied to the people of Athens and other cities 
the purest and noblest ethics, and the phenomena he produced were as 
wonderful as they were numerous and well attested. "How is it", en- 
quires Justin Martyr in dismay — "how is it that the talismans {teles- 
mata) of Apollonius have power, for they prevent, as we see, the fury 
of the waves and the violence of the winds, and the attacks of the wild 
beasts; and ivhilst our Lord's miracles arc preserved hij tradition alone, 
those of Apollonius are most numerous and actually manifested in pres- 
ent factsf" . . . . (Qua'st, XXIY.). But an answer is easily found 
to this in the fact that after crossing the Hindu Kush, Apollonius liad 



26 THEOSOPHICAL 

been directed by a king to the abode of the Sages, whose abode it may 
be to this day, by whom he was taught unsurpassed knowledge. His dia- 
logues with the Corinthian Menippus indeed give us the esoteric cat- 
echism and disclose (when understood) many an important mystery of 
nature. Apollonius was the friend, correspondent and guest of kings 
and queens, and no marvelous or "magic" powers are better attested 
than his. At the end of his long and wonderful life he opened an esoteric 
school at Ephesus, and died aged almost one hundred years. 

Aporrheta (Gr.). Secret instructions upon esoteric subjects given 
during the Egyptian and Grecian Mysteries. 

Apsaras (Sk.). An Undine or Water-Nymph, from the Paradise 
or Heaven of Indra. The Apsarases are in popular belief the "wives 
of the gods" and called Surdngands, and by a less honourable term, 
Suniad-dtmajds or the "daughters of pleasure", for it is fabled of them 
that when they appeared at the churning of the Ocean neither Gods 
(Suras) nor Demons (Asuras) would take them for legitimate wives. 
Urvasi and several others of them are mentioned in the Vedas. In 
Occultism they are certain "sleep-producing" aquatic plants, and in- 
ferior forces of nature. 

Ar-Abu Nasr-al-Farabi, called in Latin Alpharabius, a Persian, 
and the greatest Aristotelian philosopher of the age. He was born in 950 
A.D., and is reported to have been murdered in 1047. He was an Hermetic 
philosopher and possessed the power of hypnotizing through music, 
making those who heard him play the lute laugh, weep, dance and do 
what he liked. Some of his works on Hermetic philosophy may be found 
in the Library of Ley den. 

Arahat (Sk.). Also pronounced and written Arhat, Arhan, Rabat, 
&c., "the worthy one", lit., "deserving divine honours". This was the 
name first given to the Jain and subsequently to the Buddhist holy men 
initiated into the esoteric mysteries. The Arhat is one who has entered 
the best and highest path, and is thus emancipated from re-birth. 

"Arani (Sk.). The "female Arani" is a name of the Vedic Aditi 
(esoterically, the womb of the world). Arani is a Swastika, a disc-like 
wooden vehicle, in which the Brahmins generated fire by friction with 
pramantha, a stick, the symbol of the male generator. A mystic cere- 
mony with a world of secret meaning in it and very sacred, perverted 
into phallic significance by the materialism of the age. 

Aranyaka (Sk.). Holy hermits, sages who dwelt in ancient India 
in forests. Also a portion of the Vedas containing Upanishads, etc. 

Araritha (Hch.). A very famous seven-lettered Kabbalistic won- 
derword; its numeration is 813; its letters are collected by Notaricon 
from the sentence "one principle of his unity, one beginning of his 
individuality, his change is unity", [w.w.w.] 

Arasa Maram (Sk.). The Hindu sacred tree of knowledge. In 
occult philosophy a mystic word. 



GLOSSARY 27 

Arba-il Ckold.). The Four Great Gods. Arha is Aramaic for 
four, and il is the same as Al or El. Three male deities, and a female 
who is virginal yet reproductive, form a very common ideal of Godhead, 
[w.w.w] 

Archangel (Or.). Highest supreme angel. From the Greek arch, 
"cliief " or "primordial", and angclos, "messenger". 

Archaeus (Gr.). "The Ancient". Used of the oldest manifested 
deity; a term employed in the Kahalah; "archaic", old, ancient. 

Archobiosis (Gr.). Primeval beginning of life. 

Archetypal Universe (Kah.). The ideal universe upon which the 
objective world w^as built, [w.w.w.] 

Archons (Gr.). In profane and biblical language "rulers" and 
princes ; in Occultism, primordial planetary spirits. 

Archontes (Gr.). The archangels after becoming Ferouers (q.v.) 
or their own shadows, having mission on earth ; a mystic ubiquity ; imply- 
ing a double life ; a kind of hypostatic action, one of purity in a higher 
region, the other of terrestrial activity exercised on our plane. (See 
lamblichus, De Mystcriis II., Chap. 3.) 

Ardath (Hfh.). This word occurs in the Second Book of Esdras, 
ix., 26. The name has been given to one of the recent "occult novels" 
where much interest is excited by the visit of the hero to a field in the 
Holy Land so named; magical properties are attributed to it. In the 
Book of Esdras the prophet is sent to this field called Ardath "where 
no house is builded" and bidden "eat there only the flowers of the field, 
taste no flesh, drink no wine, and pray unto the highest continually, and 
then will I come and talk with thee", [w.w.w.] 

Ardha-Nari (Sk.). Lit., "half-woman". Siva represented as 
Androgynous, as half male and half female, a type of male and female 
energies combined. (See occult diagram in Isis Unveiled, Vol. II.) 

Ardhanariswara (Sk.). Lit., "the bi-sexual lord". Esoterically, 
the unpolarized states of cosmic energy symbolized by the Kabalistic 
Sephira, Adam Kadmon, etc. 

Ares. The Greekname for Mars, god of war; also a term used by 
Paracelsus, the differentiated Force in Cosmos. 

Argha (Chald.). The ark, the womb of Nature; the crescent moon, 
and a life-saving ship ; also a cup for offerings, a vessel used for religious 
ceremonies. 

Arghyanath (Hk.). Lit., "lord of libations". 

Arian. A follower of Arius, a presbyter of the Church in Alexan- 
dria in the fourth century. One who holds that Christ is a created and 
human being, inferior to God the Father, tliough a grand and noble man, 
a true adept versed in all the divine mysteries. 

Aristobulus (Gr.). An Alexandrian writer, and an obscure phi- 



28 THEOSOPHICAL 

losopher. A Jew who tried to prove that Aristotle explained the esoteric 
thoughts of Moses. 

Arithmomancy (Gr.). The science of correspondences between 
gods, men, and numbers, as taught by Pythagoras, [w.w.w.] 

Arjuna (Sk.). Lit., the "white". The third of the five Brothers 
Pandu or the reputed Sons of Indra (esoterically the same as Orpheus). 
A disciple of Krishna, who visited him and married Su-bhadra, his sister, 
besides many other wives, according to the allegory. During the fratri- 
cidal war between the Kauravas and the Pdndavas, Krishna instructed 
him in the highest philosophy, while serving as his charioteer. (See Bha- 
gavad Gitd.) 

Ark of Isis. At tlie great Egyptian annual ceremony, which took 
place in the month of Athyr, the boat of Isis was borne in procession by 
the priests, and Collyrian cakes or buns, marked with the sign of the 
cross {Tat), were eaten. This was in commemoration of the weeping of 
Isis for the loss of Osiris, the Athyr festival being very impressive. "Plato 
refers to the melodies on the occasion as being very ancient," writes 
Mr. Bonwick {Eg. Belief and Mod. Thought). "The Miserere in Rome 
has been said to be similar to its melancholy cadence, and to be derived 
from it. Weeping, veiled virgins followed the ark. The Nornes, or 
veiled virgins, wept also for the loss of our Saxon forefathers' god, the 
ill-fated but good Baldur." 

Ark of the Covenant. Every ark-shrine, whether with the Egyp- 
tians, Hindus, Chaldeans or Mexicans, was a phallic shrine, the 
symbol of the yoni or womb of nature. The seket of the Egyptians, the 
ark, or sacred chest, stood on the ara — its pedestal. The ark of Osiris, 
with the sacred relics of the god, was "of the same size as the Jewish 
ark", says S. Sharpe, the Egyptologist, carried by priests with staves 
passed through its rings in sacred procession, as the ark round which 
danced David, the King of Israel. Mexican gods also had their arks. 
Diana, Ceres, and other goddesses as well as gods had theirs. The ark 
was a boat — a vehicle in every case. "Thebes had a sacred ark 300 
cubits long," and "the word Thehes is said to mean ark in Hebrew," 
which is but a natural recognition of the place to which the chosen peo- 
ple are indebted for their ark. Moreover, as Bauer writes, "the Cherub 
was not first used by Moses." The winged Isis was the cherub or Arieh 
in Egypt, centuries before the arrival there of even Abram or Sarai. 
"The external likeness of some of the Egyptian arks, surmounted by 
their two winged human figures, to the ark of the covenant, has often 
been noticed." {Bible Educator.) And not only the "external" but 
the internal "likeness" and sameness are now known to all. The arks, 
whether of the covenant, or of honest, straightforward, Pagan symbol- 
ism, had originally and now have one and the same meaning. The 
chosen people appropriated the idea and forgot to acknowledge its 
source. It is the same as in the case of the "Urim" and "Thummin" 



GLOSSARY 29 

iq.v.). In Egypt, as shown by many Egyptologists, the two objects 
were the emblems of the Tivo Truths. "Two figures of Re and Thmei 
were worn on the breast-plate of the Egyptian High Priest. Thmc, 
I)lural thmin, meant trnfh in Hebrew. Wilkinson says the figure of 
Trutli had closed eyes. Rosellini speaks of the Thmei being worn as a 
necklace. Diodorus gives such a necklace of gold and stones to the High 
Priest when delivering judgment. The Septuagint translates Thummin 
as Truth". (Bonwick's Egijp. Belief.) 
Arka (Sk.). The Sun. 

Arkites. The ancient priests who were attached to the Ark, 
whether of Isis, or the Hindu Argua, and who were seven in number, 
like the priests of the Egyptian Tat or any other cruciform symbol of the 
three and the four, the combination of which gives a male-female number. 
The Argha (or ark) was the four-fold female principle, and the flame 
burning over it the triple lingham. 

Aroueris (Gr.). The god Harsiesi, who was the elaer Horus. He 
had a temple at Ambos. If we bear in mind the definition of the chief 
Egyptian gods by Plutarch, these myths will become more comprehen- 
sible ; as he well says : ' ' Osiris represents the beginning and principle ; 
Isis, that which receives ; and Horus, the compound of both. Horus en- 
gendered between them, is not eternal nor incorruptible, but, being al- 
"ways in generation, he endeavours by vicissitudes of imitations, and by 
periodical passion (yearly re-awakening to life) to continue always 
young, as if he should never die." Thus, since Horus is the personified 
physical world, Aroueris, or the "elder Horus", is the ideal Universe; 
and this accounts for the saying that "he was begotten by Osiris and 
Isis when these were still in the bosom of their mother" — Space. There 
is indeed, a good deal of mystery about this god, but the meaning of the 
symbol becomes clear once one has the key to it. 

Artephius. A great Hermetic philosopher, whose true name was 
never known and whose works are without dates, though it is known that 
he wrote his Secret Book in the Xllth century. Legend has it that he was 
one thousand years old at that time. There is a book on dreams by him 
in the possession of an Alchemist, now in Bagdad, in which he gives out 
the secret of seeing the past, the present and the future, in sleep, and 
of remembering the things seen. There are but two copies of this manu- 
script extant. The book on Dreams by the Jew Solomon Almulus, pub- 
lished in Hebrew at Amsterdam in 1642, has a few reminiscences from 
the former work of Artephius. 

Artes (Eg.). The Earth; the Egyptian god Mars. 

Artufas. A generic name in South America and the islands for 
temples of nagalism or serpent worship. 

Arundhati (Sk.). The "Morning Star"; Lucifer-Venus. 

Ariipa (Sk.). "Bodiless", formless, as opposed to rupa, "body", 
or form. 



30 



THEOSOPHICAL 



Arvaksrotas (Sk.). The seventh creation, that of man, in the 
Vishnu Purdna. 

Arwaker (Scand.). Lit., "early waker". The horse of the chariot 
of the Sun driven by the maiden Sol, in the Eddas. 

Arya (Sk.). Lit., "the holy"; originally the title of Rishis, those 
who had mastered the "Aryasatyani" (q.v.) and entered the Aryani- 
marga path to Nirvana or Moksha, the great "four-fold" path. But 
now the name has become the epithet of a race, and our Orientalists, de- 
priving the Hindu Brahmans of their birth-right, have made Aryans of 
all Europeans. In esotericism, as the four paths, or stages, can be entered 
only owing to great spiritual development and "growth in holiness", 
they are called the "four fruits". The degrees of Arhatship, called 
respectively Srotapatti, Sakridagamin, Anagamin, and Arhat, or the 
four classes of Aryas, correspond to these four paths and truths. 

Arya-Bhata (Sk.). The earliest Hindu algebraist and astron- 
omer, with the exception of Asura Maya (q.v.) ; the author of a work 
•called Arya Siddhdnta, a system of Astronomy. 

Arya-Dasa (Sk.). Lit., "Holy Teacher". A great sage and Arhat 
of the Mahasamghika school. 

Aryahata (Sk.). The "Path of Arhatship", or of holiness. 

Aryasangha (Sk.). The Founder of the first Yogacharya School.- 
This Arhat, a direct disciple of Gautama, the Buddha, is most unac- 
countably mixed up and confounded with a personage of the same name, 
who is said to have lived in Ayodhya (Oude) about the fifth or sixth 
century of our era, and taught Tantrika worship in addition to the 
Yogacharya system. Those who sought to make it popular, claimed that 
he was the same Aryasangha, that had been a follower of Sakyamuni, 
and that he was 1,000 years old. Internal evidence alone is sufficient 
to show that the works written by him and translated about the year 600 
of our era, works full of Tantra worship, ritualism, and tenets followed 
now considerably by the "red-cap" sects in Sikhim, Bhutan, and Little 
Tibet, cannot be the same as the lofty system of the early Yogacharya 
school of pure Buddhism, which is neither northern nor southern, but 
absolutely esoteric. Though none of the genuine Yogacharya books (the 
Narjol chodpa) have ever been made public or marketable, yet one finds 
in the Yogdchdrya Bhumi Shdstra of the pseudo-Aryasanghsi a great 
deal from the older system, into the tenets of which he may have been 
initiated. It is, however, so mixed up with Sivaism and Tantrika magic 
and superstitions, that the work defeats its own end, notwithstanding 
its remarkable dialectical subtilty. How unreliable are the conclusions at 
which our Orientalists arrive, and how contradictory the dates assigned 
by them, may be seen in the case in hand. While Csoma de Koros (who, 
by-the-bye, never became acquainted with the Gelukpa (yellow-caps), 
but got all his information from "red-cap" lamas of the Borderland), 
places the pseudo- Aryasangha in the seventh century of our era; Was- 



GLOSSARY 31 

siljew, who passed most of liis life in China, proves him to have lived 
much earlier; and Wilson (see Roy. As. Soc, Vol. VI., p. 240), speaking 
of the period when Aryasangha's works, which are still extant in Sans- 
krit, were written, believes it now "established, that they have been 
written at the latest, from a century and a half before, to as much after, 
the era of Christianity." At all events since it is beyond dispute that 
the Mahayana religious works were all written far before Aryasangha's 
time — whether he lived in the ''second century b. c", or the ''seventh 
A. D."— and that these contain all and far more of the fundamental 
tenets of the Yogacharya system, so disfigured by the Ayodhj'an imitator 
— the inference is that there must exist somewhere a genuine rendering 
free from popular Sivaism and left-hand magic. 

Aryasatyani (Sk.). The four truths or the four dogmas, which 
are (1) Dukha, or that misery and pain are the unavoidable concomitants 
of sentient (esoterically, physical) existence; (2) Sarnudaya, the truism 
that suffering is intensified by human passions; (3) Nirodha, that the 
crushing out and extinction of all such feelings are possible for a man 
"on the path"; (4) Mdrga, the narrow way, or that path which leads 
to such a blessed result. 

Aryavarta (Sk.). The "land of the Aryas", or India. The 
ancient name for Northern India, where the Brahmanical invaders 
("from the Oxus" say the Orientalists) first settled. It is erroneous to 
give this name to the whole of India, since Manu gives the name of "the 
land of the Aryas" only to "the tract between the Himalaya and the 
Vindhya ranges, from the eastern to the western sea." 

Asakrit Samadhi (Sk.). A certain degree of ecstatic contem- 
plation. A stage in Samadhi. 

Asana (Sk.). The third stage of Hatha Yoga, one of the prescribed 
postures of meditation. 

Asat (Sk.). A philosophical term meaning "non-being", or rather 
non-he-ness. The "incomprehensible nothingness". Sat, the immutable, 
eternal, ever-present, and the one real "Be-ness" (not Being) is spoken 
of as being "born of Asat, and Asat begotten by Sat". The unreal, or 
Prakriti, objective nature regarded as an illusion. Nature, or the illusive 
shadow of its one true essence. 

Asathor (Scand.). The same as Thor. The god of storms and 
thunder, a hero w4io receives Miolnir, the "storm-hammer", from its 
fabricators, the dwarfs. "With it he conquers Alwin in a "battle of 
words"; breaks the head of the giant Hrungir, chastises Loki for his 
magic ; destroys the whole race of giants in Thrymheim ; and, as a good 
and benevolent god, sets up therewith land-marks, sanctifies marriage 
bonds, blesses law and order, and produces every good and terrific feat 
with its help. A god in the Eddas, who is almost as great as Odin. (See 
"Miolnir" and "Thor's Hammer".) 



32 



THEOSOPHICAL 



Asava Samkhaya (Pali.). The "finality of the stream", one of 
the six "Abhijnas" (q.v.). A phenomenal knowledge of the finality of 
the stream of life and the series of re-births. 

Asburj. One of the legendary peaks in the Teneriffe range. A 
great mountain in the traditions of Iran which corresponds in its allegor- 
ical meaning to the World-mountain, Meru. Asburj is that mount "at 
the foot of which the sun sets". 

Asch Metzareph (Hel.). The Cleansing Fire, a Kabbalistic 
treatise, treating of Alchemy and the relation between the metals and 
the planets, [w.w.w.] 

Ases (Scand.). The creators of the Dwarfs and Elves, the Ele- 
mentals below men, in the Norse lays. They are the progeny of Odin ; the 
same as the jEsir. 

Asgard (Scand.). The kingdom and the liabitat of the Norse gods, 
the Scandinavian Olympus; situated "higher than the Home of the 
Light-Elves", but on the same plane as Jotunheim, the home of the 
Jotuns, the wicked giants versed in magic, with whom the gods are at 
eternal war. It is evident that the gods of Asgard are the same as the 
Indian Suras (gods) and the Jotuns as the Asuras, both representing the 
conflicting powers of nature — beneficent and maleficent. They are the 
prototypes also of the Greek gods and the Titans. 

Ash (Heh.). Fire, whether physical or symbolical fire; also found 
written in English as As, Aish and Esch. 

Ashen and Langhan (Kol avian). Certain ceremonies for cast- 
ing out evil spirits, akin to those of exorcism with the Christians, in use 
with the Kolarian tribes in India. 

Asherah (Heh.). A word, which occurs in the Old Testament, 
and is commonly translated "groves" referring to idolatrous worship, 
but it is probable that it really referred to ceremonies of sexual deprav- 
ity; it is a feminine noun, [w.w.w.] 

Ashmog (Zend). The Dragon or Serpent a monster with a camel's 
neck in the Avesta; a kind of allegorical Satan, who after the Fall, 
"lost its nature and its name". Called in the old Hebrew (Kabbalistic) 
texts the "flying camel"; evidently a reminiscence or tradition in both 
cases of the prehistoric or antediluvian monsters, half bird, half reptile. 

Ashtadisa (Sk.). The eight-faced space. An imaginary division 
of space represented as an octagon and at other times as a dodecahedron. 

Ashta Siddhis (Sk.). The eight consummations m the practice 
of Hatha Yoga. 

Ashtar Vidya (Sk.). The most ancient of the Hindu works on 
Magic. Though there is a claim that the entire work is in the hands of 
some Occultists, yet the Orientalists deem it lost. A very few fragments 
of it are now extant, and even these are very much disfigured. 

Ash Yggdrasil (Scand.). The "Mundane Tree", the Symbol of 



GLOSSARY 33 

the World with the old Norsemen, the "tree of the universe, of time and 
of life". It is ever green, for the Norns of Fate sprinkle it daily with 
the water of life from the fountain of Urd, which flows in Midgard. The 
dragon Nidhogg gnaws its roots incessantly, the dragon of Evil and Sin ; 
but the Ash Yggdrasil cannot wither, until the Last Battle (the Seventh 
Race in the Seventh Round) is fought, when life, time, and the world 
will all vanish and disappear. 

Asiras (Sk.). Elementals without heads; lit., "headless"; used 
also of the first two human races. 

Asita (Sk.). A proper name; a son of Bharata ; a Rishi and a Sage. 

Ask (Scand.) or Ash tree. The "tree of Knowledge". Together 
with the Emhhi (alder) the Ask was the tree from which the gods of 
Asgard created the first man. 

Aski-kataski-haix-tetrax-damnameneus-aision. These mystic words, 
which Athanasius Kircher tells us meant "Darkness, Light, Earth, Sun, 
and Truth", w^ere, says Hesychius, engraved upon the zone or belt of 
the Diana of Ephesus. Plutarch says that the priests used to recite 
these words over persons who were possessed by devils, [w.w.w.] 

Asmodeus. Tlie Persian Aeshma-dev, the Esham-dfv of the Parsis, 
"the evil Spirit of Concupiscence", according to Breal, whom the Jews 
appropriated under the name of Ashmedai, "the Destroyer", the Tal- 
mud identifying the creature with Beelzebub and Azrael (Angel of 
Death), and calling him the "King of the Devils", 

Asmoneans. Priest-kings of Israel whose dynasty reigned over the 
Jews for 126 years. They promulgated the Canon of the Mosaic Testa- 
ment in contradistinction to the "Apocrypha" {q.v.) or Secret Books 
of the Alexandrian Jews, the Kabbalists, and maintained the dead-letter 
meaning of the former. Till the time of John Hyrcanus, they w^ere 
Ascedeans (Chasidim) and Pharisees; but later they became Sadducees 
or Zadokitcs, asserters of Sacerdotal rule as contradistinguished from 
Rabbinical. 

Asoka ^S'A-.;. A celebrated Indian king of the Morya dynasty which 
reigned at Magadha. There were two Asokas in reality, according to 
the chronicles of Northern Buddhism, though the first Asoka — the grand- 
father of the second, named by Prof. Max Miiller the "Constantine of 
India", wafe better known by his name of Chandragupta. It is the former 
who was called, Piadasi (Pali) "the beautiful", and Dcvanam-piya "the 
beloved of the gods", and also Kaldsoka; while tlie name of his grandson 
was Dharniasokd — the Asoka of the good law — on accouni of his de- 
votion to Buddhism. Moreover, according to the same source, the 
second Asoka had never followed the Brahmanical faith, but was a 
Buddhist born. It was his grandsire who had been first converted to 
the new faitli, after which he had a number of edicts inscribed on pillars 
and rocks, a custom followed also by his grandson. But it was the second 



34 THEOSOPHICAL, 

Asoka who was the most zealous supporter of Buddhism ; he, who main- 
tained in his palace from 60 to 70,000 monks and priests, who erected 
84,000 topes and stupas throughout India, reigned 36 years, and sent 
missions to Ceylon, and throughout the world. The inscriptions of var- 
ious edicts published by him display most noble ethical sentiments, es- 
pecially the edict at Allahabad, on the so-called " Asoka 's column", in 
the Fort. The sentiments are lofty and poetical, breathing tenderness 
for animals as well as men, and a lofty view of a king's mission with re- 
gard to his people, that might be followed with great success in the pres- 
ent age of cruel wars and barbarous vivisection. 

Asomatous (Gr.). Lit., without a material body, incorporeal; used 
of celestial Beings and Angels. 

Asrama (Sk.). A sacred building, a monastry or hermitage for 
ascetic purposes. Every sect in India has its Ashrams. 

Assassins. A masonic and mystic order founded by Hassan Sabah 
in Persia, in the eleventh century. The word is a European perversion of 
"Hassan", which forms the chief part of the name. They were simply 
Sufis and addicted, according to the tradition, to hascheesh-eating, 
in order to bring about celestial visions. As shown by our late 
brother Kenneth Mackenzie, 'Hhey were teachers of the secret doctrines 
of Islamism; they encouraged mathematics and philosophy, and pro- 
duced many valuable works. The chief of the Order was called Sheik- 
el-Jebel, translated the 'Old Man of the Mountains', and, as their Grand 
Master, he possessed power of life and death." 

Assorus (Chald.). The third group of progeny (Kissan and As- 
sorus) from the Babylonian Duad, Tauthe and Apason, according to the 
Theogonies of Damascius. From this last emanated three others, of 
which series the last, Aus, begat Belus — "the fabricator of the World, 
the Demiurgus". 

Assur (Chald.). A city in Assyria; the ancient seat of a library 
from which George Smith excavated the earliest known tablets, to which 
he assigns a date about 1500 B.C., called Assur Kileh Shergat. 

Assurbanipal (Chald.). The Sardanapalus of the Greeks, "the 
greatest of the Assyrian Sovereigns, far more memorable on account of 
his magnificent patronage of learning than of the greatness of his em- 
pire", writes the late G. Smith, and adds: "Assurbanipal added more to 
the Assyrian royal library than all the kings who had gone before him". 
As the distinguished Assyriologist tells us in another place of his "Baby- 
lonian and Assyrian Literature" {Chald. Account of Genesis) that "the 
majority of the texts preserved belong to the earlier period previous to 
B.C. 1600", and yet asserts that "it is to tablets written in his (Assur- 
banipal's) reign (b.c. 673) that we owe almost all our knowledge of the 
Babylonian early history", one is well justified in asking, "How do you 
know ? ' ' 



GLOSSARY 35 

Assyrian Holy Scriptures. Orientalists show seven sucli books: 
tlie Books of Mamit, of Worship, of Interpretations, of Going to Hades ; 
two Prayer Books {Kanmagarri and Kanmikri: Talbot) and the Kan- 
tolite, the lost Assyrian Psalter. 

Assyrian Tree of Life. "Asherah" (q.v.). It is translated in the 
Bible by "grove" and occurs 30 times. It is called an "idol"; and 
Maachah, the grandmother of Asa, King of Jerusalem, is accused of 
having made for herself such an idol, which was a lingham. For centuries 
this was a religious rite in Judiea. But the original Asherah was a pillar 
with seven branches on each side surmounted by a globular flower with 
three projecting rays, and no phallic stone, as the Jews made of it, but 
a metaphysical symbol. "Merciful One, who dead to life raises!" was 
the prayer uttered before the Asherah, on the banks of the Euphrates. 
The "Merciful. One", was neither the personal god of the Jews who 
brought the "grove" from their captivity, nor any extra-cosmic god, 
but the higher triad in man symbolized by the globular flower with its 
three rays. 

Asta-dasha (Sk.). Perfect, Supreme Wisdom; a title of Deity. 

Aster't (Heb.). Astarte, the Syrian goddess the consort of Adon, 
or Adonai. 

Astraea (Gr.). The ancient goddess of justice whom the wicked 
ness of men drove away from earth to heaven, wherein she now dwells 
as the constellation Virgo. 

Astral Body, or Astral "Double". The ethereal counterpart or 
sliadow of man or animal. The Linga Sharira, the "Doppel ganger". 
The reader must not confuse it with the Astral Soul, another name 
for the lower Manas, or Kama-Manas so-called, the reflection of the 
Higher Ego. 

Astral Light (Occult.). The invisible region that surrounds our 
globe, as it does every other, and corresponding as the second Principle of 
Kosmos (the third being Life, of which it is the vehicle) to the Linga 
Sharira or the Astral Double in man. A subtle Essence visible only to 
a clairvoyant eye, and the lowest but one {viz., the earth), of the Seven 
Akasic or Kosmic Principles. Eliphas Levi calls it the great Serpent 
and the Dragon from which radiates on Humanity every evil influence. 
This is so; but why not add that the Astral Light gives out nothing but 
what it has received; that it is the great terrestrial crucible, in which 
the vile emanations of the earth (moral and physical) upon which the 
Astral Liglit is fed, are all converted into their subtlest essence, and ra- 
diated back intensified, thus becoming epidemics — moral, psychic and 
physical. Finally, the Astral Light is the same as the Sidereal Light of 
Paracelsus and other Hermetic philosophers. "Physically, it is the ether 
of modern science. Metaphysically, and in its spiritual, or occult sense, 
ether is a great deal more than is often imagined. In occult physics, 
and alchemy, it is well demonstrated to enclose within its shoreless waves 



36 THEOSOPHICAX, 

not only Mr. Tyndall's ^promise and potency of every quality of life', 
but also the realization of the potency of every quality of spirit. Alche- 
mists and Hermetists believe that their astral, or sidereal ether, besides 
the above properties of sulphur, and white and red magnesia, or magnes, 
is the anima mundi, the workshop of Nature and of all the Kosmos, 
spiritually, as well as physically. The 'grand magisterium' asserts it- 
self in the phenomenon of mesmerism, in the 'levitation' of human and 
inert objects ; and may be called the ether from its spiritual aspect. The 
designation astral is ancient, and was used by some of the Neo-platonists, 
although it is claimed by some that the word was coined by the Mar- 
tinists. Porphyry describes the celestial body which is always joined 
with the soul as 'immortal, luminous, and star-like'. The root of this 
word may be found, perhaps, in the Scythic Aist-aer — which means star, 
or the Assyrian Istar, which, according to Burnouf has the same sense." 
{I sis Unveiled.) 
Astrolatry (Gr.). Worship of the Stars. 

Astrology (Gr.). The Science which defines the action of celestial 
bodies ujion mundane affairs, and claims to foretell future events from 
the position of the stars. Its antiquity is such as to place it among the 
very earliest records of human learning. It remained for long ages a 
secret science in the East, and its final expression remains so to this 
day, its exoteric application having been brought to any degree of per- 
fection in the West only during the period of time since Varaha Muhira 
wrote his book on Astrology some 1400 years ago. Claudius Ptolemy, 
the famous geographer and mathematician, wrote his treatise Tetrahihlos 
about 135 A.D., which is still the basis of modern astrology. The science 
of Horoscopy is studied now chiefly under four heads: viz., (1) Mun- 
dane, in its application to meteorology, seismology, husbandry, etc. (2) 
State or civic, in regard to the fate of nations, kings and rulers. (3) 
Horary, in reference to the solving of doubts arising in the mind upon 
any subject. (4) Gencthliacal, in its application to the fate of individ- 
uals from the moment of their birth to their death. The Egyptians and 
the Chaldees were among the most ancient votaries of Astrology, though 
their modes of reading the stars and the modern practices differ con- 
siderably. The former claimed that Belus, the Bel or Elu of the Chal- 
dees, a scion of the divine Dynasty, or the Dynasty of the king-gods, had 
belonged to the land of Chemi, and had left it, to found a colony from 
Egypt on the banks of the Euphrates, where a temple ministered by 
priests in the service of the "lords of the stars" was built, the said 
priests adopting the name of Chaldees. Two things are known: (a) 
that Thebes (in Egypt) claimed the honor of the invention of Astrology; 
and (&) that it was the Chaldees who taught that science to the other 
nations. Now Thebes antedated considerably not only "Ur of the Chal- 
dees", but also Nipur, where Bel was first worshipped — Sin, his son 
(the moon), being the presiding deity of Ur, the land of the nativity 
of Terah, the Sabean and Astrolatrer, and of Abram, his son, the great 



GLOSSARY 37 

Astrologer of biblical tradition. All tends, therefore, to corroborate the 
Egyptian claim. If later on the name of Astrologer fell into disrepute 
in Rome and elsewhere, it was owing to the fraud of those who wanted 
to make money by means of that which was part and parcel of the sacred 
Science of the Mysteries, and, ignorant of the latter, evolved a sj^stera 
based entirely upon mathematics, instead of on transcendental meta- 
physics and having the physical celestial bodies as its upadhi or material 
basis. Yet, all persecutions notwithstanding, the number of the adher- 
ents of Astrology among the most intellectual and scientific minds was 
always very great. If Garden and Kepler were among its ardent sup- 
porters, then its later votaries have nothing to blush for, even in its now 
imperfect and distorted form. As said in Isis Unveiled (1. 259) : "As- 
trology is to exact astronomy what psychology is to exact physiology. 
In astrology and psychology one has to step beyond the visible world of 
matter, and enter into the domain of transcendent spirit." (See "Astro- 
nomos. ") 

Astronomos (Gr.). The title given to the Initiate in the Seventh 
Degree of the reception of the Mysteries. In days of old, Astronomy 
was synonymous with Astrology; and the great Astrological Initiation 
took place in Egypt at Thebes, where the priests perfected, if they did 
not wholly invent the science. Having passed through the degrees of 
Pastophoros, Neocoros, Melanoplioros, Kistophoros, and Balahala (the 
degree of Chemistry of the Stars), the neophyte was taught the mystic 
signs of the Zodiac, in a circle dance representing the course of the 
planets (the dance of Krishna and the Gopis, celebrated to this day in 
Rajputana) ; after which he received a cross, the Tau (or Tat), becom- 
ing an Astronomos and a Healer. (See Isis Unveiled. Vol. II. 365). As- 
tronomy and Chemistry were inseparable in these studies. "Hippo- 
crates had so lively a faith in the influence of the stars on animated be- 
ings, and on their diseases, that he expressly recommends not to trust 
to physicians who are ignorant of astronomy." (Arago.) Unfortu- 
nately the key to the final door of Astrology or Astronomy is lost by the 
modern Astrologer ; and without it, how can he ever be able to answer 
the pertinent remark made by the author of Mazzaroth, who writes: 
"people are said to be born under one sign, while in reality they are born 
under another, because the sun is now seen among different stars at the 
equinox" f Nevertheless, even the few truths he does know brought to 
his science such eminent and scientific believers as Sir Isaac Newton, 
Bishops Jeremy and Hall, Archbishop Usher, Dryden, Flamstead, Ash- 
mole, John Milton, Steele, and a host of noted Rosicruc.ians. 

Asura Mazda (Sk.). In the Zend, Ahura Mazda. The same as 
Ormuzd or jVIazdeo ; the god of Zoroaster and the Parsis. 

Asuramaya (Sk.). Known also as Mayasura. An Atlantean astron- 
omer, considered as a great magician and sorcerer, well known in Sans- 
krit works. 



38 THEOSOPHICAL 

Asuras (Sk.). Exoterically, elementals and evil gods — considered 
maleficent; demons, and no gods. But esoterically — the reverse. For 
in the most ancient portions of the Rig Veda, the term is used for the 
Supreme Spirit, and therefore the Asuras are spiritual and divine. It 
is only in the last book of the Rig Veda, its latest part, and in the Atharva 
Veda, and the Brdhmanas, that the epithet, which had been given to Agni, 
the greatest Vedic Deity, to Indra and Varuna, has come to signify the 
reverse of gods. Asu means breath, and it is with his breath that Praja- 
pati (Brahma) creates the Asuras. When ritualism and dogma got the 
better of the Wisdom religion, the initial letter a was adopted as a nega- 
tive prefix, and the term ended by signifying "not a god", and Sura only 
a deity. But in the Vedas the Suras have ever been connected with 
Surya, the sun, and regarded as inferior deities, devas. 

Asw amedha (8k.). The Horse-sacrifice; an ancient Brahmanical 
ceremony. 

Aswattha (Sk.). The 'Bo-tree, the tree of knowledge, ficus religiosa. 

Aswins (Sk.), or Aswinau, dual ; or again, Aswim-Kumdrau, are the 
most mysterious and occult deities of all; who have "puzzled the oldest 
commentators". Literally, they are the "Horsemen", the "divine char- 
ioteers", as they ride in a golden car drawn by horses or birds or ani- 
mals, and "are possessed of many forms". They are two Vedic deities, 
the twin sons of the sun and the sky, which becomes the nymph Aswini. 
In mythological symbolism they are "the bright harbingers of Ushas, 
the dawn", who are "ever young and handsome, bright, agile, swift as 
falcons", who "prepare the way for the brilliant dawn to those who 
have patiently awaited through the night". They are also called the 
"physicians of Swarga" (or Devachan), inasmuch as they heal every 
pain and suffering, and cure all diseases. Astronomically, they are 
asterisms. They were enthusiastically worshipped, as their epithets show. 
They are the "Ocean-born" {i.e., space born) or Ahdhijau, "crowned 
with lotuses" or Pushkara-srajam, etc., etc. Yaska, the commentator in the 
Nirukta, thinks that "the Aswins represent the transition from dark- 
ness to light" — cosmically, and we may add, metaphysically, also. But 
Muir and Goldstiicker are inclined to see in them ancient "horsemen of 
great renown", because, forsooth, of the legend "that the gods refused 
the Aswins admittance to a sacrifice on the ground that they had been 
OH too familiar terms with men". Just so, because as explained by the 
same Yaska "they are identified with heaven and earth", only for quite 
a different reason. Truly they are like the Rihhus, ' ' originally renowned 
mortals (but also non-renowned occasionally) who in the course of time 
are translated into the companionship of gods ' ' ; and they show a nega- 
tive character, "the result of the alliance of light with darkness", sim- 
ply because these twins are, in the esoteric philosophy, the Kumdra-Egos, 
the reincarnating "Principles" in this Manvantara. 

Atala (Sk.). One of the regions in the Hindu lokas, and one of the 



GLOSSARY 39 

seven mountains; but esoterically Atala is on an astral plane, and was, 
once on a time, a real island upon this earth. 

Atalanta Fugiens (Lat). A famous treatise by the eminent Rosi- 
crueian Michael Maier ; it has many beautiful engravings of Al- 
chemic symbolism: here is to be found the original of the picture of a 
man and woman within a circle, a triangle around it, then a square : the 
inscription is, "From the first ens proceed two contraries, thence come 
the three principles, and from them the four elementary states; if you 
separate the pure from the impure you will have the stone of the Philos- 
ophers", [w.w.w.] 

Atarpi (Chald.), or Atarpi-nisi, the "man". A personage who was 
' ' pious to the gods ' ' ; and who prayed the god Hea to remove the evil 
of drought and other things before the Deluge is sent. The story is 
found on one of the most ancient Babylonian tablets, and relates to the 
sin of the world. In the words of G. Smith "the god Elu or Bel calls 
together an assembly of the gods, his sons, and relates to them that he 
is angry at the sin of the world ' ' ; and in the fragmentary phrases of the 
tablet : " . . . . I made them .... Their wickedness I am 
angry at, their punishmment shall not be small .... let food be 
exhausted, above let Vul drink up his rain", etc., etc. In answer to 
Atarpi 's prayer the god Hea announces his resolve to destroy the people 
he created, which he does finally by a deluge. 

Atash Behram (Zend). The sacred fire of the Parsis, preserved 
perpetually in their fire-temples. 

Atef (Eg.), or Crown of Horus. It consisted of a tall white cap 
with ram 's horns, and the urceus in front. Its two feathers represent the 
two truths — life and death. 

Athamaz (Hrh.). The same as Adonis with the Greeks, the Jews 
having borrowed all their gods. 

Athanor (Occult.). The "astral" fluid of the Alchemists, their 
Archimedean lever; exoterically, the furnace of the Alchemist. 

Atharva Veda (Sk.). The fourth Veda; lit., magic incantation 
containing aphorisms, incantations and magic formulae. One of the most 
ancient and revered Books of the Brahmans. 

Athenagoras (Gr.). A Platonic philosopher of Athens, who 
wrote a Greek Apology for the Christians in a.d. 177, addressed to the 
Emporer Marcus Aurelius, to prove that the accusations brought against 
them, namely that they were incestuous and ate murdered children, were 
untrue. 

Athor (Eg.). "Mother Night". Primeval Chaos, in the Egyptian 
cosmogony. The goddess of night. 

Ativahikas (Sk.). With the Visishtadwaitees, these are the Pitris. 
or Devas, who help the disembodied soul or Jiva in its transit from its 
dead body to Paramapadha. 



40 THEQSOPHICAL 

Atlantidae (Gr.). The ancestors of the Pharaohs and the fore- 
fathers of the Egyptians, according to some, and as the Esoteric Science 
teaches. (See Sec. Doct., Vol. II., and Esoteric Buddhism.) Plato heard 
of this highly civilized people, the last remnant of which was submerged 
9,000 years before his day, from Solon, who had it from the High Priests 
of Egypt. Voltaire, the eternal scoffer, was right in stating that "the 
Atlantidffi (our fourth Root Race) made their appearance in Egypt. 

. . . . It was in Syria and in Phrygia, as well as Egypt, that they 
established the worship of the Sun." Occult philosophy teaches that 
the Egyptians were a remnant of the last Aryan Atlantidae. 

Atlantis (Gr.). The continent that was submerged in the Atlantic 
and the Pacific Oceans according to the secret teachings and Plato. 

Atma (or Atman) ((Sk.). The Universal Spirit, the divine Monad, 
the 7th Principle, so-called, in the septenary constitution of man. The 
Supreme Soul. 

Atma-bhu (Sk.). Soul-existence, or existing as soul. (See "Alaya".) 

Atmabodha (Sk.). Lit., "Self-knowledge" the title of a Vedan- 
tic treatise by Sankaracharya. 

Atma-jnani (Sk.). The Knower of the World-Soul, or Soul in 
general. 

Atma-matrasu (Sk.). To enter into the elements of the "One-Self", 
(See Sec. Doct. I., 334.). Atmamdtra is the sj^iritual atom, as contrasted 
with, and opposed to, the elementary differentiated atom or molecule. 

Atma Vldya (Sk.). The highest form of spiritual knowledge; lit., 
' ' Soul-knowledge ' '. 

Atri, Sons of (Sk.). A class of Pitris, the "ancestors of man", or 
the so-called Prajapati, "progenitors"; one of the seven Rishis who 
form the constellation of the Great Bear. 

Attvada (Pali.). The sin of personality. 

Atyantika (Sk.). One of the four kinds of pr alaya or dissolution. 
The "absolute" pralaya. 

Atziluth (Hcb.). The highest of the Four Worlds of the Kab- 
balah referred only to the pure Spirit of God. [w.w.w.] See "Azi- 
luth" for another interpretation. 

Audlang (Scand.). The second heaven made by Deity above the 
field of Ida, in the Norse legends. 

Audumla (Scand.). The Cow of Creation, the "nourisher", from 
which flowed four streams of milk which fed the giant Ymir or Orgelmir 
(matter in ebullition) and his sons, the Hrimthurses (Frost-giants), 
before the appearance of gods or men. Having nothing to graze upon 
she licked the salt of the ice-rocks and thus produced Buri, "the Pro- 
ducer" in his turn, who had a son Bor (the born) who married a 
daughter of the Frost Giants, and had three sons, Odin (Spirit), Wili 
(Will), and We (Holy), The meaning of the allegory is evident. It is 



GLOSSARY 41 

the precosmic union of the elements, of Spirit, or the creative Force, 
witli Matter, cooled and still seething, which it forms in accordance with 
universal Will. Then the Ases, "the pillars and supports of the World" 
(Cosmocratorcs), step in and create as All-father wills them. 

Augoeides (Gr.). Bulwer Lytton calls it the "Luminous Self", 
or our Higher Ego. But Occultism makes of it something distinct from 
this. It is a mystery. The Augoeides is the luminous divine radiation 
of the Ego which, when incarnated, is but its shadow — pure as it is yet. 
This is explained in the Amshaspends and their Ferouers. 

Aum (Sk.). The sacred syllable; the triple-lettered unit; hence the 
trinity in one. 

Aura (Gr. and Lot.). A subtle invisible essence or fluid that eman- 
ates from human and animal bodies and even things. It is a psychic 
effluvium, partaking of both the mind and the body, as it is the electro- 
vital, and at the same time an electro-mental aura ; called in Theosophy 
the akasic or magnetic aura. 

Aurnavabha (Sk.). An ancient Sanskrit commentator. 

Aurva (Sk.). The Sage who is credited with the invention of the 
"fiery weapon" called Agneydstra. 

Ava-bodha (Sk.). "Mother of Knowledge". A title of Aditi. 

Avaivartika (Sk.). An epithet of every Buddha: lit., one who 
turns no more back ; who goes straight to Nirvana. 

Avalokiteswara (Sk.). "The on-looking Lord". In the exoteric 
interpretation, he is Padmapani (the lotus bearer and the lotus- 
born) in Tibet, the first divine ancestor of the Tibetans, the complete 
incarnation or Avatar of Avalokiteswara; but in esoteric philosophy 
Avaloki, the "on-looker", is the Higher Self, while Padmapani is the 
Higher Ego or Manas. The mystic formula "Om mani padme hum" is 
specially used to invoke their joint help. While popular fancy claims 
for Avalokiteswara many incarnations on earth, and sees in him, not 
very wrongly, the spiritual guide of every believer, the esoteric inter- 
pretation sees in him the Logos, both celestial and human. Therefore, 
when the Yogacharya School has declared Avalokiteswara as Padma- 
pani "to be the Dhyani Bodhisattva of Amitabha Buddha", it is in- 
deed, because the former is the spiritual reflex in the world of forms of 
the latter, both being one — one in heaven, the other on earth. 

Avarasaila Sangharama (Sk.). Lit., the School of the Dwellers on 
the western mountain. A celebrated Vihara (monastery) in Dhana- 
kstchaka according to Eitel, "built 600 B.C., and deserted a.d. 600". 

Avastan (Sk.). An ancient name for Arabia. 

Avasthas (Sk.). States, conditions, positions. 

Avatara (Sk.). Divine incarnation. The descent of a god or some 
exalted Being, who has progressed beyond the necessity of Rebirths, 
into the body of a simple mortal. Krishna was an avatar of Vishnu. 



42 THEOSOPHICAL 

The Dalai Lama is regarded as an avatar of Avalokiteswara, and the 
Teschu Lama as one of Tson-kha-pa, or Amitabha. There are two kinds 
of avatars ; those born from woman, and the parentless, the anupapddaka. 

Avebury or Abury. In Wiltshire are the remains of an ancient 
megalithic Serpent temple : according to the eminent antiquarian 
Stukeley, 1740, there are traces of two circles of stones and two avenues ; 
the whole has formed the representation of a serpent, [w.w.w.] 

Avesta (Zend). Lit., "the Law". From the old Persian Abasia, 
"the law". The sacred Scriptures of the Zoroastrians. Zend means in 
the "Zend-Avesta" — a "commentary" or "interpretation". It is an 
error to regard "Zend" as a language, as "it was applied only to ex- 
planatory texts, to the translations of the Avesta" (Darmsteter). 

Avicenna. The latinized name of Abu-Ali al Hoseen ben Abdallah 
Ibn Sina ; a Persian philosopher, born 980 a.d., though generally referred 
to as an Arabian doctor. On account of his surprising learning he was 
called ' * the Famous ' ', and was the author of the best and the first alchem- 
ical works known in Europe. All the Spirits of the Elements were sub- 
ject to him, so says the legend, and it further tells us that owing to his 
knowledge of the Elixir of Life, he still lives, as an adept who will dis- 
close himself to the profane at the end of a certain cycle. 

Avidya (8k.). Opposed to Yidyd, Knowledge. Ignorance which 
proceeds from, and is produced by the illusion of the Senses or Vipar- 
yaya. 

Avikara (Sk.). Free from degeneration; changeless — used of deity. 

Avitchi (Sk.). A state: not necessarily after death only or be- 
tween two births, for it can take place on earth as well. Lit., "unin- 
terrupted hell". The last of the eight hells, we are told, "where the 
culprits die and are rehorn without interruption — yet not without hope 
of final redemption". This is because Avitchi is another name for My- 
alba (our earth) and also a state to which some soulless men are con- 
demned on this physical plane. 

Avyakta (Sk.). The unrevealed cause; indiscrete or undifferen- 
tiated ; the opposite of Vyakta, the differentiated. The former is used 
of the unmanifested, and the latter of the manifested Deity, or of Brah- 
ma and Brahma. 

Axieros (Gr.). One of the Kabiri. 

Axiocersa (Gr.). '< " " 

Axiocersus (Gr.). ". ". " 

Ayana (Sk.). A period of time; two Ayanas complete a year, one 
being the period of the Sun's progress northward, and the other south- 
ward in the ecliptic. 

Ayin (Heh.). Lit., "Nothing", whence the name of Ain-Soph. (See 
"Ain"). 

Aymar, Jacques. A famous Frenchman who had great success in the 



GLOSSARY 45 

use of the Divining Rod about the end of the 17th century ; he was often 
employed in detecting criminals; two M.D.'s of the University of Paris, 
Chauvin and Garnier reported on the reality of his powers. See Col- 
quhoun on Magic [w.w.w.] 

Ayur Veda (SJ:.). Lit., "tlie Veda of Life". 

Ayuta (Sk.). 100 Koti, or a sum equal to 1,000,000,000. 

Azareksh (Zend). A place celebrated for a fire-temple of the 
Zoroastrians and Magi during the time of Alexander the Great. 

Azazel (Ilch.). "God of Victory"; the scape-goat for the sins of 
Israel. He who comprehends the mystery of Azazel, says Aben-Ezra, 
"will learn the mystery of God's name", and truly. See "Typhon" and 
the scape-goat made sacred to him in ancient Egypt. 

Azhi-Dahaka (Zend). One of the Serpents or Dragons in the legends 
of Iran and the Avesta Scriptures the allegorical destroying Serpent or 
Satan. 

Aziluth (Hch.). The name for the world of the Sephiroth, called 
the world of Emanations Olam Aziluth. It is the great and the highest 
prototype of the other worlds. ''Atzeelooth is the Great Sacred Seal by 
means of which all the worlds are copied which have impressed on them- 
selves the image on the Seal ; and as this Great Seal comprehends three 
stages, which are three zures (prototypes) of Nephesh (the Vital Spirit 
or Soul), Ruach (the moral and reasoning Spirit), and the Neshamah 
(the Highest Soul of man), so the Sealed have also received three zures,. 
namely Breeah, Yctzeerah, and Aseeyah, and these three zures are only 
one in the Seal" (Myer's Qahhalah). The globes A, Z, of our terrestrial 
chain are in Aziluth. (See Secret Doctrine). 

Azoth (Alch.). The creative principle in Natuure, the grosser por- 
tion of which is stored in the Astral Light. It is symbolized by a figure 
which is a cross (See "Eliphas Levi"), the four limbs of which bear 
each one letter of the word Taro, which can be read also Rota, Ator, and 
in many other combinations, each of which has an occult meaning. 

A. and n. Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last, the beginning- 
and ending of all active existence ; the Logos, hence (with the Christians) 
Christ. See Rev. xxi, 6., where John adopts "Alpha and Omega" as the 
symbol of a Divine Comforter who "will give unto him that is athirst of 
the fountain of the water of life freely ' '. The word Azot or Azoth is a 
media3val glyph of this idea, for the word consists of the first and last 
letters of the Greek alphabet, A and n of the Latin alphabet, A and Z, 
and the Hebrew alphabet, A and T, or aleph and tau. (See also. 
''Azoth"). [w.w.w.] 



44 THEOSOPHIC.^L, 



B. 



B 



The second letter in almost all the alphabets, also the second in 
the Hebrew. Its symbol is a house, the form of Beth, the letter itself 
indicating a dwelling, a shed or a shelter. "As a compound of a root, it 
is constantly used for the purpose of showing that it had to do with 
stone ; when stones at Beth-el are set up, for instance. The Hebrew 
value as a numeral is two. Joined with its predecessor, it forms the word 
Ab, the root of 'father'. Master, one in authority, and it has the Kaba- 
listical distinction of being the first letter in the Sacred Volume of the 
Law. The divine name connected with this letter is Bakhour." {R. M. 
Cyclop.). 

Baal (Chald.). Baal or Adon (Adonai) was a phallic god. "Who 
shall ascend unto the hill (the high place) of the Lord; who shall stand 
in the place of his Kadushu (q.v.)?" {Psalms xxiv. 3.) The "circle- 
dance" performed by King David round the ark, was the dance pre- 
scribed by the Amazons in the Mysteries, the dance of the daughters of 
Shiloh {Judges xxi., et seq.) and the same as the leaping of the prophets 
of Baal (I. Kings xviii). He was named Bcud-Tzephon, or god of the 
crypt (Exodus) and Seth, or the pillar {phallus), because he was the 
same as Ammon (or Baal-^Hammon) of Egypt, called "the hidden god". 
Typhon, called Set, who was a great god in Egypt during the early dy- 
nasties, is an aspect of Baal and Ammon as also of Siva, Jehovah and 
other gods. Baal is the all-devouring Sun, in one sense, the fiery Moloch. 

Babil Mound (Chald. Heh.). The site of the Temple of Bel at 
Babylon. 

Bacchus (Gr.). Exoterically and superficially the god of wine and 
the vintage, and of licentiousness and joy ; but the esoteric meaning of 
this personification is more abstruse and philosophical. He is the Osiris 
of Egypt, and his life and significance belong to the same group as the 
other solar deities, all "sin-bearing," killed and resurrected; e.g., as 
Dionysos or Atys of Phrygia (Adonis, or the Syrian Tammuz), as Auso- 
nius, Baldur {q.v.), etc., etc. All these were put to death, mourned for, 
and restored to life. The rejoicings for Atys took place at the Hilaria 
on the "pagan" Easter, March 15th. Ausonius, a form of Bacchus, was 
slain "at the vernal equinox, March 21st, and rose in three days". Tam- 
muz, the double of Adonis and Atys, was mourned by the women at 
the "grove" of his name "over Bethlehem, where the infant Jesus 
cried", says St. Jerome. Bacchus is murdered and his mother collects 
the fragments of his lacerated body as Isis does those of Osiris, and so on. 



GLOSSARY 45 

Dionysos lacchus, torn to shreds by the Titans, Osiris, Krishna, all de- 
scended into Hades and returned again. Astronomically, they all repre- 
sent the Sun; psychically they are all emblems of the ever-resurrecting 
"Soul" (the Ego in its re-incarnation) ; spiritually, all the innocent 
scape-goats, atoning for the sins of mortals, their own earthly envelopes, 
and in truth, the poeticized image of divine man, the form of clay in- 
formed by its God. 

Bacon, Roger. A Franciscan monk, famous as an adept in Alchemy 
and Magic Arts. Lived in the thirteenth century in England. He be- 
lieved in the philosopher's stone in the way all the adepts of Occultism 
believe in it; and also in philosophical astrology. He is accused of having 
made a head of bronze which having an acoustic apparatus hidden in it, 
seemed to utter oracles which were words spoken by Bacon himself in 
another room. He was a wonderful physicist and chemist, and credited 
with having invented gunpowder, though he said he had the secret from 
"Asian (Chinese) wise men". 

Baddha (Sk.). Bound, conditioned; as is every mortal who has not 
made himself free through Nirvana. 

Bagavadam (iSk.). A Tamil Scripture on Astronomy and other 
matters. 

Bagh-bog (Slavon.). "God"; a Slavonian name for the Greek 
Bacchus, whose name became the prototype of the name God or Bagh 
and bog or bogh ; the Russian for God. 

Bahak-Zivo (Gn.). The "father of the Genii" in the Codex Naza- 
rceus. The Nazarenes were an early semi-Christian sect. 

Bal (Heb.). Commonly translated "Lord", but also Bel, the Chal- 
dean god, and Baal, an "idol". 

Bala (Sk.), or Panchabaldni. The "five powers" to be acquired in 
Yoga practice ; full trust or faith ; energy ; memory ; meditation ; wisdom. 

Baldur (Scand.). The "Giver of all Good". The bright God who 
is ' ' the best and all mankind are loud in his praise ; so fair and dazzling is 
he in form and features, that rays of light seem to issue from him". 
(Edda). Such was the birth-song chanted to Baldur who resurrects as 
Wali, the spring Sun. Baldur is called the "well-beloved", the "Holy 
one", "who alone is without sin". He is the "God of Goodness", who 
' ' shall be born again, when a new and purer world will have arisen from 
the ashes of the old, sin-laden world (Asgard) ". He is killed by the 
crafty Loki, because Frigga, the mother of the gods, "while entreating 
all creatures and all lifeless things to swear that they will not injure the 
well-beloved", forgets to mention "the weak mistletoe bough", just as 
the mother of Achilles forgot her son's heel. A dart is made of it by 
Loki and he places it in the hands of blind Hodur who kills with it the 
sunny-hearted god of light. The Christmas misletoe is probably a rem- 
iniscence of the mistletoe that killed the Northern God of Goodness. 

Bal-ilu (Chald.). One of the many titles of the Sun. 



46 THEOSOPHICAL 

Bamboo Books. Most ancient and certainly pre-historic works in 
Chinese containing the antediluvian records of the Annals of China. 
They were found in the tomb of King Seang of Wai, who died 295 B.C., 
and claim to go back many centuries. 

Bandha (Sk.). Bondage; life on this earth; from the same root as 
Baddha. 

Baphomet (Gr.). The androgyne goat of the Mendes. (See Secret 
Doctrine, I. 253). According to the Western, and especially the French 
Kabalists, the Templars were accused of worshipping Baphomet, and 
Jacques de Molay, the Grand Master of the Templars, with all his 
brother-Masons, suffered death in consequence. But esoterically, and 
philologically, the word never meant "goat", nor even anything so ob- 
jective as an idol. The term means according to Von Hammer, ''bap- 
tism "or initiation into Wisdom, from the Greek words (3a<pyj and yjrigi.i, 
and from the relation of Baphometus to Pan. Von Hammer must be 
right. It was a Hermetico-Kabalistic symbol, but the whole story as in- 
vented by the Clergy was false. (See "Pan"). 

Baptism (Gr.). The rite of purification performed during the cere- 
mony of initiation in the sacred tanks of India, and also the later identi- 
cal rite established by John "the Baptist" and practised by his disciples 
and followers, who were not Christians. This rite was hoary with age 
when it was adopted by the Chrestians of the earliest centuries. Baptism 
belonged to the earliest Chaldeo-Akkadian theurgy; was religiously 
practised in the nocturnal ceremonies in the Pyramids where we see to 
this day the font in the shape of the sarcophagus; was known to take 
place during the Eleusinian mysteries in the sacred temple lakes, and is 
practised even now by the descendants of the ancient Sabians. The 
Mendaeans (the El Mogtasila of the Arabs) are, notwithstanding their 
deceptive name of "St. John Christians", less Christians than are the 
orthodox Mussulman Arabs around them. They are pure Sabians ; and 
this is very naturally explained when one remembers that the great 
Semitic scholar Renan has shown in his Vie de Jesus that the Aramean 
verb seha, the origin of the name Sahian, is a synonym of the Greek 
(ScLnri^Gi. The modern Sabians, the Mendseans, whose vigils and relig- 
ious rites, face to : face with the silent stars, have been described by sev- 
eral travellers, have still preserved the theurgic, baptismal rites of their 
distant and nigh-forgotton forefathers, the Chaldean Initiates. Their 
religion is one of multiplied baptisms, of seven purifications in the name- 
of the seven planetary rulers, the "seven Angels of the Presence" of the 
Roman Catholic Church. The Protestant Baptists are but the pale imi- 
tators of the El Mogtasila or Nazareans who practise their Gnostic rites 
in the deserts of Asia Minor. ( See " Boodhasp ' '. ) 

Bardesanes or Bardaisan. A Syrian Gnostic, erroneously regarded 
as a Christian theologian, born at Edessa (Edessene Chronicle) 
•"•^ 155 of our era (Assemani Bihl. Orient, i. 389). He was a great as- 

loger following the Eastern Occult System. According to Porphyry 



GLOSSARY 47 

(who calls him the Babylonian, probably on account of his Chaldeeism 
or astrology), "Bardesanes . . . held intercourse with the Indians 
that had been sent to the Caesar with Damadamis at their head" (De Ahst. 
iv. 17), and had his information from the Indian gymnosophists. The 
fact is that most of his teachings, however much they may have been 
altered by his numerous Gnostic followers, can be /traced to Indian phil- 
osophy, and still more to the Occult teachings of the Secret System. Thus 
in his Hymns he speaks of the creative Deity as "Father-Mother", and 
elsewhere of /"Astral Destiny" {Karma) of "Minds of Fire" {the A gyii- 
Devas) etc. He connected the Soul (the personal Manas) with the Seven 
Stars, deriving its origin from the Higher Beings (the divine Ego) ; and 
therefore "admitted spiritual resurrection but denied the resurrection 
of the body", as charged with by the Church Fathers. Ephraim shows 
him preaching the signs of the Zodiac, the importance of the birth-hours 
and "proclaiming the seven". Calling the Sun the "Father of Life" and 
the Moon the "Mother of Life", he shows the latter "laying aside her 
garment of light (principles) for the renewal of the Earth". Photius 
cannot understand how, while accepting "the Soul free from the power 
of genesis (destiny of birth) " and possessing free will, he still placed the 
body under the rule of birth (genesis). For "they (the Bardesanists) 
say, that wealth and poverty and sickness and health and death and all 
things not within our control are works i of destiny" {BiN. Cod. 223, p. 
221 — f). This is Karma, most evidently, which does not preclude at all 
free-will. Hippolytus makes him a representative of the Eastern School. 
Speaking of Baptism, Bardesanes is made to say {lac. cit. pp. 985— ff.), 
"It is not however the Bath alone which makes us free, but the Knowl- 
edge of who we are, what we are become, where we were before, whither 
we are hastening, whence we are redeemed, what is generation (birth), 
what is re-generation (re-birth) ". This points plainly to the doctrine of 
re-incarnation. His conversation {Dialogue) with Awida and Barjamina 
on Destiny and Free Will shows it. "What is called Destiny, is an order 
of outflow given to the Rulers (Gods) and the Elements, according to 
which order the Intelligences (Spirit-Egos) are changed by their descent 
into the Soul, and the Soul by its descent into the body". (See Treatise, 
found in its Syriac original, and published with English translation in 
1855 by Dr. Cureton. Spicilcg. Syriac. in British Museum.) 

Bardesanian f System j. The "Codex of the Nazarenes", a 
system worked out by one Bardesanes. It is called by some a Kabala 
within the Kabala ; a religion or sect the esotericism of which is given out 
in names and allegories entirely sui-generis. A very old Gnostic system. 
This codex has been translated into Latin. AVhether it is right to call 
the Saheanism of the Mendaites (miscalled St. John's Christians), con- 
tained in the Nazarene Codex, "the Bardesanian system", as some do, is 
doubtful ; for the doctrines of the Codex and the names of the Good and 
Evil Powers therein, are older than Bardaisan. Yet the names are iden- 
tical in the two systems. 



48 THEOSOPHICAL 

Baresma (Zend). A plant used by Mobeds (Parsi priests) in the 
fire-temples, wherein consecrated bundles of it are kept. 

Barhishad (Sk.). A class of the "lunar" Pitris or "Ancestors", 
Fathers, who are believed in popular superstition to have kept up in 
their past incarnations the household sacred flame and made fire-offer- 
ings. Esoterically the Pitris who evolved their shadows or chhayas to 
make therewith the first man. (See Secret Doctrine, Vol. II.) 

Basileus (Gr.). The Archon or Chief who had the outer super- 
vision during the Eleusinian Mysteries. While the latter was an initiated 
layman, and magistrate at Athens, the Basileus of the inner Temple was 
of the staff of the great Hierophant, and as such was one of the chief 
MystcB and belonged to the inner mysteries. 

Basilidean (System). Named after Basilides; the Founder of 
one of the most philosophical gnostic sects. Clement the Alexandrian 
speaks of Basilides, the Gnostic, as " a philosopher devoted to the contem- 
plation of divine things". While he claimed that he had all his doc- 
trines from the Apostle Matthew and from Peter through Glaucus, 
Irenjeus reviled him, Tertullian stormed at him, and the Church Fathers 
had not sufficient words of obloquy against the "heretic". And yet 
on the authority of St. Jerome himself, who describes with indignation 
what he had found in the only genuine Heireiv copy of the Gospel of 
Matthew (See Isis Unv., ii., 181) which he got from the Nazarenes, the 
statement of Basilides becomes more than credible, and if accepted 
would solve a great and perplexing problem. His 24 vols, of Interpre- 
tation of the Gospels, were, as Eusebius tells us, burnt. Useless to say 
that these gospels, were not our present Gospels. Thus, truth was ever 
crushed. 

Bassantin, James. A Scotch astrologer. He lived in the 16th 
century and is said to have predicted to Sir Robert Melville, in 1562 the 
death and all the events connected therewith of Mary, the unfortunate 
Queen of Scots. 

Bath (Heh.). Daughter. 

Bath Kol (Heh.). Daughter of the Voice: the Divine afflatus, or in- 
spiration, by which the prophets of Israel were inspired as by a voice 
from Heaven and the Mercy-Seat. In Latin Filia Vocis. An analogous 
ideal is found in Hindu exoteric theology named Vach, the voice, the 
female essence, an aspect of Aditi, the mother of the gods and primaeval 
Light ; a mystery, [w.w.w.] 

Batoo (Eg.). The first in Egyptian folk-lore. Noum, the 
heavenly artist, creates a beautiful girl — the original of the Grecian 
Pandora — and sends her to Batoo, after which the happiness of the first 
man is destroyed. 

Batria (Eg.). According to tradition the wife of the Pharaoh and 
the teacher of Moses, 



GLOSSARY 49 

Beel-Zebub (Hch.). The disfigured Baal of the Temples, and 
more correctly Beel-Zebiil. Beel-Zebub means literally "god of flies"; 
the derisory epithet used by the Jews, and the incorrect and confused 
rendering of the "god of the sacred scarabaei", the divinities watching 
the mummies, and symbols of transformation, regeneration and immor- 
tality. Beel-Zeboul means properly the "God of the Dwelling" and is 
spoken of in this sense in Matthew x. 25. As Apollo, originally not a 
Greek but a Phenician god, was the healing god, Paidn, or physician, as 
well as the god of oracles, he became gradually transformed as such into 
the "Lord of Dwelling", a household deity, and thus was called Beel- 
Zeboul. He was also, in a sense, a psychopompic god, taking care of the 
souls as did Anubis. Beelzebub was always the oracle god, and was only 
confused and identified with Apollo later on. 

Bel (ChaJd.). The oldest and mightest god of Babylonia, one of 
the earliest trinities, — Ann {q.v.) ; Bel, "Lord of the AVorld", father of 
the gods, Creator, and "Lord of the City of Nipur"; and Hea, maker 
of fate. Lord of the Deep, God of Wisdom and esoteric Knowledge, and 
"Lord of the city of Eridu". The wife of Bel, or his female aspect 
(Sakti), was Belat, or Beltis, "the mother of the great gods", and the 
"Lady of the city of Nipur". The original Bel was also called Enu, 
Elu and Kaptu (see Chaldean account of Genesis, by G. Smith). His 
eldest son was the Moon God Sin (whose names were also Ur, Agu and 
ftu), who was the presiding deity of the city of Ur, called in his honour 
by one of his names. Now Ur was the place of nativity of Abram (see 
"Astrology"). In the early Babylonian religion the Moon was, like 
Soma in India, a male, and the Sun a female deity. And this led almost 
every nation to great fratricidal wars between the lunar and the solar 
worshippers — e.g., the contests between the Lunar and the Solar Dynas- 
ties, the Chandra and Suryavansa in ancient Aryavarta. Thus we find 
the same on a smaller scale between the Semitic tribes. Abram and his 
father Terah are shown migrating from Ur and carrying their lunar god 
(or its scion) with them; for Jehovah Elohim or El — another form of 
Elu — has ever been connected with the moon. It is the Jewish lunar 
chronology which has led the European "civilized" nations into the 
greatest blunders and mistakes. Merodach, the son of Hea, became the 
later Bel and was worshipped at Babylon. His other title, Belas, has a 
number of symbolic meanings. 

Bela-Shemesh (Chald. Ileh.). The Lord of the Sun", the name 
of the Moon during that period when the Jews became in turn solar and 
lunar worshippers, and when the Moon was a male, and the Sun a fe- 
male deity. This period embraced the time between the allegorical ex- 
pulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden down to the no less allegorical 
Noachian flood. (See Secret Doctrine, I. 397.) 

Bembo, Tablet of; or Mensa IsicLca. A brazen tablet inlaid with 
designs in Mosaic (now in the Museum at Turin) which once belonged 
to the famous Cardinal Bembo. Its origin and date are unknown. It 



gQ THEOSOPHICAL 

is covered with Egyptian figures and liieroglyphics, and is supposed to 
have been an ornament in an ancient Temple of Isis. The learned Jesuit 
Kircher wrote a description of it, and Montfaucon has a chapter devoted 

to it [w.w.w.] 

The only English M^ork on the Isiac Tablet is by Dr. W. Wynn West- 
cott, who gives a photogravure in addition to its history, description, 
and occult significance. 

Ben (Hch.). A son; a common prefix in proper names to denote the 
son of so-and-so, e.g., Ben Solomon, Ben Ishmael, etc. 

Be-ness. A term coined by Theosophsts to render more accurately 
the essential meaning of the untranslatable word Sat. The latter word 
does not mean "Being", for it presupposes a sentient feeling or some 
consciousness of existence. But, as the term Sat is applied solely to the 
absolute Principle, the universal, unknown, and ever unknowable Pres- 
ence, which philosophical Pantheism postulates in Kosmos, calling it 
the basic root of Kosmos, and Kosmos itself— "Being" was no fit word 
to express it. Indeed, the latter is not even, as translated by some 
Orientalists, "the incompresensible Entity"; for it is no more an Entity 
than a non-Entitv, but both. It is, as said, absolute Be-ness, not Being, 
the one secondless, undivided, and indivisible All— the root of all Nature 
visible and invisible, objective and subjective, to be sensed by the highest 
spiritual intuition, but never to be fully comprehended. 

Ben Shamesh (Heh.). The children or the "Sons of the Sun". 
The term belongs to the period when the Jews were divided into sun and 
moon worshippers— Elites and Belites. (See "Bela-Shemesh".) 

Benoo (Eg.). A word applied to two symbols, both taken to mean 
"Phffiuix". One was the Shen-shen (the heron), and the other a non- 
descript bird, called the Bcch (the red one), and both were sacred to 
Osiris. It was the latter that was the regular Phrenix of the great Mys- 
teries, the typical symbol of self-creation and resurrection through death 
—a type of' the Solar Osiris and of the divine Ego in man. Yet both the 
Heron and the Rech were symbols of cycles; the former, of the Solar 
year of 365 days ; the latter of the tropical year or a period covering al- 
most 26,000 vears. In both cases the cycles were the types of the return 
of light from darkness, the yearly and great cyclic return of the sun-god 
to his birth-place, or— his Resurrection. The Rech-Benoo is described 
by Macrobius as living 660 years and then dying ; while others stretched 
its life as long as 1,460 years. Pliny, the Naturalist, describes the Rech 
as a large bird with gold and purple wings, and a long blue tail. As 
every reader is aware, the Phoenix on feeling its end approaching, ac- 
cording to tradition, builds for itself a funeral pile on the top of the 
sacrificial altar, and then proceeds to consume himself thereon as a burnt- 
offering. Then a worm appears in the ashes which grows and developes 
rapidly into a new Phoenix, resurrected from the ashes of its predecessor. 
Berasit (Hel.). The first word of the book of Genesis. The Eng- 



GLOSSARY 51 

lish established version translates this as "In the beginning," but this 
rendering is disputed by many scholars. Tertulliau approved of "In 
power"; Grotius "When first"; but the authors of the Targum of Jeru- 
salem, who ought to have known Hebrew if anyone did, translated it 
"In Wisdom". Godfrey Higgins, in his Anacalypsis, insists on Berasit 
being the sign of the ablative case, meaning "in" and ras, rasit, an 
ancient word for Chokmah, "wisdom", [w.w.w.] 

Berasit or Berashcth is a mystic word among the Kabbalists of Asia 
Minor. * 

Bergelmir (Scand.). The one giant who escaped in a boat the 
general slaughter of his brothers, the giant Ymir's children, drowned in 
the blood of their raging Father. He is the Scandinavain Noah, as he, 
too, becomes the father of giants after the Deluge. The lays of the 
Norsemen show the grandsons of the divine Buri — Odin, Wili, and We 
— conquering and killing the terrible giant Ymir, and creating the world 
out of his body. 

Berosus (Chald.). A priest of the Temple of Belus who wrote for 
Alexander the Great the history of the Cosmogony, as taught in the 
Temples, from the astronomical and chronological records preserved in 
tliat temple. The fragments we have in the soi-disant translations of 
Eusebius are certainly as untrustworthy as the biographer of the Em- 
peror Constantine — of whom he made a saint (!!) — could make them. 
The only guide to this Cosmogonj^ may now be found in the fragments 
of the Assyrian tablets, evidently copied almost bodily from the earlier 
Babylonian records ; which, say what the Orientalists may, are undeni- 
ably the originals of the Mosaic Genesis, of the Flood, the tower of Babel, 
of baby Moses set afloat on the waters, and of other events. For, if 
the fragments from the Cosmogony of Berosus, so carefully re-edited and 
probably mutilated and added to by Eusebius, are no great proof of the 
antiquity of these records in Babylonia — seeing that the priest of Belus 
lived three hundred years after the Jews were carried captive to Baby- 
lon, and they may have been borrowed by the Assyrians from them — 
later discoveries have made such a consoling hypothesis impossible. It is 
now fully ascertained by Oriental scholars that not only "Assyria bor- 
rowed its civilization and written characters from Babylonia," but the 
Assyrians copied their literature from Babylonian sources. Moreover, in 
his first Hibbert lecture. Professor Sayce shows the culture both of Baby- 
lonia itself and of the city of Eridu to have been of foreign importation; 
and, according to this scholar, the city of Eridu stood already "6,000 
years ago on the shores of the Persian gulf," i.e., about the very time 
when Genesis shows the Elohim creating the world, sun, and stars out 
of nothing. 

Bes (Eg.). A phallic god, the god of concupiscence and pleasure. 
He is represented standing on a lotus ready to devour his own progeny 
(Abydos). A rather modern deity of foreign origin. 



52 THEOSOPHICAL 

Bestla (Scand.). The daughter of the "Frost giants", the sons of 
Ymir; married to Buri, and the mother of Odin and his brothers (Edda). 

Beth (Hch.). House, dwelling. 

Beth Elohim Heh.). A Kabbalistic treatise treating of the angels, 
souls of men, and demons. The name means "House of the Gods". 

Betyles (Phcm.). Magical stones. The ancient writers call them 
the ''animated stones"; oracidar stones, believed in and used both by 
Gentiles and Christians. (See Sect. Doct. II. p. 342). 

Bhadra Vihara (Sk.). Lit., "the Monastery of the Sages or Bodhi- 
sattvas". A certain Vihara or Matham in Kanyakubdja. 

Bhadrakalpa (Sk.). Lit., "The Kalpa of the Sages". Our present 
period is a Bhadra Kalpa, and the exoteric teaching makes it last 
236 million years. It is "so called because 1,000 Buddhas or sages ap- 
pear in the course of it". {Sanskrit Chinese Diet.) "Four Buddhas 
have already appeared" it adds; but as out of the 236 millions, over 151 
million years have already elapsed, it does seem a rather uneven distri- 
bution of Buddhas. This is the way exoteric or popular religions con- 
fuse everything. Esoteric philosophy teaches us that every Root-race 
has its chief Buddha or Reformer, who appears also in the seven sub- 
races as a Bodhisattva (q.v.). Gautama Sakyamuni was the fourth, 
and also the fifth Buddha : the fifth, because we are the fifth root-race ; 
the fourth, as the chief Buddha in this fourth Round. The Bhadra 
Kalpa, or the "period of stability", is the name of our present Round, 
esoterically— its duration applying, of course, only to our globe (D), the 
"1,000" Buddhas being thus in reality limited to but forty-nine in all. 

Bhadrasena (Sk.). A Buddhist king of Magadha. 

Bhagats (Sk.). Also called Sokha and Sivnath by the Hindus; one 
who exorcises evil spirits. 

Bhagavad-gita (Sk.). Lit., "the Lord's Song". A portion of 
the Mahahharata, the great epic poem of India. It contains a dialogue 
wherein Khrishna— the "Charioteer"— and Arjuna, his Chela, have a 
discussion upon the highest spiritual* philosophy. The work is pre- 
eminently occult or esoteric. 

Bhagavat (Sk.). A title of the Buddha and of Krishna. "The 
Lord" literally. 

Bhao (Sk.). A ceremony of divination among the Kolarian tribes 
of Central India. 

Bharata Varsha (Sk.). The land of Bharata, an ancient name of 
India. 

Bhargavas (Sk.). An ancient race in India; from the name of 
Bhrigu, the Rishi. 

Bhashya (JSk.). A commentary. 

Bhaskara (Sk.). One of the titles of Surga, the Sun; meaning 
"life-giver" and "light-maker". 



GLOSSARY 53 

Bhava (8k.). Being, or state of being; the world, a oirtJi, and also 
a name of Siva. 

Bhikshu Sk.). In Pali Bikkhii. The name given to the first fol- 
lowers of Sakyamuni Buddha. Lit., "mendicant scholar". The Sans- 
krit Chinese Dictionary explains the term correctly by dividing Bhik- 
shus into two classes of Sramanas (Buddhist monks and priests), viz., 
"esoteric mendicants who control their nature by the (religious) law, 
and exoteric mendicants who control their nature by diet;" and it adds, 
less correctly: "every true Bhikshu is supposed to work miracles". 

Bhons (Tib.). The followers of the old religion of the Aborigines of 
Tibet; of pre-buddhistic temples and ritualism; the same as Dugpas, 
"red caps", though the latter appellation usually applies only to sor- 
cerers. 

Bhrantidarsanatah (Sk.). Lit., "false comprehension or appre- 
hension"; son>ething conceived of on false appearance^ as a mayavic, 
illusionary form. 

Bhrigw (Sk.). One of the great Vedic Risliis. He is called "Son" 
by Manu, who confides to him his Institutes. He is one of the Seven 
Prajapatis, or progenitors of mankind, which is equivalent to identifying 
him with one of the creative gods, placed by the Puranas in Krita Yug, 
or the first age, that of purity. Dr. Wynn Wescott reminds us of the 
fact that the late and very erudite Dr. Kenealy (who spelt the name 
Brighoo), made of this Muni (Saint) the fourth, out of his twelve, 
"divine messengers" to the World, adding that he appeared in Tibet, 
A.N. 4800 and that his religion spread to Britain, where his followers 
raised the megalithic temple of Stonehenge. This, of course, is a hy- 
pothesis, based merely on Dr. Kenealy 's personal speculations. 

Bhumi (Sk.). The earth, called also Prithivi. 

Bhur-Bhuva (Sk.). A mystic incarnation, as Out, Bhur, Bhuvu, 
Swar, meaning "Oni, earth, sk}', heaven". This is the e.roteric explana- 
tion. 

Bhuranyu (Sk.). "The rapid" or the swift. Used of a missile — 
an equivalent also of the Greek Phoroneus. 

Bhur-loka (Sk.). One of the 14 lokas or worlds in Hindu Pan- 
theism ; our Earth. 

Bhutadi. (Sk.). Elementary substances, the origin and the germ- 
inal essence of the elements. 

Bhutan. A country of heretical Buddhists and Lamaists beyond 
Sikkhim, where rules the Dharma Raja, a nominal vassal of the Dala'i 
Lama. 

Bhuhta-vidya (Sk.). The art of exorcising, of treating and curing 
demoniac possession. Literally, "Demon" or "Ghost-knowledge". 

Bhuta-sarga (Sk.). Elemental or incipient Creation, i.e., when 
matter was several degrees less material than it is now. 



54 THEOSOPHICAL 

Bhutesa (Sk.). Or Bhutcswara; lit., "Lord of beings or of ex- 
istent lives". A name applied to Vishnu, to Brahma and Krishna. 

Bhuts (Sk.). Bhufa: Ghosts, phantoms. To call them "demons" 
as do the Orientalists, is incorrect. For, if on the one hand, a Bhuta 
is "a malignant spirit which haunts cemeteries, lurks in trees, animates 
dead bodies, and deludes and devours human beings", in popular fancy, 
in India in Tibet and China, by Blnitas are also meant "heretics" who 
besmear their bodies with ashes, or Shaiva ascetics (Siva being held in 
India for the King of Bhutas). 

Bhuva-loka (8k.). One of the 14 worlds. 

Bhuvana (Sk.). A name of Rudra or Siva, one of the Indian 
Trimurti ( Trinity ) . 

Bifrost (Scand.). A bridge built by the gods to protect Asgard. 
On it "the third Sword-god, known as Heimdal or Riger", stands night 
and day girded with his sword, for he is the watchman selected to pro- 
tect Asgard, the abode of gods. Heimdal is the Scandinavian Cherubim 
with the flaming sword, "which turned every way to keep the way of the 
tree of life." 

Bihar Gyalpo (Tit.). A king deified by the Dugpas. A patron 
over all their religious buildings. 

Binah (Eel.). Understanding. The third of the 10 Sephiroth, the 
third of the Supernal Triad ; a female potency, corresponding to the 
letter he of the Tetragrammaton IHVH. Binah is called Aima, the 
Supernal Mother, and "the great Sea", [w.w.w.] 

Birs Nimrud (Chald.). Believed by the Orientalists to be the site 
of the Tower of Babel. The great pile of Birs Nimrud is near Babylon. 
Sir H. Rawlinson and several Assyriologists examined the excavated 
ruins and found that the tower consisted of seven stages of brick-work, 
each stage of a different colour, which shows that the temple was devoted 
to the seven planets. Even with its three higher stages or floors in 
ruins, it still rises now 154 feet above the level of the plain. (See 
"Borsippa". 

Black Dwarfs. The name of the Elves of Darkness, who creep 
about in the dark caverns of the earth and fabricate weapons and utensils 
for their divine fathers, the ^sir or Ases. Called also "Black Elves". 

Black Fire (Zohar.). A Kabbalistic term for Absolute Light and 
Wisdom; "black" because it is incomprehensible to our finite intellects. 

Black Magic (Occult.). Sorcery; necromancy, or the raising of 
the dead, and other selfish abuses of abnormal powers. This abuse may 
be unintentional; yet it is still "black magic" whenever anything is pro- 
duced phenomenally simply for one's own gratification. 

B'ne Alhim or Brui Elohim (Heh.). "Sons of God", literally or more 
correctly "Sons of the gods", as Elohim is the plural of Eloah. A 
group of angelic powers referable by analogy to the Sephira Hod. 
[w.w.w.] 



GLOSSARY 55 

Boat of the Sun. This sacred solar boat was called Sekti, and it 
was steered by the dead. With the Egyptians the highest exaltation of 
the Sun was in Aries and the depression in Libra. (See "Pharaoh", the 
"Son of the Sun".) A blue light — which is the "Sun's Son" — is seen 
streaming from the bark. The ancient Egyptians taught that the real 
colour of tlie Sun was blue, and IMacrobius also states that his colour is of 
a pure blue before he reaches the horizon and after he disappears below. 
It is curious to note in this relation the fact that it is only since 1881 
that physicists and astronomers discovered that "our Sun is really blue". 
Professor Langley devoted many years to ascertaining the fact. Helped 
in this by the magniiieent scientific apparatus of physical science, he has 
succeeded finally in proving that the apparent yellow-orange colour of 
the Sun is due only to the effect of absorption exerted by its atmosphere 
of vapours, chiefly metallic ; but that in sober truth and reality, it is not 
"a white Sun but a blue one", i.e., something which the Egyptian priests 
had discovered without any known scientific instruments, many thou- 
sands of years ago ! 

Boaz (Hch.). The great-grandfather of David. The word is from 
B, meaning "in", and oz "strength", a symbolic name of one of the 
pillars at the porch of King Solomon's temple, [w.w.w.] 

Bodha-Bodhi (Sk.), Wisdom-knowledge. 

Bodhi or Samhodhi (8k.). Receptive intelligence, in contradistinction 
to Buddhi, which is the potentiality of intelligence. 

Bodhi Druma (Sk.). The Bo or Bodhi tree; the tree of "knowl- 
edge", the Pippala or ficus religiosa in botany. It is the tree under 
which Sakyamuni meditated for seven years and then reached Buddha- 
ship. It was originally 400 feet high, it is claimed ; but when Hiouen- 
Tsang saw it, about the year 640 of our era, it was only 50 feet high. 
Its cuttings have been carried all over the Buddhist world and are 
planted in front of almost every Vihara or temple of fame in China, 
Siam, Ceylon, and Tibet. 

Bodhidharma (Sk.). Wisdom-religion; or the wisdom contained 
in Dharma (ethics). Also the name of a great Arhat Kshatriya (one 
of the warrior-caste), the son of a king. It was Panyatara, his guru, 
who "gave him the name Bodhidharma to mark his understanding 
(bodhi) of the Law (dharma) of Buddha". {Chin. San. Diet.). Bod- 
hidharma, who flourished in the sixth century, travelled to China, where- 
to he brought a precious relic, namely, the almsbowl of the Lord Buddha. 

Bodhlsattva (Sk.). Lit., "he, whose essence (sattva) has be- 
come intelligence (hodhi)''; those who need but one more incarnation 
to become perfect Buddhas, i.e., to be entitled to Nirvana. This, as 
applied to ManusM (terrestrial) Buddhas. In the metaphysical sense, 
Bodhisat\tva is a title given to the sons of the celestial Dhydni Buddhas. 

Bodhyanga (Sk.). Lit., the seven branches of knowledge or un- 
derstanding. One of the 37 catagories of the Bodhi pakchika dharma, 



56 THEOSOPHICAL 

comprehending seven degrees of intelligence (esotericall}', seven states of 
consciousness), and these are (1) Smriti, "memory"; (2) Dharma 
pravitcliaya, "correct understanding" or discrimination of the Law; 
(3) Virya, "energy"; (4) P^'iti, "spiritual joy"; (5) Prasrahdhi, 
"tranquillity" or quietude; (6) Samddhi, "ecstatic contemplation"; and 
(7) Upckska "absolute indifference". 

Boehme (Jacob). A great mystic philosopher, one of the most 
prominent Theosophists of the medifeval ages. He was born about 1575 
at Old Seidenburg, some two miles from Gorlitz (Silesia), and died in 
1624, at nearly fifty years of age. In his boyhood he was a common 
shepherd, and, after learning to read and write in a village school, be- 
came an apprentice to a poor shoemaker at Gorlitz. He was a natural 
clairvoyant of most wonderful powers. With no education or acquaint- 
ance with science he wrote works which are now proved to be full of 
scientific truths; but then, as he says himself, what he wrote upon, he 
"saw it as in a great Deep in the Eternal". He had "a thorough view 
of the universe, as in a chaos", which yet "opened itself in him, from 
time to time, as in a young plant". He was a thorough born Mystic, 
and evidently of a constitution which is most rare ; one of those fine 
natures whose material envelope impedes in no way the direct, even if 
only occasional, intercommunion between the intellectual and the spirit- 
ual Ego. It is this Ego which Jacob Boehme, like so many other un- 
trained mystics, mistook for God; "Man must acknowledge," he writes, 
"that his knowledge is not his own, but from God, who manifests the 
Ideas of Wisdom to the Soul of Man, in what measure he pleases". Had 
this great Theosophist mastered Eastern Occultism he might have ex- 
pressed it otherwise. He would have known then that the "god" who 
spoke through his poor uncultured and untrained brain, was his own 
divine Ego, the omniscient Deity within himself, and that what that 
Deity gave out was not in "what measure he pleased," but in the meas- 
ure of the capacities of the mortal and temporary dwelling it informed. 

Bonati, Guido. A Franciscan monk, born at Florence in the Xlllth 
century and died in 1306. He became an astrologer and alchemist, but 
failed as a Rosicrucian adept. He returned after this to his monastery. 

Bona-Oma, or Bona Dea. A Roman goddess, the patroness of female 
Initiates and Occultists. Called also Fauna after her father Faunus. 
She was worshipped as a prophetic and chaste divinity, and her cult 
was confined solely to women, men not being allowed to even pronounce 
her name. She revealed her oracles only to women, and the ceremonies of 
her Sanctuary (a grotto in the Aventine) were conducted by the Vestals, 
every 1st of May. Her aversion to men was so great that no male person 
was permitted to approach the house of the consuls where her festival was 
sometimes held, and even the portraits and the busts of men were carried 
out for the time from the building. Clodius, who once profaned such 
a sacred festival by entering the house of Ctesar where it was held, in a 
female disguise, brought grief upon himself. Flowers and foliage dec- 



GLOSSARY 57 

orated her temple and women made libations from a vessel (mellarium) 
full of milk. It is not true that the mellarium contained wine, as as- 
serted by some writers, who being men thus tried to revenge themselves. 

Bono, Peter. A Lombardian ; a great adept in the Hermetic Science, 
who travelled to Persia to study Alchemy. Returning from his voyage 
he settled in 1 stria in 1330, and became famous as a Rosicrucian. A 
Calabrian monk named Lacinius is credited with having published in 
1702 a condensed version of Bono's works on the transmutation of metals. 
There is, however, more of Lacinius than of Bono in the work. Bono 
was a genuine adept and an Initiate ; and such do not leave their secrets 
behind them in MSS. 

Boodhasp (Chald.). An alleged Chaldean; but in esoteric teaching a 
Buddhist (a Bodhisattva), from the East, who was the founder of the 
esoteric school of Neo-Sabeism, and whose secret rite of baptism passed 
bodily into the Christian rite of the same name. For almost three cen- 
turies before our era, Buddhist monks overran the whole country of 
Syria, made their way into the Mesopotamian valley and visited even 
Ireland. The name Ferho and Faho of the Codex Nazara?us is but a 
corruption of Fho, Fo and Pho, the name which the Chinese, Tibetans 
and even Nepaulese often give to Buddha. 

Book of the Dead. An ancient Egyptian ritualistic and occult work 
attributed to Thot-Hermes. Found in the eofifins of ancient mummies. 

Book of the Keys. An ancient Kabbalistic work. 

Borj (Pers.). Tlie Mundane Mountain, a volcano or fire-mountain; 
the same as the Indian Meru. 

Borri, Joseph Francis. A great Hermetic philosopher, born at 
Milan in the 17th century. He was an adept, an alchemist and a de- 
voted occultist. He knew too much and was, therefore, condemned to 
death for heresy, in January, 1661, after the death of Pope Innocent X. 
He escaped and lived many years after, when finally he was recognized 
by a monk in a Turkish village, denounced, claimed by the Papal Nuncio, 
taken back to Rome and imprisoned, August 10th, 1675. But facts show 
that he escaped from his prison in a way no one could account for. 

Borsippa (Chald.). The planet-tower, wherein Bel was worshipped 
in the days when astrol-atcrs were the greatest astronomers. It was dedi- 
cated to Nebo, god of Wisdom. (See "Birs Nimrud".) 

Both-al (Irish). The Both-al of the Irish is the descendant and 
copy of the Greek Batylos and the Beth-el of Canaan, the "house of 
God" iq.v.). 

Bragadini, Marco Antonio. A Venetian Rosicrucian of great 
achievements, an Occultist and Kabbalist who was decapitated in 1595 
in Bavaria, for making gold. 

Bragi (Scand.). The god of New Life, of the re-incarnation of na- 
ture and man. He is called "the divine singer" without spot or blemish. 
He is represented as gliding in the ship of the Dwarfs of Death during 



53 THEOSOPHICAL 

the death of nature (pralaya), lying asleep on the deck with his golden 
stringed harp near him and dreaming the dream of life. When the 
vessel crosses the threshold of Nain, the Dwarf of Death, Bragi awakes 
and sweeping the strings of his harp, sings a song that echoes over all 
the worlds, a song describing the rapture of existence, and awakens dumb, 
sleeping nature out of her long death-like sleep. 

Brahma (Sk.). The student must distinguish between Brahma the 
neuter, and Brahma, the male creator of the Indian Pantheon. The 
former, Brahma or Brahman, is the impersonal, supreme and uncogniz- 
able Principle of the Universe from the essence of which all emanates, 
and into which all returns, which is incorporeal, immaterial, unborn, 
eternal, beginningless and endless. It is all-pervading, animating the 
highest god as well as the smallest mineral atom. Brahma, on the other 
hand, the male and the alleged Creator, exists periodically in his mani- 
festation only, and then again goes into pralaya, i.e., disappears and is 
annihilated. 

Brahma's Day. A period of 2,16a,000,000 years during which 
Brahma having emerged out of his golden egg {HiranyagarhJia) , creates 
and fashions the material world (being simply the fertilizing and cre- 
ative force in Nature). After this period, the worlds being destroyed 
in turn by fire and water, he vanishes with objective nature, and then 
comes Brahma's Night. 

Brahma's Night. A period of equal duration, during which 
Brahma is said to be asleep. Upon awakening he recommences the pro- 
cess, and this goes on for an age of Brahma composed of alternate 
"Days", and "Nights", and lasting 100 years (of 2,160,000,000 years 
each). It requires fifteen figures to express the duration of such an 
age; after the expiration of which the Mahapralaya or the Great Dis- 
solution sets in, and lasts in its turn for the same space of fifteen figures. 
Brahma Prajapati (Sk.). "Brahma, the Progenitor", literally 
the "Lord of Creatures". In this aspect Brahma is the synthesis of the 
Prajapati or creative Forces. 

Brahma Vach (Sk.). Male and female Brahma. Vach is also 
sometimes called the female logos; for Vach means Speech, literally. 
(See Manu, Book I., and Vishnu Purdna). 

Brahma Vidya (Sk.). The knowledge, the esoteric science, about 
the two Brahmas and their true nature. 

Brahma Viraj. (Sk.). The same: Brahma separating his body 
into two halves, male and female, creates in them Vach and Viraj. In 
plainer terms and esoterically, Brahma, the Universe, differentiating, 
produced thereby material nature, Viraj, and spiritual intelligent Na- 
ture, Vach— which is the Logos of Deity or the manifested expression 
of the eternal divine Ideation. 

Brahmachari (Sk.). A Brahman ascetic; one vowed to celibacy, 
a monk, virtually, or a religious student. 



GLOSSARY 59 

Brahmajnani (Sk.). One possessed of complete Knowledge; an 
Illuminatus in esoteric parlance. 

Brahman (Sk.). The highest of the four castes in India, one sup- 
posed or rather fancying himself, as high among men, as Brahman, the 
ABSOLUTE of the Vcdantins, is high among, or above the gods. 

Brahmana period (Sk.). One of the four periods into which Vedie 
literature has been divided by Orientalists. 

Brahmanas (Sk.). Hindu Sacred Books. Works composed by, 
and for Brahmans. Commentaries on these portions of the Vedas which 
were intended for the ritualistic use and guidance of the "twice-born" 
(Dwija) or Brahmans. 

Brahmanaspati (Sk.). The planet Jupiter; a deity in the Rig- 
Veda, known in the exoteric works as Brihaspati, whose wife Tara was 
■carried away by Soma (the Moon). This led to a war between the gods 
and the Asuras. 

Brahmapuri (Sk.). Lit., "the City of Brahma". 

Brahmaputras (Sk.). The Sons of Brahma. 

Brahmarandhra (Sk.). A spot on the crown of the head connected 
by Snshumna, a cord in the spinal column, wdth the heart. A mystic 
term having its significance only in mysticism. 

Brahmarshis (Sk.). The Brahminical Kishis. 

Bread and Wine. Baptism and the Eucharist have their direct 
origin in pagan Egypt. There the "waters of purification" were used 
(the Mithraic font for baptism being borrowed by the Persians from the 
Egyptians) and so were bread and wine, "Wine in the Dionysiak cult, 
as in the Christian religion, represents that blood which in different 
senses is the life of the world" (Brown, in the Dionysiak Myth). Justin 
]\Iartyr says, ' ' In imitation of which the devil did the like in the 
Mysteries of Mithras, for you either know or may know that they also 
take bread and a cup of water in the sacrifices of those that are initiated 
and pronounce certain words over it". (See "Holy Water".) 

Briareus (Gr.). A famous giant in the Theogony of Hesiod. The 
son of Ccelus and Terra, a monster with 50 heads and 100 arms. He is 
conspicuous in the wars and battles between the gods. 

Briatic World or Briah (He'd.). This world is the second of the 
Four worlds of the Kabbalists and referred to the highest created "Arch- 
angels", or to Pure Spirits, [w.w.w.] 

Bride. The tenth Sephira, Malkuth, is called by the Kabbalists the 
Bride of Microprosopus ; she is the final He of the Tetragrammaton ; in 
a similar manner the Christian Church is called the Bride of Christ, 
[w.w.w.] 

Brihadaranyaka (Sk.). The name of a Upanishad. One of the 
sacred and secret books of the Brahmins; an Aranyaka is a treatise ap- 
pended to the Vedas, and considered a subject of special study by those 



60 THEOSOPHICAL 

who have retired to the jungle (forest) for purposes of religious medi- 
tation. 

Brihaspati (Sk.). The name of a Deity, also of a Rishi. It is like- 
wise the name of the planet Jupiter. He is the personified Guru and 
priest of the gods in India; also the symbol of exoteric ritualism as 
opposed to esoteric mysticism. Hence the opponent of King Soma — the 
moon, but also the sacred juice drunk at initiation — the parent of Budha, 
Secret Wisdom. 

Briseus (Gr.). A name given to the god Bacchus for his nurse, 
Briso. He had also a temple at Brisa, a promontory of the isle of Lesbos. 

Brothers of the Shadow. A name given by the Occultists to 
Sorcerers, and especially to the Tibetan Dugpas, of whom there are many 
in the Bhon sect of the Red Caps (Dugpa). The word is applied to all 
practitioners of black or left hand magic. 

Bubaste (Eg.). A city in Egypt which was sacred to the cats, and 
where was their principal shrine. Many hundreds of thousands of cats 
were embalmed and buried in the grottoes of Beni-Hassan-el-Amar. The 
cat being a symbol of the moon was sacred to Isis, her goddess. It sees 
in the dark and its eyes have phosphorescent lustre which frightens the 
night-birds of evil omen. The cat was also sacred to Bast, and thence 
called "the destroyer of the Sun's (Osiris') enemies". 

Buddha (Sk.). Lit., "The Enlightened". The highest degree of 
knowledge. To become a Buddha one has to break through the bondage 
of sense and personality ; to acquire a complete perception of the real 
SELF and learn not to separate it from all other selves; to learn by ex- 
perience the utter unreality of all phenomena of the visible Kosmos 
foremost of all ; to reach a complete detachment from all that is evan- 
escent and finite, and live while yet on Earth in the immortal and the 
everlasting alone, in a supreme state of holiness. 

Buddha Siddharta (Sk.). The name given to Gautama, the 
Prince of Kapilavastu, at his birth. It is an abbreviation of Sarvdrt- 
thasiddha and means, the "realization of all desires". Gautama, which 
means, "on earth (gdu) the most victorious (tama) " was the sacerdotal 
name of the Sakya family, the kingly patronymic of the dynasty to 
which the father of Gautama, the King Suddhodhana of Kapilavastu, 
belonged. Kapilavastu was an ancient city, the birth-place of the Great 
Reformer and was destroyed during his life time. In the title Sakya- 
muni, the last component, muni, is rendered as meaning one "mighty in 
charity, isolation and silence", and the former Sdkya is the family name. 
Every Orientalist or Pundit knows by heart the story of Gautama, the 
Buddha, the most perfect of mortal men that the world has ever seen, 
but none of them seem to suspect the esoteric meaning underlying his 
prenatal biography, i.e., the significance of the popular story. The Lali- 
tavistdra tells the tale, but abstains from hinting at the truth. The 5,000 
Jdtakas, or the events of former births (re-incarnations) are taken liter- 



GLOSSARY 6 1 

all^' instead of esoterically. Gautama, the Buddha, would not have been 
a mortal man, liad he not passed through hundreds and thousands of 
births previous to his last. Yet tlie detailed account of these, and the 
statement that during them he worked liis way up through every stage 
of transmigration from the lowest animate and inanimate atom and in- 
sect, up to the highest — or man, contains simply the well-known occult 
aphorism: "a stone becomes a plant, a plant an animal, and an animal a 
man". Every human being who has ever existed, has passed through 
the same evolution. But the hidden symbolism in the sequence of these 
re-births (jdtaka) contains a perfect historj^ of the evolution on this 
earth, pre and post human, and is a scientific exposition of natural facts. 
One truth not veiled but bare and open is found in their nomenclature, 
viz., that as soon as Gautama had reached the human form he began ex- 
hibiting in every personalit}' the utmost unselfishness, self-sacrifice and 
charity. Buddha Gautama, the fourth of the Sapta (Seven) Buddhas 
and Sapta Tathagatas, was born according to Chinese Chronology in 
1024 R.c; but according to the Singhalese chronicles, on the 8th day 
of the second (or fourth) moon in the jxar 621 before our era. He fled 
from his father's palace to become an ascetic on the night of the 8th 
da.v of the second moon, 597 B.C., and having passed six years in ascetic 
meditation at Gaya, and perceiving that physical self-torture was use- 
less to bring enlightenment, he decided upon striking out a new path, 
until he reached the state of Bodhi. He became a full Buddha on the 
night of the 8th day of the twelfth moon, in the year 592, and finally 
entered Nirvana in the year 543, according to Southern Buddhism. The 
Orientalists^ however, have decided upon several other dates. All the 
rest is allegorical. He attained the state of Bodhisattva on earth when 
in the personality called Prabhapala. Tushita stands for a place on this 
globe, not for a paradise in the invisible regions. The selection of the 
Sakya family and his mother Maya, as "the purest on earth," is in ac- 
cordance with the model of the nativity of every Saviour, God or deified 
Reformer. The tale about his entering his mother's bosom in the shape 
of a white elephant is an allusion to his innate wisdom, the elephant of 
that colour being a symbol of every Bodhisattva. The statements that at 
Gautama's birth, the newly born babe walked sfvcn steps in four direc- 
tions, that an Udumhara flower bloomed in all its rare beauty and that 
the Ndga kings forthwith proceeded ''to baptise him", are all so many 
allegories in the phraseology of the Initiates and well-understood by 
every Eastern Occultist. The whole events of his noble life are given 
in occult numbers, and every so-called miraculous event — so deplored 
by Orientalists as confusing the narrative and making it impossible to 
extricate truth from fiction — is simpl}^ the allegorical veiling of the truth. 
It is as comprehensible to an Occultist learned in symbolism, as it is dif- 
ficult to understand for a European scholar ignorant of Occultism. 
Every detail of the narrative after his death and before cremation is a 
chapter of fa^ts written in a language which must be studied before it is 



62 



THEOSOPHICAL 



understood, otherwise its dead letter will lead one into absurd contra- 
dictions. For instance, having reminded his disciples of the immortality 
of Dharmakaya, Buddha is said to have passed into Samadhi, and lost 
himself in Nirvana — from which none can return. And yet, notwith- 
istanding this, the Buddha is shown bursting open the lid of the coffin, 
and stepping out of it; saluting with folded hands his mother Maya 
who had suddenly appeared in the air, though she had died seven days 
after his birth, etc., etc. As Buddha was a Chakravartti (he who turns 
the wheel of the Law), his body at its cremation could not be consumed 
by common fire. What happens? Suddenly a jet of flame burst out of 
the Svastica on his Ireast, and reduced his body to ashes. Space pre- 
vents giving more instances. As to his being one of the true and un- 
deniable Saviours of the World, suffice it to say that the most rabid 
orthodox missionary, unless he is hopelessly insane, or has not the least 
regard even for historical truth, cannot find one smallest accusation 
against the life and personal character of Gautama, the "Buddha". 
Without any claim to divinity, allowing his followers to fall into athe- 
ism, rather than into the degrading superstition of deva or idol-worship, 
his walk in life is from the beginning to the end, holy and divine. Dur- 
ing the 45 years of his mission it is blameless and pure as that of a god 
— or as the latter should be. He is a perfect example of a divine, godly 
man. He reached Buddhaship — i.e., complete enlightenment — entirely 
by his own merit and owing to his own individual exertions, no god be- 
ing supposed to have any personal merit in the exercise of goodness and 
holiness. Esoteric teachings claim that he renounced Nirvana and gave 
up the Dharmakaya vesture to remain a "Buddha of compassion" within 
the reach of the miseries of this world. And the religious philosophy he 
left to it has produced for over 2,000 years generations of good and un- 
selfish men. His is the only ahsolutely bloodless religion among all the 
existing religions: tolerant and liberal, teaching universal compassion 
and charity, love and self-sacrifice, poverty and contentment with one 's 
lot, whatever it may be. No persecutions, and enforcement of faith by 
fire and sword, have ever disgraced it. No thunder-and-lightning-vomit- 
ing god has interfered with its chaste commandments ; and if the simple, 
humane and philosophical code of daily life left to us by the greatest 
Man-Reformer ever known, should ever come to be adopted by mankind 
at large, then indeed an era of bliss and peace would dawn on Humanity. 

Buddhachhaya (Sk.). Lit., "the shadow of Buddha". It is said 
to become visible at certain great events, and during some imposing 
ceremonies performed at Temples in commemoration of glorious acts of 
Buddha's life. Hiouen-tseng, the Chinese traveller, names a certain cave 
where it occasionally appears on the wall, but adds that only he "whose 
mind is perfectly pure ' ', can see it. 

Buddhaphala (8k.). Lit., "the fruit of Buddha", the fruition 
of Arahattvaphalla, or Arhatship. 

Buddhi (Sk.). Universal Soul or Mind. Mahdhuddhi is a name of 



GLOSSARY 63 

Mahat (see "Alaya") ; also the spiritual Soul in man (the sixth princi- 
ple), the vehicle of Atma, exoterically the seventh. 

Buddhism. Buddhism is now split into two distinct Churches: the 
Southern and the Northern Church. The former is said to be the purer 
form, as having preserved more religiously the original teachings of the 
Lord Buddha. It is the religion of Ceylon, Siam, Burmah and other 
places, while Northern Buddhism is confined to Tibet, China and Nepaul. 
Such a distinction, however, is incorrect. If the Southern Church is 
nearer, in that it has not departed, except perhaps in some trifling dog- 
mas due to the many councils held after the death of the Master, from 
the public or exoteric teachings of Sakyamuni — the Northern Church is 
the outcome of Siddharta Buddha's esoteric teachings which he confined 
to his elect Bhikshus and Arhats. In fact. Buddhism in the present age, 
cannot be justly judged either by one or the other of its exoteric popular 
forms. Real Buddhism can be appreciated only by blending the phil- 
osophy of the Southern Church and the metaphysics of the Northern 
Schools. If one seems too iconoclastic and stern, and the other too meta- 
physical and transcendental, even to being overgrown with the weeds of 
Indian exotericism — many of the gods of its Pantheon having been trans- 
planted under new names to Tibetan soil — it is entirely due to the 
popular expression of Buddhism in both Churches. Correspondentially 
they stand in their relation to each other as Protestantism to Roman 
Catholicism. Both err by an excess of zeal and erroneous interpretations, 
though neither the Southern nor the Northern Buddhist clergy have ever 
departed from truth consciously, still less have they acted under the 
dictates of pricstocracy, ambition, or with an eye to personal gain and 
power, as the two Christian Churches have. 

Buddhochinga (Sk.). The name of a great Indian Arhat who 
went to China in the 4th century to propagate Buddhism and converted 
masses of people by means of miracles and most wonderful magic feats. 

Budha (Sk.). "The Wise and Intelligent", the Son of Soma, the 
Moon, and of Rokini or Taraka, wife of Brihaspati carried away by 
King Soma, thus leading to the great war between the Asuras, who sided 
with the Moon, and the Gods who took the defense of Brihaspati (Ju- 
piter) who was their Purohita (family priest). This war is known as 
the Tarakamaya. It is the original of the war in Olympus between the 
Gods and the Titans and also of the war (in Revelation) between Michael 
(Indra) and the Dragon (personifying the Asuras). 

Bull- Worship (See "Apis"). The worship of the Bull and the 
Ram was addressed to one and the same power, that of generative crea- 
tion, under two aspects — the celestial or cosmic, and the terrestrial or 
human. The ram-headed gods all belong to the latter aspect, the bull 
— to the former. Osiris to whom the bull was sacred, was never regarded 
as a phallic deity ; neither w^as Siva with his Bull Nandi, in spite of the 
lingham. As Nandi is of a pure milk-w^hite colour, so was Apis. Both 



€4 THEOSOPHICAL 

were the emblems of the generative, or of evolutionary power in the 
Universal Kosmos. Those who regard the solar gods and the bulls as 
of a phallic character, or connect the Sun with it, are mistaken. It is 
only the lunar gods and the rams, and lambs, which are priapic, and it 
little becomes a religion which, however unconsciously, has still adopted 
for its worsliip a god pre-eminently lunar, and accentuated its choice by 
the selection of the lamb, whose sire is the ram, a glyph as pre-eminently 
phallic, for its most sacred symbol — to vilify the older religions for using 
the same symbolism. The worship of the bull. Apis, Hapi Ankh, or the 
living Osiris, ceased over 3,000 years ago; the worship of the ram and 
lamb continues to this day. Mariette Bey discovered the Serapeum, the 
Necropolis of the Apis-bulls, near Memphis, an imposing subterranean 
<jrypt 2,000 feet long and twenty feet wide, containing the mummies of 
thirty sacred bulls. If 1,000 years hence, a Roman Catholic Cathedral 
with the Easter lamb in it, were discovered under the ashes of Vesuvius 
or Etna, would future generations be justified in inferring therefrom 
that Christians were "lamb" and "dove" worshippers? Yet the two 
symbols would give them as much right in the one case as in the other. 
Moreover, not all of the sacred "bulls" were phallic, i.e., males; there 
were hermaphrodite and sexless "bulls". The black bull Mnevis, the 
son of Ptah, was sacred to the God Ra at Heliopolis ; the Pacis of Her- 
monthis — to Amoun Horus, etc., etc., and Apis himself was a herma- 
phodite and not a male animal, which shows his cosmic character. As 
well call the Taurus of the Zodiac and all Nature phallic. 

Bumapa (Tib.). A school of men, usually a college of mystic 
students. 

Bunda-hish. An old Eastern work in which among other things 
anthropology is treated in an allegorical fashion, 

Burham-i-Kati. A Hermetic Eastern work, 

Buri (Scand.). "The producer", the Son of Bestla, in Norse legends. 

Buru Bonga. The "Spirit of the Hills". This Dryadic deity is 
worshipped by the Kolarian tribes of Central India with great cere- 
monies and magical display. There are mysteries connected with it, but 
the people are very jealous and will admit no stranger to their rites. 

Busardier. A Hermetic philosopher born in Bohemia who is 
credited with having made a genuine powder of projection. He left the 
bulk of his red powder to a friend named Richthausen, an adept and 
alchemist of Vienna. Some years after Busardier 's death, in 1637, 
Richthausen introduced himself to the Emperor Ferdinand III, who is 
known to have been ardently devoted to alchemy, and together they are 
said to have converted three pounds of mercury into the finest gold with 
one single grain of Busardier 's powder. In 1658, the Elector of Mayence 
also was permitted to test the powder, and the gold produced with it was 
declared by the Master of the Mint to be such, that he had never seen 



GLOSSARY 65 

finer. Such are the claims vouchsafed by the city records and chron- 
icles. 

Butler. An English name assumed by an adept, a disciple of some 
Eastern Sages, of whom many fanciful stories are current. It is said 
-for instance, that Butler was captured during his travels in 1629, and 
sold into captivity. He became the slave of an Arabian philosopher, a 
great alchemist, and finally escaped, robbing his Master of a large quan- 
tity of red powder. According to more trustworthy records, only the 
last portion of this story is true. Adepts who can be robbed without 
knowing it would be unworthy of the name. Butler or rather the person 
who assumed this name, rohhed his "Master" (whose free disciple he 
was) of the secret of transmutation, and abused of his knowledge — i.e., 
sought to turn it to his personal profit, but was speedily punished for it. 
After performing many wonderful cures by means of his "stone" {i.e., 
the occult knowledge of an initiated adept), and producing extraordinary 
phenomena, to some of which Val Helmont, the famous Occultist and 
Rosicrucian, was witness, not for the benefit of men but his own vain 
glory, Butler was imprisoned in the Castle of Viloord, in Flanders, and 
passed almost the whole of his life in confinement. He lost his powers 
and died miserable and unknown. Such is the fate of every Occultist 
who abuses his power or desecrates the sacred science. 

B3rthos (Gr.). A Gnostic term meaning "Depth" or the "great 
Deep". Chaos. It is equivalent to space, before anything had formed 
itself in it from the primordial atoms that exist eternally in its spatial 
<^lepths, according to the teachings of Occultism. 



QQ THEQSOPHICAL 



c. 

v_^» — The third letter of the English alphabet, which has iio equivalent in 
Hebrew except Caph, which see under K. 

Cabar Zio (Gnost.). "The mighty Lord of Splendour" (Codex 
Nazaracus), they who procreate seven beneficent lives, "who shine in 
their own form and light" to counteract the influence of the seven 
"badly-disposed" stellars or principles. These are the progeny of Kar- 
abtanos, the personification of concupiscence and matter. The latter are 
the seven physical planets, the former, their genii or Rulers, 

Cabeiri or Kabiri (Phoen.). Deities, held in the highest veneration 
at Thebes, in Lemnos, Phrygia, Macedonia, and especially at Samothrace. 
They were mystery gods, no profane having the right to name or speak 
of them. Herodotus makes of them Fire-gods and points to Vulcan as 
their father. The Kabiri presided over the Mysteries, and their real 
number has never been revealed, their occult meaning being very sacred. 

Cabletow (Mas.). A Masonic term for a certain object used in 
the Lodges. Its origin lies in the thread of the Brahman ascetics, a 
thread which is also used for magical purposes in Tibet. 

Cadmus (Gr.). The supposed inventor of the letters of the alphabet. 
He may have been their originator and teacher in Europe and Asia 
Minor; but in India the letters were known and used by the Initiates 
ages before him. 

Caduceus (Gg.). The Greek poets and mythologists took the idea of 
the Caduceus of Mercury from the Egyptians. The Caduceus is found 
as two serpents twisted round a rod, on Egyptian monuments built be- 
fore Osiris. The Greeks altered this. We find it again in the hands of 
-^sculapius assuming a different form to the wand of Mercurius or 
Hermes. It is a cosmic, sidereal or astronomical, as well as a spiritual 
and even physiological symbol, its significance changing with its appli- 
cation. Metaphysically, the Caduceus represents the fall of primeval 
and primordial matter into gross terrestrial matter, the one Reality be- 
coming Illusion. (See Sect. Doct. I. 550.) Astronomically, the head 
and tail represent the points of the ecliptic where the planets and even 
the sun and moon meet in close embrace. Physiologically, it is the sym- 
bol of the restoration of the equilibrium lost between Life, as a unit, 
and the currents of life performing various functions in the human body. 

Caesar. A far-famed astrologer and "professor of magic", i.e., an 
Occultist, during the reign of Henry IV. of France. "He was reputed 
to have been strangled by the devil in 1611," as Brother Kenneth Mac- 
kenzie tells us. 



GLOSSAEY 67 

Cagliostro. .1 famous Adept, whose real name is claimed (by his 
enemies) to have Ijeen Joseph Balsamo. He was a native of Palermo, 
and studied under some mysterious foreigner of whom little has been 
ascertained. His accepted history is too well known to need repetition, 
and his real history has never been told. His fate was that of every 
human being who proves that he knows more than do his fellow-creat- 
ures; he was "stoned to death" by persecutions, lies, and infamous ac- 
cusations, ,and yet he was the friend and adviser of the highest and 
mightiest of every land he visited. He was finally tried and sentenced 
in Rome as a heretic, and was said to have died during his confinement 
in a State prison. (See "Mesmer".) Yet his end was not utterly un- 
deserved, as he had been untrue to his vows in some respects, had fallen 
from his state of chastity and yielded to ambition and selfishness, 

Cain or Kaijii (Ilch.). In Esoteric symbology he is said to be identi- 
cal with Jehovah or the "Lord God" of the fourth chapter of Genesis. 
It is held, moreover, that Abel is not his brother, but his female aspect. 
(See Sec. Doct., suh voce.) 

Calvary Cross. This form of cross does not date from Christianity. 
It was known and used for mystical purposes, thousands of years 
before our era. It formed part and parcel of the various Rituals, in Egypt 
and Greece, in Babylon and India, as well as in China, Mexico, and Peru. 
It is a cosmic, as well as a physiological (or phallic) symbol. That 
it existed among all the "heathen" nations is testified to by TertuUian. 
"Plow doth the Athenian Minerva differ from the body of a cross?" he 
<iueries. ' ' The origin of your gods is derived from figures moulded on a 
cross. All those rows of images on your standards are the appendages 
of crosses; those hangings on your banners are the robes of crosses." 
And the fiery champion was right. The tau or T is the most ancient of 
all forms, and the cross or the tat (q.v.) as ancient. The crux ansata, 
the cross with a handle, is in the hands of almost every god, including 
Baal and the Phcenician Astarte. The croix cramponnce is the Indian 
iSivastica. It has been exhumed from the lowest foundations of the 
ancient site of Troy, and it appears on Etruscan and Chaldean relics 
of antiquity. As Mrs. Jamieson shows: "The ankh of Egypt was the 
crutch of St. Anthony and the cross of St. Philip. The Laharum of 
Constantine . . . was an emblem long before, in Etruria. Osiris 
had the Laharum for his -sign; Horus appears sometimes with the long 
Latin cross. The Greek pectoral cross is Egyptian. It was called by 
the Fathers 'the devil's invention before Christ'. The crux ansata is 
upon the old coins of Tarsus, as the Maltese upon the breast of an Assy- 
rian king. . . The cross of Calvary, so common in Europe, occurs on 
the breasts of mummies. ... It was suspended round the necks of 
sacred Serpents in Egypt. . . . Strange Asiatic tribes bringing trib- 
ute in Egypt are noticed with garments studded with crosses, and Sir 
Gardner Wilkinson dates this picture B.C., 1500." Finally, "Typhon. 
the Evil One, is chained by a cross!" (Eg. Belief and Mod. Thought). 



68 THEOSOPHICAL 

Campanella, Tomaso. A Calabrese, born in 1568, who, from his 
childhood exhibited strange powers, and gave himself up during his 
whole life to the Occult Arts. The story which shows him initiated in 
his boyhood into the secrets of alchemy and thoroughly instructed in the 
secret science by a Rabbi-Kabbalist iji a fortnight by means of notaricox, 
is a cock and bull invention. Occult knowledge, even when an heirloom 
from the preceding birth, does not come back into a new personality 
within fifteen days. He became an opponent of the Aristotelian mater- 
ialistic philosophy when at Naples and was obliged to fly for his life. 
Later, the Inquisition sought to try and condemn him for the practice 
of magic arts, but its efiforts were defeated. During his lifetime he 
wrote an enormous quantity of magical, astrological and alchemical 
works, most of which are no longer extant. He is reported to have died 
in the convent of the Jacobins at Paris on May the 21st 1639. 

Canarese. The language of tlie Karnatic, originally called Kanara. 
one of tlie divisions of South India. 

Capricornus (Lat.). The 10th sign of the Zodiac (Makara in 
Sanskrit), considered, on account of its hidden meaning, the most im- 
portant among the constellations of the mysterious Zodiac. It is fully 
described in the Secret Doctrine, and , therefore needs but a few words 
more. Whether, agreeably with exoteric statements, Capricornus was 
related in any way to the wet-nurse Amaltha^a who fed Jupiter with her 
milk, or whether it was the god Pan who changed himself into a goat and 
left his impress upon the sidereal records, matters little. Each of the 
fables has its significance. Everything in Nature is intimately corre- 
lated to the rest, and therefore the students of ancient lore will not be 
too much surprised when told that even the seven steps taken in the 
direction of every one of the four points of the compass, or— 28 steps — 
taken by the new-born infant Buddha, are closely related to the 28 stars 
of the constallation of Capricornus. 

Cardan, Jerome. An astrologer, alchemist, kabbalist and mystic, 
well known in literature. He was born at Pavia in 1501, and died at 
Rome in 1576. 

Carnac. A very ancient site in Brittany (France) of a temple of 
Cyclopean structure, sacred to the Sun and the Dragon ; and of the 
same kind as Karnac, in ancient Egypt, and Stonehenge in England. 
(See the "Origin of the Satanic Mj^th" in Archaic Symholism.) It was 
built by the prehistoric hierophant-priests of the Solar Dragon, or sym- 
bolized Wisdom (the Solar Kumar as who incarnated being the highest). 
Each of the stones was personally placed there by the successive priest- 
adepts in power, and commemorated in symbolic language the degree 
of power, status, and knowledge of each. (See further Secret Doctrine 
II. 381, ef seg,, and also "Karnac".) 

Caste. Originally the system of the four hereditary classes into 
which the Indian population was divided : Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaisya, 



GLOSSARY 69 

and Sudra (or dt'seeiidants of Brahma, Warriors, Merchants, and the 
lowest or Agriculturalists). Besides tliese original four, hundreds have 
now grown up in India. 

Causal Body. This "body", whieli is no body either objective or 
subjective, but Buddhi, the Spiritual Soul, is so called because it is the 
direct cause of the Sushupti condition, leading to the Turya state, the 
highest state of Samadhi. It is called Karanopadhi, "the basis of the 
Cause", by the Taraka Raja Yogis; and in the Vedanta system it cor- 
responds to both the Vigndnamaya and Anandamaya Kosha, the latter 
coming next to Atma, and therefore being the vehicle of the universal 
Spirit. Buddhi alone could not be called a "Causal Body", but becomes 
so in conjunction with Manas, the incarnating Entity or Ego. 

Cazotte, Jacques. The wonderful Seer, who predicted the behead- 
ing of several royal personages and his own decapitation, at a gay supper 
some time before the first Revolution in France. He was born at Dijon 
in 1720, and studied mystic philosophy in the school of Martinez Pas- 
qualis at Lyons. On the 11th of September 1791, he was arrested and 
comdemned to death by the president of the revolutionary government, a 
man who, shameful to state, had been his fellow-student and a member 
of the Mystic Lodge of Pasqualis at Lyons. Cazotte was executed on 
the 25th of September on the Place du Carrousel. 

Cecco d'Ascoli. Surnamed "Francesco Stabili". He lived in 
the thirteenth century, and was considered the most famous astrologer 
in his day. A work of his published at Basle in 1485, and called Com- 
mentarii in SpJueram Joannis de Sacrahosco, is still extant. He was 
burnt alive by the Inquisition in 1327. 

Cerberus (Gr., Lat.). Cerberus, the three-headed canine monster, 
which was supposed to watch at the threshold of Hades, came to the 
Greeks and Romans from Eg\-pt. It was the monster, half-dog and 
lialf-hippopotamus, that guarded the gates of Amenti. The mother of 
Cerberus was Echidna — a being half-woman, half -serpent, much honoured 
in Etruria. Both the Egyptian and Greek Cerberus are symbols of 
Kamaloka and its uncouth monsters, the cast-off shells of mortals. 

Ceres (Lat.). In Greek Demcfcr. As the female aspect of Peter 
^ther, Jupiter, she is esoterically the productive principle in the all- 
pervading Spirit that quickens every germ in the material universe. 

Chabrat Zereh Aur Bokher (Heh.). An order of the Rosicrucian 
stock, whose members study the Kabbalah and Hermetic sciences; 
it admits both sexes, and has many grades of instruction. The members 
meet in private, and the very existence of the Order is generally un- 
known, [w.w.w.] 

Chadayatana (Sk.). Lit., the six dwellings or ga1;i0s in man for 
the reception of sensations; thus, on the physical plane, the eyes, nose, 
ear, tongue, body (or touch) and mind, as a product of the physical 
brain and on the mental plane (esoterically), spiritual sight, smell, hear- 



70 THEOSOPHICAL 

ing, taste, touch and perception, the whole synthesized by the Buddhi- 
atmic element. Chadayatana is one of the 12 Niddnas, which form the 
chain of incessant causation and effect. 

Chaitanya (Sk.). The founder of a mystical sect in India. A 
rather modern sage, believed to be an avatar of Krishna.. 

Chakna-padma-karpo (Tib.). "He who holds the lotus", used 
of Chenresi, the Bodhisattva. It is not a genuine Tibetan word, but half 

Sanskrit. 

Chakra (Sk.). A wheel, a disk, or the circle of Vishnu generally. 
Used also of a cycle of time, and with other meanings. 

Chakshub (8k.). The "eye". Loka-chakshui or "the eye of the 
world " is a title of the Sun. 

Chaldean Book of Numbers. A work which contains all that is 
found in the Zohar of Simeon Ben-Jochai, and much more. It 
must be the older by many centuries, and in one sense its original, as it 
contains all the fundamental principles taught in the Jewish Kabbalistic 
works, but none of their blinds. It is very rare indeed, there being per- 
haps only two or three copies extant, and these in private hands. 

Chaldeans, or Kasdvrn. At first a tribe, then a caste of learned 
Kabbalists. They were the savants, the magians of Babylonia, as- 
trologers and diviners. The famous Hillel, the precursor of Jesus in phil- 
osophy and in ethics, was a Chaldean. Franck in his Kahhala points 
to the close resemblance of the "secret doctrine" found in the Avesta 
and the religious metaphysics of the Chaldees. 

Chandra. (8 k.). The Moon; also a deity. The termn Chandra and 
Soma are synonyms. 

Chandragupta (8k.). The first Buddhist King in India, the grand- 
sire of Asoka; the Sandracottus of the all-bungling Greek writers who 
went to India in Alexander's time. (See "Asoka".) 

Chandra-kanta (8k.). "The moon-stone", a gem that is claimed to 
be formed and developed under the moon-beams, whicn give it occult 
and magical properties. It has a very cooling influence in fever if ap- 
plied to both temples. 

Chandramanam (Sk.). The method of calculating time by the Moon. 
Chandrayana (Sk.). The lunar year chronology. 

Chandra- vansa (Sk.). The "Lunar Race", in contradistinction 
to Suryavansa, the ' ' Solar Race ' '. Some Orientalists think it an incon- 
sistency that Krishna, a Chandravansa (of the Yadu branch) should 
have been declared an Avatar of Vishnu, who is a manifestation of the 
solar energy in Rig- Veda, a work of unsurpassed authority with the 
Brahmans. This shows, however, the deep occult meaning of the Avatar ; 
a meaning which only esoteric philosophy can explain. A glossary is no 
fit place for such explanations; but it may be useful to remind those 
who know, and teach those who do not, that in Occultism, man is called 



GLOSSARY 71 

a solar-lunar being, solar in his higher triad, and lunar in his quarter- 
nary. Moreover, it is the Sun who imparts his light to the Moon, in the 
same way as the human triad sheds its divine light on the mortal shell of 
sinful man. Life celestial quickens life terrestrial. Krishna stands 
metaphysically for the Ego made one with Atma-Buddhi, and performs 
mystically the same function as the Christ os of the Gnostics, both being 
"the inner god in the temple" — man. Lucifer is "the bright morning 
star", a well known symbol in Revelations, and, as a planet, corresponds 
to the Ego. Now Lucifer (or the planet Venus) is the Sukra-Usanas of 
the Hindus ; and Usanas is the Daitya-guru, i.e., the spiritual guide and 
instructor of the Danavas and the Daityas. The latter are the giant- 
demons in the Purdnas, and in the esoteric interpretations, the antetypal 
symbol of the man of flesh, physical mankind. The Daityas can raise 
themselves, it is said, through knowledge "austerities and devotion" to 
"the rank of the gods and of the Absolute". All this is very suggestive 
in the legend of Krishna; and what is more suggestive still is that just 
as Krishna, the Avatar of a great God in India, is of the race of Yadu, 
so is another incarnation," "God incarnate himself" — or the "God- 
man Christ", also of the race ladoo — the name for the Jews all over 
Asia. Moreover, as his mother, who is represented as Queen of Heaven 
standing on the crescent, is identified in Gnostic philosophy, and also 
in the esoteric system, with the Moon herself, like all the other lunar 
goddesses such as Isis, Diana, Astarte and others — mothers of the Logoi, 
so Christ is called repeatedly in the Roman Catholic Church, the Sun- 
Christ, the Christ-Soleil and so on. If the latter is a metaphor so also is 
the earlier. 

Chantong (Tih.). "He of the 1,000 Eyes", a name of Padmapani 
or Chenresi (Avalokitesvara). 

Chaos (Gr.). The Abyss the "Great Deep". It was personified 
in Egypt by the Goddess Ne'ith, anterior to all gods. As Deveria says, 
"the only God, without form and sex, who gave birth to itself, and with- 
out fecundation, is adored under the form of a Virgin Mother". She 
is the vulture-headed Goddess found in the oldest period of Abydos, 
who belongs, accordingly to Mariette Bey, to the first Dynasty, which 
would make her, even on the confession of the time-dwarfing Orientalists, 
about 7,000 years old. As Mr. Bonwick tells us in his excellent work on 
Egyptian belief — "Neith, Nut, Nepte, Nuk (her names as variously 
read!) is a philosophical conception worthy of the nineteenth century 
after the Christian era, rather than the thirty-ninth before it or earlier 
than that". And he adds: "Neith or Nout is neither more nor less than 
the Great Mother, and yet the Immaculate Virgin, or female God from 
whom all things proceeded". Ne'ith is the "Father-Mother" of the 
Stanzas of the Secret Doctrine, the Swahhdvat of the Northern Bud- 
dhists, the immaculate Mother indeed, the prototype of the latest "Vir- 
gin" of all; for, as Sharpe says, "the Feast of Candlemas — in honour of 



72 THEOSOPHICAL 

the goddess Neith — is yet marked in our Almanacs as Candlemas day, 
or the Purification of the Virgin Mary"; and Beauregard tells us of 
"the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin, who can henceforth, as well 
as the Egyptian Minerva, the mysterious Neith, boast of having come 
from herself, and of having given birth to God". He who would deny 
the working of cycles and the recurrence of events, let him read what 
Neith was 7,000 years ago, in the conception of the Egyptian Initiates, 
trying to popularize a philosophy too abstract for the masses ; and then 
remember the subjects of dispute at the Council of Ephesus in 431, when 
Mary was declared Mother of God; and her Immaculate Conception 
forced on the World as by command of God, by Pope and Council in 
1858. Neith is Swabhavat and also the Vedic Aditi and the Puranic 
Akdsa, for "she is not only the celestial vault, or ether, but is made to 
appear in a tree, from which she gives the fruit of the Tree of Life (like 
another Eve) or pours upon her worshippers some of the divine water of 
life". Hence she gained the favourite appelation of "Lady of the Syca- 
more", an epithet applied to another Virgin (Bonwick). The resem- 
blance becomes still more marked when Neith is found on old pictures 
represented as a Mother embracing the ram-headed god, the "Lamb". 
An ancient stele declares her to be "Neut, the luminous, who has en- 
gendered the gods"— the Sun included, for Aditi is the mother of the 
Marttanda, the Sun— an Aditya. She is Naus, the celestial ship ; hence 
we find her on the prow of the Egyptian vessels, like Dido on the prow 
of the ships of the Phoenician mariners, and forthwith we have the Virgin 
Mary, from Mar, the "Sea", called the "Virgin of the Sea", and the 
"Lady Patroness" of all Roman Catholic seamen. The Rev. Sayce is 
quoted by Bonwick, explaining her as a principle in the Babylonian Baku 
(Chaos, or confusion) i.e., "merely the Chaos of Genesis . . . and 
perhaps also Mot, the primitive substance that was the mother of all the 
gods". Nebuchadnezzar seems to have been in the mind of the learned 
professor, since he left the following witness in cuneiform language, "I 
built a temple to the Great Goddess, my Mother". We may close with 
the words of Mr. Bonwick with which we thoroughly agree: "She 
(Neith) is the Zeroudna of the Avesta, 'time without limits'. She is the 
Nerfe of the Etruscans, half a woman and half a fish" (whence the con- 
nection of the Virgin Mary with the fish and pisces); of whom it is said : 
"From holy good Nerfe the navigation is happy. She is the Bythos of 
the Gnostics, the One of the Neoplatonists, the All of German metaphy- 
sicians, the Anaita of Assyria." 

Charaka (8k.). A writer on Medicine who lived in Vedic times. He is 
believed to have been an incarnation (Avata/ra) of the Serpent Sesha, 
i.e., an embodiment of divine Wisdom, since Sesha-Naga, the King of 
the "Serpent" race, is synonymous with Ananta, the seven-headed Ser- 
pent, on which Vishnu sleeps during the pralayas. Ananta is the "end- 
less" and the symbol of eternity, and as such, one with Space, while 
Sesha is only periodical in his manifestations. Hence while Vishnu is 



GLOSSARY 73: 

identified with Ananta, Charaka is only the Avatar of Sesha. (See 
"Ananta" and "Sesha".) 

Charnock, Thomas. A great alchemist of the sixteenth century; a 
surgeon who lived and practiced near Salisbury, studying the art in 
some neighboring cloisters with a priest. It is said that he was initiated 
into the final secret of transmutation by the famous mystic William Bird, 
who "had been a prior of Bath and defrayed the expense of repairing 
the Abbey Church from the gold which he made by the red and white 
elixirs" (Royal Mas. Cycl.). Charnock wrote his Breviary of Fhilosophy 
in the year 1557 and the Enigma of Alchemy in 1574. 

Charon (Gr.). The Egyptian Khu-en-ua, the hawk-headed Steers- 
man of the boat conveying the Souls across the black waters that sep- 
arate life from death. Charon, the Sun of Erebus and Nox, is a variant 
of Khu-en-ua. The dead were obliged to pay an oholus, a small piece of 
money, to this grim ferryman of the Styx and Acheron ; therefore the 
ancients always placed a coin under the tongue of the deceased. This 
custom has been preserved in our own times, for most of the lower classes 
in Russia place coppers in the coffin under the head of the dead for post 
mortem expenses. 

Charvaka (Sk.). There were two famous beings of this name. 
One a Rakshasa (demon) who disguised himself as a Brahman and 
entered Hastina-pura ; whereupon the Brahmans discovered the impos- 
ture and reduced Charvaka to ashes with the fire of their eyes, — i.e., 
magnetically by means of what is called in Occultism the ' ' black glance ' ' 
or evil eye. The second was a terrible materialist and denier of all but 
matter, who if he could come back to life, would put to shame all the 
"Free thinkers" and "Agnostics" of the day. He lived before the Ra- 
mayanic period, but his teachings and school have survived to this day, 
and he has even now followers, who are mostly to be found in Bengal. 

Chastanier, Benedict. A French mason who established in Lon- 
don in 1767 a Lodge called "The Illuminated Theosophists". 

Chatur mukha (Sk.). The "four-faced one", a title of Brahma. 

Chatur varna (Sk.). The four castes (lit., colours). 

Chaturdasa Bhuvanam (Sk.). The fourteen lokas or planes of ex- 
istence. Esoterically, the dual seven states. 

Chaturyoni (Sk.). Written also tchatur-yoni. The same as Kar- 
maya or "the four modes of birth" — four ways of entering on the path 
of birth as decided by Karma: (a) birth from the womb, as men and 
mammalia; (&) birth from an egg, as birds and reptiles; (c) from 
moisture and air-germs,>, as insects; and (d) by sudden self-transforma- 
tion, as Bodhisattvas and Gods (Anupadaka). 

Chava (Heh.). The same as Eve: "the Mother of all that lives'*: 
"Life". 

Chavigny, Jean Aime de. A disciple of the world-famous Nostra- 
damus, an astrologer and an alchemist of the sixteenth century. He 



74 THEOSOPHICiUi 

died in the year 1604. His life was a very quiet one and he was almost 
unknown to his contemporaries ; but he left a precious manuscript on the 
pre-natal and post-natal influence of the stars on certain marked individ- 
uals, a secret revealed to him' by Nostradamus. This treatise was last in 
the possession of the Emperor Alexander of Russia, 

Chela (tilx.). A disciple, the pupil of a Guru or Sage, the follower 
of some adept of a school of philosophy {lit., child). 

Chemi (Eg.). The ancient name of Egypt. 

Chenresi (Tih.). The Tibetan Avalokitesvara. The Bodhisattva 
Padmapani, a divine Buddha. 

Cheru (Scand.). Or Heru. A magic sword, a weapon of the 
"sword god" Heru. In the Edda, the Saga describes it as destroying its 
possessor, should he be unworthy of wielding it. It brings victory and 
fame only in the hand of a virtuous hero. 

Cherubim (Hch.). According to the Kabbalists, a group of angels, 
which they specially associated with the Sephira Jesod. In Christian 
teaching, an order of angels who are "watchers". Genesis places Cher- 
ubim to guard the lost Eden, and the 0. T. frequently refers to them 
as guardians of the divine glory. Two winged representations in gold 
were placed over the Ark of the Covenant ; colossal figures of the same 
were also placed in the Sanctum Sanctorum of the Temple of Solomon. 
Ezekiel describes them in poetic language. Each Cherub appears to 
have been a compound figure with four faces— of a man, eagle, lion, and 
ox, and was certainly winged. Parkhurst, in voc. Cheriih, suggests that 
the derivation of the word is from K, a particle of similitude, and RB or 
RUB, greatness, master, majesty, and so an image of godhead. Many 
other nations have displayed similar figures as symbols of deity; e.g., 
the Egyptians in their figures of Serapis, as Macrobius describes in his 
Saturnalia; the Greeks had their triple-headed Hecate, and the Latins 
had three-faced images of Diana, as Ovid tells us, ecce procid ternis 
Hecate variata figuris. Virgil also describes her in the fourth Book of 
the J^neid. Porphyry and Eusebius write the same of Proserpine. The 
Vandals had a many-headed deity they called Triglaf. The ancient 
German races had an idol Rodigast with luiman body and heads of the 
ox, eagle, and man. The Persians have some figures" of Mithras with a 
man's body, lion's head, and four wings. Add to these the Chimera, 
Sphinx of Egypt, Moloch, Astarte of the Syrians, and some figures of 
Isis with Bull's horns and feathers of a bird on the head, [w.w.w.] 

Chesed (Hch.). "Mercy", also named Gedidah, the fourth of the 
ten Sephiroth ; a masculine or active potency, [w.w.w.] 

Chhaya (Sk.). "Shade" or "Shadow". The name of a creature 
produced by Sanjna, the wife of Surya, from herself (astral body). 
Unable to endure the ardour of her husband, Sanjna left Chhaya in her 
place as a wife, going herself away to perform austerities. Chhaya is 
the astral image of a person in esoteric philosophy. 



GLOSSARY 75 

Chhandoga (Sk.). A Samhitd collcetion of Sania V(Hla ; also a 
priest, a chanter of the Sama Veda. 

Chhanmuka (Sk.). A f3creat Bodhisattva with the Northern Bud- 
dhists, famous for his ardent love of Humanity ; regarded in the esoteric 
scliools as a Nirmanakdya. 

Chhannagarikah (Tib.). TAt., the school of six cities. A famous, 
philosophical scliool where Chelas are prepared before entering on the 
Path. 

Chhassidi or Chasdim. In the Septuagint Assidai, and in English 
Assideaus. They are also mentioned in Maccabees I., vii., 13, as being^ 
put to death with many others. They were the followers of Mattathias, 
the father of the Maccabeans, and were all initiated mystics, or Jewish 
adepts. The word means: "skilled; learned in all wisdom, human and 
divine". Mackenzie {R.M.C.) regards them as the guardians of the 
Temple for the preservation of its purity ; but as Solomon and his Tem- 
ple are both allegorical and had no real existence, the Temple means, 
in this case the "body of Israel" and its morality. "Scaliger connects 
this Society of the Assideans with that of the Essenes, deeming it the 
predecessor of the latter." 

Chhaya loka (Sk.). The world of Shades; like Hades, the world 
of the Eidola and JJmbrce. We call it Kdmaloka. 

Ghiah (Hrh.). Life; Vita, Revivificatio. In the Kabbala, the 
second highest essence of the human soul, corresponding to Chokmah 

(Wisdom). 

Chichhakti (Sk.). Chih-Sakti; the power which generates thought. 

Chidagnikundum (Sk.). Lit., "the fire-hearth in the heart"; the 
seat of the force which extinguishes all individual desires. 

Chidakasam (Sk.). The field, or basis of consciousness. 

Chifflet, Jean. A Canon-Kabbalist of the XVIIth century, reputed 
to have learned a key to the Gnostic works from Coptic Initiates ; he 
wrote a work on Abraxas in two portions, the esoteric portion of which 
was burnt by the Church. 

Chiim (Ileh.). A plural noun — "lives"; found in compound names j: 
Elohim Chiim, the gods of lives, Parkhurst translates "the living God"; 
and Raucli Chiim, Spirit of lives or of life, [w.w.w.] 

China, The Kabbalah of. One of the oldest known Chinese books is 
the Yih King, or Book of Changes. It is reported to have been written 
2850 B.C., in the dialect of the Accadian black races of Mesopotamia. It 
is a most abstruse system of Mental and Moral Philosophy, with a 
scheme of universal relation and divination. Abstract ideas are repre- 
sented by lines, half lines, circle, and points. Thus a circle represents. 
YIH, the Great Supreme ; a line is referred to YIN, the Masculine Active 
Potency ; two half lines are YANG, the Feminine Passive Potency. 
KWEI is the animal soul, SHAN intellect, KHIEN heaven or Father^ 



76 THEOSOPHICAL 

KHWAN earth or Mother, KAN or QHIN is Sou; male numbers are 
odd, represented by light circles, female numbers are even, by black 
circles. There are two most mysterious diagrams, one called ' ' HO or the 
River Map ' ', and also associated with a Horse ; and the other called 
' ' The Writing of LO ' ' ; these are formed of groups of white and black 
circles, arranged in a Kabbalistic manner. 

The text is by a King named Wan, and the commentary by Kan, his 
son; the text is allowed to be older than the time of Confucius, [w.w.w.] 

Chit (Sk.). Abstract Consciousness. 

Chitanuth our (Hch.). Chitons, a priestly garb; the "coats of skin" 
given by Java Alcim to Adam and Eve after their fall. 

Chitkala (Sk.). In Esoteric philosophy, identical with the Ku- 
maraSj those who first incarnated into the men of the Third Root-Race. 
(See Sec. Doct.; Vol. I., p. 288 n). 

Chitra Gupta (Sk.). The deva (or god) who is the recorder of 
Yama (the god of death), and who is supposed to read the account of 
every Soul's life from a register called Agra Sandhdni, when the said 
soul appears before the seat of Judgment. (See "Agra Sandhani"). 

Chitra Sikkandinas (Sk.). The constellation of the great Bear; the 
liabitat of the seven Rishis (Sapta-Eiksha). Lit., "bright-crested. 

Chnoumis (Gr.). The same as Chnouphis and Kneph. A symbol 
of creative force ; Chnoumis or Kneph is ' ' the unmade and eternal deity 
according to Plutarch. He is represented as blue (ether), and with his 
ram 's head with an asp between the horns, he might be taken for Ammon 
or Chnouphis (q.v.). The fact is that all these gods are solar, and rep- 
resent under various aspects the phases of generation and impregnation. 
Their ram's heads denote this meaning, a ram ever symbolizing genera- 
tive energy in the abstract, while the bull was the symbol of strength and 
the creative function. All were one god, whose attributes were individ- 
ualised and personified. According to Sir G. Wilkinson, Kneph or 
Chnoumis was "the idea of the Spirit of God"; and Bon wick explains 
that, as Av, "matter" or "flesh", he was criocephalic (ram-headed), 
wearing a solar disk on the head, standing on the Serpent Mehen, with 
a viper in his left and a cross in his right hand, and bent upon the 
function of creation in the underworld (the earth, esoterically). The 
Kabbalists identify him with Binah, the third Sephira of the Sephirothal 
Tree, or "Binah, represented by the Divine name of Jehovah". If as 
Chnoumis-Kneph, he represents the Indian Narayana, the Spirit of God 
moving on the waters of space, as Eichton or Ether he holds in his 
mouth an Egg, the symbol of evolution ; and as Av he is Siva, the De- 
stroyer and the Regenerator; for, as Deveria explains: "His journey to 
the lower hemispheres appears to symbolize the evolutions of substances, 
which are born to die and to be reborn." Esoterically, however, and as 
taught by the Initiates of the inner temple, Chnoumis-Kneph was pre- 
emintly the god of reincarnation. Says an inscription : "I am Chnoumis, 



GLOSSARY 



77 



Son of tile Universe, 700", a mystery having? a direct reference to the 
reincarnating Ego. 

Chnouphis (Gr.). Nouf in P]g-yptian. Another aspect of Ammon, 
and the personification of his generative power in actu, as Kneph is of 
the same in potentia. He is also ram-headed. If in his aspect as Kneph 
he is the Holy Spirit with the creative ideation brooding in him, as 
Chnouphis, he is the angel who "comes in" into the Virgin soil and 
flesh. A prayer on a papyrus, translated by the French Egj-ptologist 
Chabas. says: "0 Sepui, Cause of being, who hast formed thine own 
body! only Lord, proceeding from Noum ! divine substance, cre- 
ated from itself! God, who hast made the substance which is in him ! 
God, who has made his own father and impregnated his own mother." 
This shows the origin of the Christian doctrines of the Trinity and im- 
maculate conception. He is seen on a monument seated near a potter's 
wheel, and forming men out of clay. The fig-leaf is sacred to him, which 
is alone sufficient to prove him a phallic god — and idea which is carried 
out by the inscription : "he who made that which is, the creator of beings, 
the first existing, he who made to exist all that exists." Some see in 
him the incarnation of Ammon-Ra, but he is the latter himself in his 
phallic aspect, for, like Ammon, he is "his mother's husband", i.e., the 
male or impregnating side of Nature. His names vary, as Cnouphis, 
Noum, Khem, and Khnum or Clmoumis. As he represents the Demiurgos 
(or Logos) from the material, lower aspect of the soul of the World, he 
is the Agathodffimon, symbolized sometimes by a Serpent; and his wife 
Athor or Maut (Mot mother), or Sate, "the daughter of the Sun", 
carrying an arrow on a sunbeam (the ray of conception), stretches "mis- 
tress over the lower portions of the atmosphere", below the constellations, 
as Ne'ith expands over the starry heavens. (See "Chaos".) 

Chohan (Tib.). "Lord" or "Master"; a chief; thus Dhyan-CJiohan 
would answer to "Chief of the Dhyanis", or celestial Lights^which 
in English would be translated Archangels. 

Chokmah (Ilcb.). Wisdom; the second of the ten Sephiroth, and 
the second of the supernal Triad. A masculine potency corresponding 
to the Yod (1) of the Tetragrammaton IHVH. and to Ab, the Father, 
[w.w.w.] 

Chrestos (Gr.). The early Gnostic form of Christ. It was used in 
the fifth century B.C. by ^schylus, Herodotus, and others. The Manten- 
mata pxjthochresta, or the "oracles delivered by a Pythian god" through 
a pythoness, are mentioned by the former {Choeph. 901). ChrCsterion 
i.s not only * ' the seat of an oracle ' ', but an offering to, or for, the oracle, 
Chrestes is one who explains oracles, "a prophet and soothsayer", and 
(Jhresterios one who serves an oracle or a god. The earliest Christian 
writer, Justin Martyr, in his first Apologi/, calls his co-religionists Chres- 
tians. " It is only through ignorance that men call themselves Christians 
instead of Chrestians," says Lactantius (lib. iv., cap. vii.). The terms 
Christ and Christians, spelt originally Chrest and Chrestians, were bor- 



78 THEOSOPHICAL 

rowed from the Temple vocabulary of the Pagans. Chrestos meant in 
that vocabulary a disciple on probation, a candidate for hierophantship. 
When he had attained to this through initiation, long trials, and suffer- 
ing, and had been "anointed" {i.e., "rubbed with oil", as were Initiates 
and even idols of the gods, as the last touch of ritualistic observance), 
his name was changed into Christos, the "purified", in esoteric or mys- 
tery language. In mystic symbology, indeed, Christes, or Christos, 
meant that the "Way", the Path, was already trodden and the goal 
reached ; when the fruits of the arduous labour uniting the personality of 
evanescent clay with the indestructible Individuality, transformed it 
thereby into the immortal Ego. "At the end of the Way stands the 
Chrestes", the Purifier, and the union once accomplished, the Chrestos, 
the "man of sorrow", became Christos himself. Paul, the Initiate, knew 
this, and meant this precisely, when he is made to say, in bad transla- 
tion: "I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you" (Gal. 
iv. 19), the true rendering of which is . . . "until ye form the 
Christos within yourselves". But the profane who knew only that 
Chrestes was in some way connected with priest and prophet, and knew 
nothing about the hidden meaning of Christos, insisted, as did Lactan- 
tius and Justin Martyr, on being called Chrestians instead of Christians. 
Every good individual, therefore, may find Christ in his "inner man" as 
Paul expresses it (Ephes. iii. 16, 17), whether he be Jew, Mussulman, 
Hindu, or Christian. Kenneth Mackenzie seemed to think that the 
word Chrestos was a synonym of Soter, "an appellation assigned to 
deities, great kings and heroes," indicating "Saviour," — and he was. 
right. For, as he adds: "It has been applied redundantly to Jesus 
Christ, whose name Jesus or Joshua bears the same interpretation. The 
name Jesus, in fact, is rather a title of honour than a name — the true 
name of the Soter of Christianity being Emmanuel, or God with us 
(Matt, i., 23.). . . Great divinities among all nations, who are rep- 
resented as expiatory or self-sacrificing, have been designated by the 
same title." {R. M. Cyclop.) The Asklepios (or ^sculapius) of the 
Greeks had the title of Soter. 

Christian Scientist. A newly-coined term for denoting the prac- 
titioners of an art of healing by ivill. The name is a misnomer, 
since Buddhist or Jew, Hindu or Materialist, can practice this new form 
of Western Yoga, with like success, if he can only guide and control his 
will with sufficient firmness. The "Mental Scientists" are another rival 
school. These work by a universal denial of every disease and evil 
imaginable, and claim syllogistically that since Universal Spirit cannot 
be subject to the ailings of flesh, and since every atom is Spirit and in 
Spirit, and since finally, they — the healers and the healed — are 
all absorbed in this Spirit or Deity, there is not, nor can there be, such a 
thing as disease. This prevents in no wise both Christian and Mental 
Scientists from succumbing to disease, and nursing chronic diseases in. 
their own bodies just like ordinary mortals. 



GLOSSARY 79 

Chthonia (Gr.). Chaotic earth in the Hellenic cosmogony. 

Chuang. A great Chinese philosopher. 

Chubilgan (Mongol.). Or Khuhilkhan. The same as Chutuktu. 

Chutuktu (Tib.). An incarnation of Buddha or of some Bod- 
hisattva, as believed in Tibet, where there are generally five manifesting 
and two secret Chutuktus among the high Lamas, 

Chyuta (Sk.). Means, "the fallen" into generation, as a Kabbalist 
would say ; the opposite of achyuta, something which is not subject to 
change or differentiation ; said of deity. 

Circle. Tliere are several "Circles" with mystic adjectives at- 
tached to them. Thus we have: (1) the "Decussated or Perfect Circle" 
of Plato, who shows it decussated in the form of the letter X; (2) the 
"Circle-dance" of the Amazons, round a Priapic image, the same as the 
dance of the Gopis around the Sun (Krishna), the shepherdesses rep- 
resenting the signs of the Zodiac; (3) the "Circle of Necessity" of 3,000 
years of the Egyptians and of the Occultists, the duration of the cycle 
between rebirths or reincarnations being from 1,000 to 3,000 years on 
the average. This will be treated under the term "Rebirth" or "Rein- 
carnation". 

Clairaudience. The faculty, whetlier innate or acquired by occult 
training, of hearing all that is said at whatever distance. 

Clairvoyance. The faculty of seeing with the inner eye or spirit- 
ual sight. As now used it is a loose and flippant term, embracing 
under its meaning a happy guess due to natural shrewdness or intuition, 
and also that faculty which was so remarkably exercised by Jacob 
Boehme and Swedenborg. Real clairvoyance means the faculty of seeing 
through the densest matter (the latter disappearing at the will and before 
the spiritual eye of the Seer), and irrespective of time( past, present and 
future) or distance. 

Clemens Alexandrinus, A Churcli Father and a voluminous 
writer, who had been a Neo-Platonist and a disciple of Ammonius Saccas. 
He lived between the second and the third centuries of our era, at Alex- 
andria. 

Cock, A very occult bird, much appreciated in ancient augury and 
symbolism. According to the Zohar, the cock crows three times before 
the death of a person ; and in Russia and all Slavonian countries when- 
ever a person is ill on the premises where a cock is kept, its crowing is 
held to be a sign of inevitable death, unless the bird crows at the hour 
of midnight, or immediately afterwards, when its crowing is considered 
natural. As the cock was sacred to JEsculapius, and as the latter was 
called the Soter (Saviour) who raised the dead to life, the Socratic ex- 
clamation "We owe a cock.to ^sculapius", just before the Sage's death, 
is very suggestive. As the cock was always connected in symbology with 
the Sun (or solar gods), Death and Resurrection, it has found its ap- 
propriate place in the four Gospels in the prophecy about Peter repu- 



80 THEOSOPHICAL 

diating his Master before the cock crowed thrice. The cock is the most 
magnetic and sensitive of all birds, hence its Greek name alectruan. 

Codex Nazaraeus (Lat.). The "Book of Adam" — the latter name 
meaning anthropos, Man or Humanity. The Nazarene faith is 
called sometimes the Bardesanian system, though Bardesanes (b.c. 15.> 
to 228) does not seem to have had any connection with it. True, he was 
born at Edessa in Syria, and was a famous astrologer and Sabian before 
his alleged conversion. But he was a well-educated man of noble fam- 
ily, and would not have used the almost incomprehensible Chaldeo-Syriac 
dialect mixed with the mystery language of the Gnostics, in which the 
Codex is written. The sect of the Nazarenes was pre-Christian. Pliny 
and Josephus speak of the Nazarites as settled on the banks of the Jordan 
150 years b.c. {Ant. Jud. xiii. p. 9) ; and Munk says that the "Naziareate 
was an institution established before the laws of Musah" or Moses. 
(Munk p. 169.) Their modern name is in Arabic — El Mogtasila; in 
European languages — the Mendseans or "Christians of St. John". (See 
"Baptism".) But if the term Baptists may well be applied to them, it 
is not with the Christian meaning: for while they were, and still are 
Sabians, or pure astrolaters, the Mendaeans of Syria, called the Galileans,, 
are pure polytheists, as every traveller in Syria and on the Euphrates 
can ascertain, once he acquaints himself with their mysterious rites and 
ceremonies. (See Isis Unv. ii. 290, et seq.) So secretly did they pre- 
serve their beliefs from the very beginning, that Epiphanms who wrote 
against the Heresies in the 14th century confesses himself unable to say 
what they believed in (1. 122) ; he simply states that they never mention 
the name of Jesus, nor do they call themselves Christians {loc. cit. 190). 
Yet it is undeniable that some of the alleged philosophical views and 
doctrines of Bardesanes are found in the codex of the Nazarenes. (See 
Norberg's Codex Nazarmis, or the "Book of Adam", and also "Men- 
dseans".) 

Coeur, Jacques. A famous Treasurer of France, born in 1408, who 
obtained the office by black magic. He was reputed as a great alchemist 
and his wealth became fabulous; but he was soon banished from the 
country, and retiring to the Island of Cyprus, died there in 1460, leaving 
behind enormous wealth, endless legends and a bad reputation. 

Coffin-Rite, or Pastos. This was the final rite of Initiation in tne 
Mysteries in Egypt, Greece and elsewhere. The last and supreme secrets 
of Occultism could not be revealed to the Disciple until he had passed 
through this allegorical ceremony of Death and Resurrection into new 
light. "The Greek verb teleutao," says Vronsky, "signifies in the active 
voice 'I die', and in the middle voice 'I am initiated' ". Stobseus quotes 
an ancient author, who says, "The mind is affected in death, just as it 
is in the initiation into the Mysteries ; and word answers to word as well 
as thing to thing; for teleutan is 'to die', and teleisthai 'to be initiated' ". 
And thus, as Mackenzie corroborates, when the Aspirant was placed in 



GLOSSARY 81 

the Past OS, Bed, or Coffin (in India on the lathe, as explained in the 
Secret Doctrine), "he was symbolically said to die". 

CoUanges, Gabriel de. Born in 1524. The best astrologer in the 
XVIth century and a still better Kabbalist. He spent a fortune in the 
unravelling of its mysteries. It was rumored that he died through 
poison administered to him by a Jewish Rabbin-Kabbalish. 

College of Rabbis. A college at Babylon ; most famous during 
the early centuries of Christianity. Its glory, however, was greatly 
darkened by the appearance in Alexandria of Hellenic teachers, such 
as Philo Juda?us, Josephus, Aristobulus and others. The former avenged 
themselves on their successful rivals by speaking of the Alexandrians as 
theurgists and unclean prophets. But the Alexandrian believers in thau- 
maturgy were not regarded as sinners or impostors when orthodox Jews 
were at the head of such schools of "hazim". These were colleges for 
teaching prophecy and occult sciences. Samuel was the chief of such a 
college at Ramah ; Elisha at Jericho. Hillel had a regular academy for 
prophets and seers; and it is Hillel, a pupil of the Babylonian College, 
who was the founder of the Sect of the Pharisees and the great orthodox 
Rabbis. 

CoUemann, Jean. An Alsatian, born at Orleans, according to K. 
Mackenzie ; other accounts say he was a Jew, who found favor owing to 
his astrological studies, with both Charles VII. and Louis XI., and that 
he had a bad influence on the latter. 

Collyridians. A sect of Gnostics who, in the early centuries of 
Christianity, transferred their worship and reverence from Astoreth to 
Mary, as Queen of Heaven and Virgin. Regarding the two as identical, 
they offered to the latter as they had done to the former, buns and cakes 
on certain days, with sexual symbols represented on them. 

Continents. In the Buddhist cosmogony according to Gautama 
Buddha's exoteric doctrine, there are numberless systems of worlds (or 
Sakivala) all of which are born, mature, decay, and are destroyed period- 
icall}'. Orientalists translate the teaching about "the four great contin- 
ents which do not communicate with each other", as meaning that "upon 
the earth there are four great continents" (see Hardy's Eastern Monach- 
ism, p. 4), while the doctrine means simply that round or above the eartli 
there are on either side four worlds, i.e., the earth appearing as the fourth 
on each side of the arc. 

Corybantes, Mysteries of the. These were lield in Phrygia in 
honour of Atys, the youth beloved by Cybele. The rites were very elabor- 
ate within the temple and very noisy and tragic in public. They began 
by a public bewailing of the death of Atys and ended in tremendous re- 
joicing at his resurrection. The statue or image of the victim of Jupiter's 
jealoush^ was placed during the ceremony in a pastos (coffin), and the 
priests sang his sufferings. Atys, as Visvakarma in India, was a repre- 
sentative of Initiation and Adeptship. He is shown as being born im- 



32 THEOSOPHICAL 

potent, because chastity is a requisite of the life of an aspirant. Atys 
is said to have established the rites and worship of Cybele, in Lydia. 
(See Pmisan., vii., c. 17.) 

Cosmic Gods. Inferior gods, those connected with the formation 
of matter. 

Cosmic Ideation (Occult.). Eternal thought, impressed on sub- 
stance or spirit-matter, in the eternity ; thought which becomes active 
at the beginning of every new life-cycle. 

Cosmocratores (Gr.). "Builders of the Universe", the "world 
architects", or the Creative Forces personified. 

Cow-Worship. The idea of any such "worship" is as erroneous 
as it is unjust. No Egyptian worshipped the cow, nor does any Hindu 
worship this animal now, though it is true that the cow and bull were 
sacred then as they are today, but only as the natural physical symbol 
of a metaphysical ideal; even as a church made of bricks and mortar is 
sacred to the civilized Christian because of its associations and not by 
reason of its walls. The cow was sacred to Isis, the Universal Mother, 
Nature, and to the Hathor, the female principle in Nature, the two god- 
desses being allied to both sun and moon, as the disk and the cow's horns 
(crescent) prove. (See "Hathor" and "Isis".) In the Vedas, the 
Dawn of Creation is represented by a cow. This dawn is Hathor, and 
the day which follows, or Nature already formed, is Isis, for both are 
one except in the matter of time. Hathor the elder is "the mistress of 
the seven mystical cows" and Isis, "the Divine Mother", is the "cow- 
horned", the cow of plenty (or Nature, Earth), and, as the mother of 
Horus (the physical world) — the "mother of all that lives". The outa 
was the symbolic eye of Horus, the right being the sun, and the left the 
moon. The right "eye" of Horus was called "the cow of Hathor", and 
served as a powerful amulet, as the dove in a nest of rays or glory, with 
or without the cross, is a talisman with Christians, Latins and Greeks. 
The Bull and the Lion which we often find in company with Luke and 
Mark in the frontispiece of their respective Gospels in the Greek and 
Latin texts, are explained as symbols — which is indeed the fact. Why 
not admit the same in the case of the Egyptian sacred Bulls, Cows, Rams, 
and Birds? 

Cremer, Juhn. An eminent scholar who for over thirty years studied 
Hermetic philosophy in pursuance of its practical secrets, while he was 
at the same time Abbot of Westminster. While on a voyage to Italy, he 
met the famous Raymond Lully whom he induced to return with him to 
England. Lully divulged to Cremer the secrets of the stone, for which 
service the monastery offered daily prayers for him. Cremer, says the 
Royal Masonic Cyclopedia, "having obtained a profound knowledge of 
the secrets of Alchemy, became a most celebrated adept in occult phil- 
osophy . . . lived to a good old age, and died in the reign of King 
Edward III." 



GLOSSARY 33 

Crescent. Sin was the Assyrian name for the moon, and Sin-ai the 
Mount, the birth-place of Osiris, of Dionysos, Bacchus and several other 
gods. According to Rawlinson, the moon was held in higher esteem than 
the sun at Babylon, because darkness preceded light. The crescent was, 
therefore, a sacred symbol with almost every nation, before it became the 
standard of tlie Turks. Says the author of Egyptian Belief, "The cres- 
cent is not essentially a Mahometan ensign. On the con- 
trary, it was a christian one, derived through Asia from the Babylonian 
Astarte, Queen of Heaven, or from the Egyptian Isis .... whose 
emblem was the crescent. The Greek Christian Empire of Constantino- 
ple held it as their palladium. Upon the conquest of the Turks, the 
Mahometan Sultan adopted it for the symbol of his power. Since that 
time the crescent has been made to oppose the idea of the cross." 

Criocephale (Gr.). Ram-headed, applied to several deities and 
emblematic figures, notably those of ancient Egypt, which were de- 
signed about the period when the Sun passed, at the Vernal Equinox, 
from the sign Taurus to the sign Aries. Previously to this period, bull- 
headed and horned deities prevailed. Apis was the type of the Bull 
deity, Ammon that of the ram-headed type: Isis, too, had a Cow's head 
allotted to her. Porphyry writes that the Greeks united the Ram to 
Jupiter and the Bull to Bacchus, [w.w.w.] 

Crocodile. "The great reptile of Typhon." The seat of its "wor- 
ship ' ' was Crocodilopolis and it was sacred to Set and Sebak— its alleged 
creators. The primitive Rishis in India, the Mamis, and Sons of Brah- 
ma, are each the progenitors of some animal species, of which he is the 
alleged "father"; in Egypt, each god was credited with the formation 
or creation of certain animals which were sacred to him. Crocodiles 
must have been numerous in Egypt during the early dynasties, if one 
has to judge by the almost incalculable number of their mummies. Thou- 
sands upon thousands have been excavated from the grottoes of Moabdeh, 
and many a vast necropolis of that Typhonic animal is still left un- 
touched. But the Crocodile was only worshipped where his god and 
"father" received honours. Typhon ("g.-y.; had once received such honours 
and, as Bunsen shows, had been considered a great god. His words are, 
"Down to the time of Ramses B.C. 1300, Typhon was one of the most 
venerated and powerful gods, a god who pours blessings and life on the 
rulers of Egypt." As explained elsewhere, Typhon is the material aspect 
of Osiris. When Typhon, the Quaternary, Mis Osiris, the triad or di- 
vine Light, and cuts it metaphorically into 14 pieces, and separates him- 
self from the "god", he incurs the execration of the masses; he becomes 
the evil god, the storm and hurricane god, the burning sand of the Des- 
ert, the constant enemy of the Nile, and the "slayer of the evening bene- 
ficent dew", because Osiris is the ideal Universe, Siva the great Regener- 
ative Force, and Typhon the material portion of it, the evil side of the 
god, or the Destroying Siva. This is why the crocodile is also partly 
venerated and partly execrated. The appearance of the crocodile in the 



84 THEOSOPHICAJ^ 

Desert, far from the water, prognosticated the happy event of the com- 
ing inundation — hence its adoration at Thebes and Ombos. But he de- 
stroyed thousands of human and animal beings yearly — hence also the 
hatred and persecution of the Crocodile at Elephantine and Tentyra. 

CrosG. Mariette Bey has shown its antiquity in Egypt by proving 
that in all the primitive sepulchres "the plan of the chamber has the 
form of a cross' \ It is the symbol of the Brotherhood of races and men ; 
and was laid on the breast of the corpses in Egypt, as it is now placed 
on the corpses of deceased Christians, and, in its Swastica form {croix 
cramponnee) , on the hearts of the Buddhist adepts and Buddhas. (See 
"Calvary Cross".) 

Crux Ansata (LafJ. The handled cross, -f- ; whereas the tau is T. 
in this form, and the oldest Egyptian cross or the tat is thus +• The 
crux ansata was the symbol of immortality, but the ^a^-cross was that of 
spirit-matter and had the significance of a sexual emblem. The crux 
ansata was the foremost symbol in the Egyptian Masonry instituted by 
Count Cagliostro ; and Masons must have indeed forgotten the primitive 
Significance of their highest symbols, if some of their authorities still 
insist that the crux ansata is only a combination of the cteis (or yoni) 
and phallus (or lingham). Far from this. The handle or ansa had a 
double significance, but never a phallic one ; as an attribute of Isis it 
was the mundane circle; as a symbol of law on the breast of a mummy 
it was that of immortality, of an endless and beginningless eternity, that 
which descends upon and grows out of the plane of material nature, the 
horizontal feminine line, surmounting the vertical male line — the fructi- 
fying male principle in nature or spirit. Without the handle the crux 
ansata became the tau T, which, left by itself, is an androgyne symbol, 
and becomes purely phallic or sexual only when it takes the shape +. 

Crypt (Gr.). A secret subterranean vault, some for the purpose of 
initiation, others for burial purposes. There were crypts under every 
temple in antiquity. There was one on the Mount of Olives, lined with 
red stucco, and built before the advent of the Jews. 

Curetes. The Priest-Initiates of ancient Crete, in the service of 
Cybele. Initiation in their temples was very severe ; it lasted twenty- 
seven days, during which time the aspirant was left by himself in a 
crypt, undergoing terrible trials. Pythagoras was initiated into these 
rites and came out victorious. 

Cutha. An ancient city in Babylonia after which a tablet giving an 
account of "creation" is named. The "Cutha tablet" speaks of a "tem- 
ple of Sittam", in the sanctuary of Nergal, the "giant king of war, lord 
of the city of Cutha", and is purely esoteric. It has to be read symbol- 
ically, if at all. 

Cycle. From the Greek kuklos. The ancients divided time into end- 
less cycles, wheels within wheels, all such periods being of various dur- 
ations, and each marking the beginning or the end of some event either 



GLOSSARY • 85 

cosmic, mundane, physical or metaphysical. There were cycles of only 
a few years, and cycles of immense duration, the great Orphic cycle, 
referring to tlie ethnological change of races, lasting 120,000 years, and 
the cycle of Cassandrus of 136,000, which brought about a complete 
change in planetary influences and their correlations between men and 
gods — a fact entirely lost sight of by modern astrologers. 

Cynocephalus (Gr.). The Egyptian Hapi. There was a notable 
difference between the ape-headed gods and the "Cynocephalus" {Simia 
hamadryas), a dog-headed baboon from upper Egypt. The latter^ whose 
sacred city was Hermopolis, was sacred to the lunar deities and Thoth- 
Hermes, hence an emblem of secret wisdom — as was Hanuman, the 
monkey-god of India, and later, the elephant-headed Ganesha. The 
mission of the Cynocephalus was to show the way for the Dead to the 
Seat of Judgment and Osiris, whereas the ape-gods were all phallic. 
They are almost invariably fouhd in a crouching posture, holding on one 
hand the outa (the eye of Horus), and in the otl^er the sexual cross. Isis 
is seen sometimes riding on an ape, to designate the fall of divine nature 
into generation. 






36 THEOSOPHICAL 



D. 

Ly. — Both in the Eng^lish and Hebrew alphabets the fourth letter, 
whose numerical value is four. The symbolical signification in the Kah- 
hala of the Dalcth is "door". It is the Greek A, through which the 
world (whose symbol is the tetrad or number four,) issued, producing 
the divine seven. The name of the Tetrad was Harmony with the Pytha- 
goreans, "because it is a diatessaron in sesquitertia". With the Kab- 
balists, the divine name associated with Daleth was Daghoul. 

Daath (Hch.). Knowledge; "the conjunction of Chokmah and 
Binah, Wisdom and Understanding : sometimes, in error, called a Sephira. 
[w.w.w.] 

Dabar (Heb.). D (a) B (a) R (im), meaning the -"Word", and 
the "Words" in the Chaldean Kabbala, Dahar and Logoi. (See Sec. 
Doct., I. p. 350, and "Logos", or "Word"). 

Dabistan (Pers.). The land of Iran; ancient Persia. 

Dache-Dachus Chald.). The dual emanation of Moymis, the pro- 
geny of the dual or androgynous World-Principle, the male Apason 
and female Tauthe. Like all theocratic nations possessing Temple mys- 
teries, the Babylonians never mentioned the "One" Principle of the 
Universe, nor did they give it a name. This made Damascius {Theo- 
gonies) remark that like the rest of "barbarians" the Babylonians 
passed it over in silence. Tauthe was the mother of the gods, while 
Apason was her self -generating male power, Moymis, the ideal universe, 
being her only-begotten son, and emanating in his turn Dache-Dachus,, 
and at last Belus, the Demiurge of the objective Universe. 

Dactyli (Gr.). From daMulos, "a finger". The name given to the 
Phrygian Hierophants of Kybele, who were regarded as the greatest 
magicians and exorcists. They were five or ten in number because of 
the five fingers on one hand that blessed, and the ten on both hands 
which evoke the gods. They also healed by manipulation or mesmerism. 

Dadouchos (Gr.). The torch-bearer, one of the four celebrants 
in the Eleusinian mysteries. There were several attached to the temples 
but they appeared in public only at the Panathenaic Games at Athens, 
to preside over the so-called "torch-race". (See Mackenzie's B. M. 
Cyclopaedia. ) 

Daemon (Gr.). In the original Hermetic works and ancient classics 
it has a meaning identical with that of "god", "angel" or "genius". 
The Daemon of Socrates is the incorruptible part of the man, or rather 
the real iimer man which we call Nous or the rational divine Ego. At all 



GLOSSARY 87 

events the Da?mon (or Daimon) of the great Sage was surely noi the 
demon of the Christian Hell or of Christian orthodox theology. The 
name was given by ancient peoples, and especially the philosophers of 
the Alexandrian school, to all kinds of spirits, whether good or bad, 
human or otherwise. The appellation is often synonymous with that 
of gods or angels. But some philosophers tried, with good reason, to 
make a just distinction between the many classes. 

Daenam (Pahlavi). Lit., "Knowledge", the principle of under- 
standing in man, rational Soul, or Manas, according to the Avesta. 

Dag, Dagon (neh.). "Fish" and also "Messiah". Dagon was the 
Chaldean man-tlsh Oannes, the mysterious being who arose daily out of 
the depths of the sea to teach people every useful science. He was also 
called Annedotus. 

Dagoba (Sk.), or Stupa. Lit: a sacred mound or tower for Buddhist 
holy relics. These are pyramidal-looking mounds scattered all over 
India and Buddhist countries, such as Ceylon, Burmah, Central Asia, 
etc. They are of various sizes, and generally contain some small relics 
of Saints or those claimed to have belonged to Gautama, ilie Buddha. 
As the human body is supposed to consist of 84,000 dhdtus (organic cells 
with definite vital functions in them), Asoka is said for this reason to 
have built 84,000 dhdtu-gopas or Dagobas in honour of every cell of the 
Buddha's body, each of which has now become a dhdrmadhatu or holy 
relic. There is in Ceylon a Dhatu-gopa at Anuradhapura, said to date 
from 160 years b.c. They are now built pyramid-like, but the primitive 
Dagobas were all shaped like towers with a cupola and several tchhatra 
(umbrellas) over them. Eitel states that the Chinese Dagobas have all 
from 7 to 14 tchhatras over them, a number which is symbolical of the 
luiman body. 

Daitya Gura (Sk.). The instructor of the giants, called Daityas 
iq.v.) Allegorically, it is the title given to the planet Venus-Lucifer, or 
rather to its indwelling Ruler, Sukra, a male deitv (See Sec. Doct., ii. p. 
30). 

Daityas (Sk.). Giants, Titans, and exoterically demons, but in 
trutli identical with certain Asuras, the intellectual gods, the opponents 
of the useless gods of ritualism and the enemies of puja, sacrifices. 

Daivi-prakriti (Sk.). Primordial, homogeneous light, called by 
some Indian Occultists "the Light of the Logos" (see Notes on the 
Bkagavat Gita, by T. Subba Row, B.A., L.L.B.) ; when differentiated 
this light becomes Fohat. 

Dakini (Sk.). Female demons, vampires and blood-drinkers (asra- 
pas). In the Puranas they attend upon the goddess Kali and feed on 
human flesh. A species of evil "Elementals" {q.v.). 

Daksha (Sk.). A form of Brahma, and his son in the Puranas. 
But the Rig Veda states that "Daksha sprang from Aditi, and Aditi 
from Daksha", which proves him to be a personified correlating Creative 



gg THEOSOPHICAL 

Force acting on all the planes. The Orientalists seem very much per- 
plexed what to make of him ; but Roth is nearer the truth than any, 
when saying that Daksha is the spiritual power, and at the same time 
the male energy that generates the gods in eternity, which is represented 
by Aditi. Puranas, as a matter of course, anthropomorphize the idea, 
and show Daksha instituting "sexual intercourse on this earth", after 
trj'ing every means of procreation. The generative Force, spiritual at 
the commencement, becomes of course at the most material end of its 
evolution a procreative Force on the physical plane ; and so far the 
Puranic allegory is correct, as the Secret Science teaches that our present 
mode of procreation began towards the end of the third Root-Race. 

Dalada (Sk.). A very precious relic of Gautama the Buddha; viz., 
his supposed left canine tooth preserved at the great temple at Kandy, 
Ceylon. Unfortunately, the relic shown is not genuine. The latter has 
been securely secreted for several hundred years, ever since the shameful 
and bigoted attempt by the Portuguese (the then ruling power in Cey- 
lon) to steal and make away with the real relic. That which is shown 
in the place of the real thing is the monstrous tootli of some animal. 

Dama (Sk.). Restraint of the senses. 

Dambulla (Sk.). The name of a huge rock in Ceylon. It is about 
400 feet above the level of the sea. Its upper portion is excavated, and 
several large cave-temples, or Viharas, are cut out of the solid rock, all 
of these being of pre-Christian date. They are considered as the best- 
preserved antiquities in the island. The North side of the rock is vertical 
and quite inaccessible, but on the South side, about 150 feet from its 
summit, its huge overhanging granite mass has been fashioned into a 
platform with a row of large cave-temples excavated in the surrounding 
walls — evidently at an enormous sacrifice of labor and money. Two 
Viharas may be mentioned out of the many: the Maha Raja Vikara, 
172 ft. in length and 75 in breadth, in which there are upwards of fifty 
figures of Buddha, most of them larger than life and all formed from the 
solid rock. A well has been dug out at the foot of the central Dagoba, 
and from a fissure in the rock there constantly drips into it beautiful 
clear water which is kept for sacred purposes. In the other, the Maha 
Dewiyo Vihdra, there is to be seen a gigantic figure of the dead Gautama 
Buddha, 47 feet long, reclining on a couch and pillow cut out of solid 
rock like the rest. "This long, narrow and dark temple, the position 
and placid aspect of Buddha, together with the stillness of the place, 
tend to impress the beholder with the idea that he is in the chamber of 
death. The priest asserts . . . that such was Buddha, and such 
were those (at his feet stands an attendant) who witnessed the last 
moments of his mortality" (Hardy's East. Monachism). The view from 
Dambulla is magnificent. On the large rock platform which seems to 
be now more visited by very intelligent tame white monkeys than by 
monks, there stands a huge Bo-Tree, one. of the numerous scions from 
the original Bo-Tree under which the Lord Siddhartha reached Nirvana. 



GLOSS ART 39 

""About 50 ft. from the summit there is a pond which, as the priests 
assert, is never without water." (The Ceylon Almanac, 1^'i'^.) 

Dammapadan (Pali.). A Buddhist work containing moral precepts. 

Dana (SI:.). Alrasgivin<j: to mendicants, lit., "charity", the first 
of the six Paramitas in Buddhism. 

Danavas (SJc). Almost the same as Daityas; giants and demons, 
the opponents of the ritualistic gods. 

Dangma (SL\). In Esotericism a purified Soul. A Seer and an 
Initiate ; one who has attained full wisdom. 

Daos (Chald.). The seventh King (Shepherd) of the divine Dy- 
nasty, who reigned over the Babylonians for the space of ten sari, or 
36,000 years, a saros being of 3,600 years' duration. In his time four 
Annedoti, or Men-fishes (Dagons) made their appearance. 

Darasta (Sk.). Ceremonial magic practised by the central Indian 
tribes, especially among the Kolarians. 

Dardanus (Gr.). The Son of Jupiter and Electra, who received 
the Kabeiri gods as a dowry, and took them to Samothrace, where they 
were worshipped long before the hero laid the foundations of Troy, and 
))efore Tyre and Sidon were ever heard of, though Tyre was built 2,760 
years b.c. (See for fuller details "Kabiri".) 

Darha (8k.). The ancestral spirits of the Kolarians. 

Darsanas (Sk.). The Schools of Indian philosophy, of which there 
are six; Shad-darsanas or six demonstrations. 

Dasa-sil (Pali.). The ten obligations or commandments taken by 
and binding upon the priests of Buddha; the five obligations or Pansil 
are taken by laymen. 

Dava (Tih.). The moon, in Tibetan astrology. 

Davkina (Chald.). The wife of Hea, "the goddess of the lower 
regions, the consort of the Deep", the mother of Merodach, the Bel of 
later times, and mother to many river-gods, Hea being the god of the 
lower regions, the "lord of the Sea or abyss", and also the lord of 
Wisdom. 

Dayanisi (Aram.). The god worshipped by the Jews along with 
other Semites, as the "Ruler of men"; Dionysos — the Sun; whence 
Jehovah-Nissi, or Tao-Nisi, the same as Dio-nvsos or Jove of Nvssa. (See 
his Unveil. II. 526). 

Day of Brahma. See "Brahma's Day" etc. 

Dayus or Dyaiis (Sk.). A Vedic term. The unrevealed Deity, or 
that which reveals Itself only as light and the bright dav — metaphoric- 
ally. 

Death, Kiss of. According to the Kabbalah, the earnest follower 
does not die by the power of the Evil Spirit, Yetzer ha Rah, but by a kiss 
from the mouth of Jehovah Tetragrammaton, meeting him in the Haikal 
Ahabah or Palace of Love, [w.w.w.] 



90 THEOSOPHICAL 

Dei termini (Lat.). The name for pillars with human heads rep- 
resenting Hermes, placed at cross-roads by the ancient Greeks and 
Romans. Also the general name for deities presiding over boundaries 
and frontiers. 

Deist. One who admits the existence of a god or gods but claims 
to know nothing of either and denies revelation. A Freethinker of olden 
times. 

Demerit. In Occult and Buddhistic parlance, a constituent of 
Karma. It is through avidya or ignorance of vidya, divine illumination, 
that merit and demerit are produced. Once an Arhat obtains full il- 
lumination and perfect control over his personality and lower nature, 
he ceases to create "merit and demerit". 

Demeter. The Hellenic name for the Latin Ceres, the goddess of 
corn and tillage. The astronomical sign, Virgo. The Eleusinian Mys- 
teries were celebrated in her honour. 

Demiurgic Mind. The same as "Universal Mind". Mahat, the 
first "product" of Brahma, or himself. 

Demiurgos (Gr.). The Demiurge or Artificer; the Sepernal Power 
which built the universe. Freemasons derive from this word their 
phrase of "Supreme Architect". With the Occultists it is the third 
manifested Logos, or Plato's "second god", the second logos being repre- 
sented by him as the "Father", the only Deity that he dared mention 
as an Initiate into the Mysteries. 

Demon est Deus Inversus (Lat.). A Kabbalistic axiom; lit., 
"the devil is god reversed"; which means that there is neither evil nor 
good, but that the forces which create the one create the other, according 
to the nature of the materials they find to work upon. 

Demonologia (Gr.). Treatises or Discourses upon Demons, or 
Gods in their dark aspects. 

Demons. According to the Kabbalah, the demons dwell in the 
world of Assiah, the world of matter and of the "shells" of the dead. 
They are the Klippoth. There are Seven Hells, whose demon dwellers 
represent the vices personified. Their prince is Samael, his female com- 
panion is Isheth Zenunim — the woman of prostitution : united in aspect, 
they are named "The Beast", Chiva. [w.w.w.] 

Demrusch (Pcrs.). A Giant in the mytliology of ancient Iran. 

Denis, Angoras. "A phvsician of Paris, astrologer and alchemist in 
the XlVth century" (R.M.C.). 

Deona Mati. In the Kolarian dialect, one who exercises evil spirits. 

Dervish. A Mussulman — Turkish or Persian — ascetic. A nomadic 
and wandering monk. Dervishes, however, sometimes live in communi- 
ties. They are often called the "whirling charmers". Apart from his 
austerities of life, prayer and contemplation, the Turkish, Egyptian, or 
Arabic devotee presents but little similarity with the Hindu fakir, who is 



GLOSSARY 91 

also a Mussulman. The latter may become a saint and holy mendicant ; 
the former will never reach beyond his second class of occult manifesta- 
tions. The dervish may also be a strong mesmerizer, but he will never 
voluntarily submit to the abominable and almost incredible self-punish- 
ment which the fakir invents for himself with an ever-increasing avidity, 
until nature succumbs and he dies in slow and excruciating tortures. 
The most dreadful operations, such as flaying the limbs alive ; cutting 
off the toes, feet, and legs; tearing out the eyes; and causing one's self 
to be buried alive up to the chin in the earth, and passing whole months 
in this posture, seem child's play to them. The Dervish must not be 
confused with the Hindu sanydsi or yogi. (See "Fakir".) 

Desatir. A very ancient Persian work called the Book of Shet. It 
speaks of the thirteen Zoroasters, and is very mystical. 

Deva (Sk.). A god, a "resplendent" deity. Deva-Deus, from the 
root div "to shine". A Deva is a celestial being — whether good, bad, 
or indifferent. Devas inhabit "the three worlds", which are the three 
planes above us. There are 33 groups or 330 millions of them. 

Deva Sarga (Sk.). Creation: the origin of the principles, said 
to be Intelligence born of the qualities or the attributes of nature. 

Devachan (Sk.). The "dwelling of the gods". A state inter- 
mediate between two earth-lives, into which the Ego (Atma-Buddhi- 
Manas, or the Trinity made One) enters, after its separation from Kama 
Rupa, and the disintegration of the lower principles on earth. 

Devajnanas (Sk.). or Daivajna. The higher classes of celestial 
beings, those who possess divine knowledge. 

Devaki (Sk.). The mother of Krishna. She was shut up in a 
dungeon by her brother. King Kansa, for fear of the fulfilment of a 
prophecy which stated that a son of his sister should dethrone and kill 
him. Notwithstanding the strict watch kept, Devaki was overshadowed 
by Vishnu, the holy Spirit, and thus gave birth to that god's avatara, 
Krishna. (See "Kansa"). 

Deva-laya (Sk.). "The shrine of a Deva". The name given to 
all Brahamanical temples. 

Deva-lokas (Sk.). The abodes of the Gods or Devas in superior 
spheres. The seven celestial worlds above Meru. 

Devamatri (Sk.). Lit., "the mother of the gods". A title of 
Aditi, Mystic Space. 

Devanagari (Sk.). Lit., "the language or letters of the devas" or 
gods. The characters of the Sanskrit language. The alphabet .and 
the art of writing were kept secret for ages, as the Dwijas (Twice-born) 
and the Dikshitas (Initiates) alone were permitted to use this art. It was 
a crime for a Sudra to recite a verse of the Vedas, and for any of the 
two lower castes (Vaisya and Sudra) to know the letters was an offense 
punishable by death. Therefore is the word lipi, "writing", absent 
from the oldest MSS., a fact which gave the Orientalists the erro- 



92 



THEOSOPHICAL 



neous and rather incongruous idea that ivriting was not only unknown 
before the day of Panini, but even to that sage himself! That the 
greatest grammarian the world has ever produced should be ignorant of 
writing would indeed be the greatest and most incomprehensible phe- 
nomenon of all. 

Devapi (Sk.). A Sanskrit Sage of the race of Kuru, who, together 
with another Sage (Moru), is supposed to live throughout the four ages 
and until the coming of Maitrcya Buddha, or KalU (the last Avatar of 
Vishnu) ; who, like all the Saviours of the World in their last appearance, 
like Sosiosh of the Zoroastrians and the Bider of St. John's Revelation, 
will appear seated on a White Horse. The two, Devapi and :\Ioru, arr 
supposed to live in a Himalayan retreat called Kalapa or Katapa. -This 
is a Puranic allegory. 

Devarshis, or Deva-rishi (Sk.). Lit., "gods rishis"; the divine 
or god-like saints, those sages who attain a fully divine nature on eartli. 
Devasarman (Sk.). A very ancient author who died about a 
century after Gautama Buddha. He wrote two famous works, in which 
he denied the existence of both Ego and non-Ego, the one as successfully 
as the other. 

Dharana (Sk.). That state in Yoga practice when tlie mind has 
to be fixed unflinchingly on some object of meditation. 

Dharani (Sk.). In ^Buddhism— both Southern and Northern— and 
also in Hinduism, it means simply a mantra or mantras — sacred verses 
from the Rig Veda. In days of old these mantras or Dharani were 
all considered mystical and practically efficacious in their use. At pres- 
ent, however, it is the Yogacharya school alone which proves the claim in 
practice. When chanted according to given instructions a Dharani 
produces wonderful effects. Its occult power, however, does not reside 
in the words but in the inflexion or accent given and the resulting sound 
originated thereby. (See "Mantra" and "Akasa"). 
Dharma (Sk.). The sacred Law; the Buddhist Canon. 
Dharmachakra (Sk.). Lit., The turning of the "wheel of the Law". 
The emblem of Buddhism as a system of cycles and rebirths or reincar- 
nations. 

Dharmakaya (Sk.). Lit., "the glorified spiritual body" called 
the "Vesture of Bliss". The third, or higliest of the Trikaya (Three 
Bodies), the attribute developed by every "Buddha", i.e., every initiate 
who has crossed or reached the end of what is called the "fourth Path" 
(in esotericism the sixth "portal" prior to his entry on the seventh). 
The highest of the Trikaya, it is the fourth of the Biiddhakchetra, or 
Buddhic planes of consciousness, represented figuratively in Buddhist 
asceticism as a robe or vesture of luminous Spirituality. In popular 
Northern Buddhism these vestures or rohes are: (1) Nirmanakaya, (2) 
Sambhogakaya, (3) and Dharmakaya, the last being the highest and 
most sublimated of all, as it places the ascetic on the threshold of Nir- 



OLOSSAKY 93 

vana. (See, however, the Voice of the Silence, page 96, Glossary, for the 
true esoteric meaning. 

Dharmaprabhasa (8k.). The name of the Buddha who will appear 
(luring the seventh Root-race. (See " Ratnavabhasa Kalpa", when sexes 
will exist no longer V 

Dharmasmriti Upasthana (Sk.). A very long compound word con- 
taining a very mystical warning. "Remember, the constituents (of 
human nature) originate according to the Niddnas, and arc not 
originally the Self", which means — that, which the Esoteric Schools 
teach, and not the ecclesiastical interpretation. 

Dharmasoka (Sk.). The name given to the first Asoka after his 
conversion to Buddhism, — King Chandragupta, who served all his long 
life "Dharma", or the law of Buddha. King Asoka (the second) was 
not converted, but was born a Buddhist. 

Dhatu (Pali.). Relics of Buddha's body collected after his crema- 
tion. 

Dhruva (Sk.). An Aryan Sage, now the Pole Star. A Kshatriija 
(one of the warrior caste) who became through religious austerities a 
Rishi, and was, for this reason, raised by Vishnu to this eminence in the 
skies. Also called Grah-Adhdr or "the pivot of the planets". 

Dhyan Chohans (Sk.). Lit\., "The Lords of Light". The high- 
est gods, answering to the Roman Catholic Archangels. The divine 
Intelligences charged with the supervision of Kosmos. 

Dhyana (Sk.). In Buddhism one of the six Paramitas of per- 
fection, a state of abstraction which carries the ascetic practising it far 
above this plane of sensuous perception and out of the world of matter. 
Lit., "contemplation". The six stages of Dhyan differ only in the 
degrees of abstraction of the personal Ego from sensuous life. 

Dhyani Bodhisattvas (Sk.). In Buddhism, the five sons of the 
Dhyani-Buddlias. They have a mystic meaning in Esoteric Philosophy. 

Dhyani Buddhas (Sk.). They "of the Merciful Heart"; worshipped 
especifdly in Nepaul. These have again a secret meaning. 

Dhyani Pasa (Sk.). "The rope of the Dhvanis" or Spirits; the 
Ring "Pass not" (See Sec. Doct., Stanza V., Vol. I., p. 129). 

Diakka. Called by Occultists and Theosophists "spooks" and 
"shells", i.e., phantoms from Kama Loka. A M^ord invented by the 
great American Seer, Andrew Jackson Davis, to denote what he con- 
siders untrustworthy "Spirits". In his own words: "A Diakka (from 
the Summerland) is one who takes insane delight in playing parts, in 
juggling tricks, in personating opposite characters ; to whom prayer and 
l)rofane utterances are of equi-value ; surcharged with a passion for 
lyrical narrations ; . . . morally deficient, he is without the active 
feelings of justice, philanthropy, or tender affection. He knows nothing 
of what men call the sentiment of gratitude ; the ends of hate and love 



94 THEQSOPHICAL 

are the same to him; his motto is often fearful and terrible to others — 
SELF is the whole of private living, and exalted annihilation the end of 
nil private life. Only yesterday, one said to a lady medium, signing 
himself Swedenhorg, this: 'Whatsoever is, has been, will be, or may be, 
that I AM ; and private life is but the aggregative phantasms of thinking 
tliroblets, rushing in their rising onward to the central heart of eternal 
<leath'!" {The Diakla and their Victims; "an explanation of the False 
and Repulsive in Spiritualism.") These "Diakka" are then simply the 
communicating and materializing so-called "Spirits" of Mediums and 
Spiritualists. 

Dianoia (Gr.). The same as the Logos. The eternal source of 
thought, "divine ideation", which is the root of all thought. (See 
"Ennoia"). 

Dido, or Elissa. Astarte ; the Virgin of the Sea — who crushes the 
Dragon under her foot. The patroness of the Phoenician mariners. A 
Queen of Carthage who fell in love with ^neas according to Virgil. 

Digambara (8k.). A naked mendicant. Lit., "clothed with Space". 
A name given to Siva in his character of Rudra, the Yogi. 

Dii Minores (Lat.). The inferior or "reflected" group of the 
^'twelve gods" or Dii Majores, described by Cicero in his De Natura 
Deoruni, I. 13. 

Dik (Sk.). Space, Vacuity. 

Diktamnon (Gr.), or Dictamnus (Dittany). A curious plant pos- 
sessing very occult and mystical properties and well-known from 
ancient times. It was sacred to the Moon-Goddesses, Luna, Astarte, 
Diana. The Cretan name of Diana was Diktynna, and as such the god- 
dess wore a wreath made of this magic plant. The Diktamnon is an 
evergreen shrub whose contact, as claimed in Occultism, develops and 
at the same time cures somnambulism. Mixed with Verbena it will pro- 
duce clairvoyance and ecstasy. Pharmacj^ attributes to the Diktamnon 
strongly sedative and quieting properties. It grows in abundance on 
Mount Dicte, in Crete, and enters into many magical performances re- 
,sorted to by the Cretans even to this day. 

Diksha (Sk.). Initiation. Dikshiti, an Initiate. 

Dingir and 3Iul-lil (Akkad.). The Creative Gods. 

Dinur (Heh.). The River of Fire whose flame burns the Soul of 
the guilty in the Kabbalistic allegory. 

Dionysos (Sk.). The Demiurgos, who, like Osiris, was killed by 
the Titans and dismembered into fourteen parts. He was the personified 
Sun, or as the author of the Great Dionysiak Myth says ' ' He is Phanes, 
the spirit of material visibility, Kyklops giant of the IJniverse, with one 
bright solar eye, the growth-power of the world, the all-pervading anim- 
ism of things, son of Semele " Dionysos was born at Nysa or 

Nissi, the name given by the Hebrews to Mount Sinai (Exodus xvii. 15), 



GLOSSARY 95 

the birthplace of Osiris, which identifies both suspiciously with " Jehovali 
Nissi". (See Isis. Unv. II. 165, 526). 

Dioscuri (Or.). The name of Castor and Pollux, the sons of Jupi- 
ter and Leda. Their festival, the Dioscuria, was celebrated with much re- 
joicing by the Lacedaemonians. 

Dipamkara (Sk.). Lit., "the Buddha of fixed light"; a predeces- 
sor of Gautama, the Buddha. 

Diploteratology (Gr.). Production of mixed Monsters; in abbrevia- 
tion tcratolgjj. 

Dis (Gr.). In tlie Theogony of Damascius, the same as Protogonos, tlie 
"first born light", called bj' that author "the disposer of all things". 

Dises (Scand.). The later name for the divine women called Walky- 
ries, Norns, etc., in the Edda. 

Disk-worship. This was very common in Egypt but not till later 
times, as it began with Amenoph III., a Dravidian, who brought it from 
Southern India and Ceylon. It was Sun-ivorship under another form, 
the Aten-Nephru, Aten-Ra being identical with the Adonai of the Jews, 
the "Lord of Heaven" or the Sun. The winged disk was the emblem 
of the Soul. The Sun was at one time the symbol of Universal Deity 
shining on the whole world and all creatures; the Sabjeans regarded the 
Sun as the Demiurge and a Universal Deity, as did also the Hindus, and 
as do the Zoroastrians to this day. The Sun is undeniably the one 
creator of physical nature. Lenormant was obliged, notwithstanding 
his orthodox Christianity, to denounce the resemblance between disk and 
Jewish worship. "Aten represents the Adonai or Lord, the Assyrian 
Tammuz, and the Syrian Adonis. . . ." (The Gr. Dionys. Myth.) 

Divyachakchus (Sk.). Lit., "celestial Eye" or divme seeing, per- 
ception. It is the first of the six "Abhijnas" (q.v.); the faculty de- 
veloped by Yoga practice to perceive any object in the Universe, at 
whatever distance. 

Divyasrotra (Sk.). Lit., "celestial Ear" or divine hearing. The 
second "Abhijna", or the faculty of understanding the language or 
sound produced by any living being on Earth. 

Djati (Sk.). One of the twelve "Nidanas" (q.v.); the cause and 
the effect in the mode of birth taking place according to the "Chatur 
Yoni" (q.v.), when in each case a being, whether man or animal, is 
placed in one of the six (esoteric seven) Gdti or paths of sentient exist- 
ence, which esoterieally, counting downward, are : (1) the highest Dhyani 
(Anupadaka); (2) Devas; (3) Men; (4) Elementals or Nature Spirits; 
(5) Animals; (6) lower Elementals; (7) organic Germs. There are in the 
popular or exoteric nomenclature, Devas, Men, Asuras, Beings in Hells, 
Pretas (hungry demons), and Animals. 

Djin (Arab.). Elementals; Nature Spirits; Genii. The Djins or 
Jins are much dreaded in Egypt, Persia and elsewhere. 



96 THEOSOPHICAL 

Djnana (Sk.). or Jndna. Lit., Knowledge; esoterically, "super- 
nal or divine knowledge acquired by Yoga". Written also Guyana. 

Docetae (Gr.). Lit., "The Illusionists". The name given by orthodox 
Christians to those Gnostics who held that Christ did not, nor could he, 
suffer death actually, but that, if such a thing had happened, it was 
merely an illusion which they explained in various ways. 

Dodecahedron (Gr.). According to Plato, the Universe is built 
by "the first begotten" on the geometrical figure of the Dodecahedron. 
(See TimcBus). 

Dodona (Gr.). An ancient city in Thessaly, famous for its Tem- 
ple of Jupiter and its oracles. According to ancient legends, the town 
was founded by a dove. 

Donar (Scand.), or Thunar, TJior. In the North the God of Thun- 
der. He was the Jupiter Tonans of Scandinavia. Like as the oak was 
devoted to Jupiter so was it sacred to Thor, and his altars were over- 
shadowed with oak trees. Thor, or Donar, was the offspring of Odin, 
"the omnipotent God of Heaven", and of Mother Earth. 

Dondam-pai-den-pa (Tih.). The same as the Sanskrit term Para- 
niarthasatya or "absolute truth", the highest spiritual self-con- 
sciousness and perception, divine self-consciousness, a very mystical 
term. 

Doppelganger (Germ.). A synonym of the "Double'' and of the 
"Astral body" in occult parlance. 

Dorjesempa (Tih.). The "Diamond Soul", a name of the celestial 
Buddha. 

Dorjeshang- (Tih.). A title of Buddha in his highest aspect; a name 
of the supreme Buddha; also Dorje. 

Double. The same as the "Astral body" or "Doppel ganger". 

Double Image. The name among the Jewish Kabbalists for the 
Dued Ego, called respectively: the Higher, Metatron, and the Lower, 
Sartiael. They are figured allegorically as the two inseparable compan- 
ions of man through life, the one his Guardian Angel, the other his Evil 
Demon. 

Dracontia (Gr.). Temples dedicated to the Dragon, the emblem 
of the Sun, the symbol of Deity, of Life and Wisdom. The Egyptian 
Karnac, the Carnac in Britanny, and Stonehenge are Dracontia well 
knoAvn to all. 

Drakon (Gr.). or Dragon. Now considered a "mythical" monster, 
perpetuated in the West only on seals, etc., as a heraldic griffin, and the 
Devil slain by St. George, etc. In fact an extinct antediluvian monster. 
In Babylonian antiquities it is referred to as the "scaly one" and con- 
nected on many gems with Tiamat the sea. "The Dragon of the Sea" 
is repeatedly mentioned. In Egypt, it is the star of the Dragon (then 
the North Pole Star), the origin of the connection of almost all the gods 



GLOSSARY 97 

with the Dragon. Bel and the Dragon, Apollo and Python, Osiris and 
Typhon, Sigiir and Fafnir, and finally St. George and the Dragon, are 
the same. They were all solar gods, and wherever we find the Sun there 
also is the Dragon, the symbol of Wisdom — Thoth-Hermes. The Hiero- 
phants of Egypt and of Babylon styled themselves "Sons of the Serpent- 
God" and the "Sons of the Dragon". "I am the Serpent, I am a 
Druid", said the Druid of the Celto-Britannic regions, for the Serpent 
and the Dragon were both types of Wisdom, Immortality and Rebirtli. 
As the serpent casts its old skin only to reappear in a new one, so does 
the immortal Ego cast oflP one personality but to assume another. 

Draupnir (Scand.). The golden armlet of Wodan or Odiu, the 
<;omi)anion of the spear Gungnir which he holds in his right hand ; both 
are endowed with wonderful magic properties. 

Dravidians. A group of tribes inhabiting Southern India ; the 
aborigines. 

Dravya (Sk.). Substance (metaphysically). 

Drishti (Sk.). Scepticism; unbelief. 

Druids. A sacerdotal caste which flourished in Britain and Gaul. 
They were initiates who admitted females into their sacred order, and 
initiated them into the mysteries of their religion. They never entrusted 
their sacred verses and scriptures to writing, but, like the Brahmans of 
old, committed them to memory ; a feat which, according to the state- 
ment of Cssar, took twenty years to accomplish. Like the Parsis they 
liad no images or statues of their gods. The Celtic religion considered 
it blasphemy to represent any god, even of a minor character, under 
a human figure. It would have been well if the Greek and Roman 
Christians had learnt this lesson from the "pagan" Druids. The three 
<?hief commandments of their religion were : — ' ' Obedience to divine laws ; 
concern for the welfare of mankind ; suffering with fortitude all the 
evils of life ' '. 

Druzes. A large sect numbering about 100,000 adherents, living on 
Mount Lebanon in Syria. Their rites are very mysterious, and no 
traveller, wlio has written anything about them, knows for a certainty 
the whole truth. They are the Sufis of Syria. They resent being called 
Druzes as an insult, but call themselves the "disciples of Hamsa", their 
Messiah, who came to them in the ninth century from tlie "Land of 
the Word of God", which land and word they kept religiously secret. 
The Messiah to come will be the same Ilanisa, but called JIakem — the 
"All-Healer". (See Isis Unveiled, II., 308, et seq.) 

Dudaim (Ileh.). Mandrakes. The Atropa Mandragora plant is 
mentioned in Genesis, xxx., 14, and in Canticles: the name is related in 
Hebrew to words meaning "breasts" and "love", the plant was notorious 
as a love charm, and has been used in many forms of black magic, 
fw.w.w.] 

Dudaim in Kabl)alistic parlance is tlie Soul and Spirit ; any two things 



98 THEOSQPHICAL 

united iii love and friendship {do dim) . "Happy is he who preserves 
his dudaim (higher and lower Manas) inseparable". 

Dugpas (Tib.). Lit]., "Red Caps", a sect in Tibet. Before the 
advent of Tsong-ka-pa in the fourteenth century, the Tibetans, whose 
Buddhism had deteriorated and been dreadfully adulterated with the 
tenets of the old Bho)i religion, — were all Dugpas. From that century, 
however, and after the rigid laws imposed upon the Gelukpas (yellow 
caps) and the general reform and purification of Buddhism (or Lam- 
aism), the Dugpas have given themselves over more than ever to sorcery, 
immorality, and drunkenness. Since then the word Dugpa has become 
a synonym of "sorcerer", "adept of black magic" and everything vile. 
There are few, if any, Dugpas in Eastern Tibet, but they congregate in 
Bhutan, Sikkim, and the borderlands generally. Europeans not being 
permitted to penetrate further than those borders, the Orientalists never 
having studied Buddho-Lamaism in Tibet proper, but judging of it on 
hearsay and from what Cosmo di Koros, Schlagintweit, and a few others 
have learnt of it from Dugpas, confuse both religions and bring them 
under one head. They thus give out to the public pure Dugpaisni in- 
stead of Buddho-Lamaism. In short Northern Buddhism in its purified, 
metaphysical form is almost entirely unknown. 

Dukkha (8k.). Sorrow, pain. 

Dumah (Heh.). The Angel of Silence (Death) in the Kabbala. 

Durga (Sk.). Lit., "inaccessible". The female potency of a god; 
the name of Kali, the wife of Siva, the Mahesvara, or "the great god". 

Dustcharitra (8k.). The "ten evil acts"; namely, three acts of the 
t)odv viz., taking life, theft and adultry ; four evil acts_ of the 
mouih viz., lying, exaggeration in accusations, slander, and foolish talk ; 
and three evil acts of mind (Lower Manas), viz., envy, malice or re- 
venge, and unbelief. 

Dwapara Yuga (8k.). The third of the "Four Ages" in Hindu 
Philosophy; or the second age counted from below. 

Dwarf of Death. In the Edda of the Norsemen, Iwaldi, the 
Dwarf of Death, hides Life in the depths of the great ocean, and then 
sends her up into the world at the right time. This Ijife is Iduna, the 
beautiful maiden, the daughter of the "Dwarf". She is the Eve of the 
Scandinavian Lays, for she gives of the apples of ever-renewed youth 
to the gods of Asgard to eat ; but these, instead of being cursed for so 
doing and doomed to die, give thereby renewed youth yearly to the 
earth and to men, after every short and sweet sleep in the arms of the 
Dwarf. Iduna is raised from the Ocean when Bragi {q.v.), the Dreamer 
of Life, without spot or blemish, crosses asleep the silent waste of 
waters. Bragi is the divine ideation of Life, and Iduna living Nature — 
Prakriti, Eve. 

Dwellers (on the Threshold). A term invented by Bulwer Lytton 
in Zanoni; but in Occultism the word "Dweller" is an occult 



GLOSSARY 99 

term used by students for long ages past, and refers to certain mal- 
eficent astral Doubles of defunct persons. 

Dwesa (Sk.). Anger. One of the three principal states of mind 
(of which 63 are enumerated), which are Rdga — pride or evil desire, 
Dwesa — anger, of which hatred is a part, and Moha — the ignorance of 
trutli. These three are to be steadily avoided. 

Dwija (Sk.). "Twice-born". In days of old this term was used 
only of the Initiated Brahmans ; but now it is applied to every man be- 
longing to the first of the four castes, who has undergone a certain cere- 
mony. 

Dwija Brahman (Sk.). The investure with the sacred thread tliat 
now constitutes the "second birth". Even a Sudra who chooses to pay 
for the honour becomes, after the ceremony of passing through a silver 
or golden cow — a dwija. 

Dwipa (Sk.). An island or a continent. The Hindus luive seven 
(Sapta dwipa) ; the Buddhists only four. This is owing to a misun- 
derstood reference of the Lord Buddha who, using the term metaphor- 
ically, applied the word dwipa to the races of men. The four Root-races 
which preceded our fifth, were compared by Siddhartha to four con- 
tinents or isles which studded the ocean of birth and death — Samsara. 

Dynasties. In India there are two, the Lunar and the Solar, or 
the Somavansa and the Suryavansa. In Chaldea and Egypt there were 
also two distinct kinds of dynasties, the divine and the human. In both 
countries people were ruled in the beginning of time by Dynasties of 
Oods. In Chaldea they reigned one hundred and twenty Sari, or in all 
432,000 years ; which amounts to the same figures as a Hindu Maliayuga 
4,320,000 years. The chronology prefacing the Book of Genesis (English 
translation) is given "Before Christ, 4004". But the figures are a 
rendering by solar years. In the original Hebrew, wliich preserved a 
lunar calculation, the figures are 4,320 years. This "coincidence" is 
well explained in Occultism. 

Dyookna (Kah.). The shadow of eternal Light. The "Angels of 
the Presence" or archangels. The same as the Fcrouer in the Vendidad 
and Zoroastrian works. 

Dzyn or Dzijan (Tib.). Written also Dzen. A corruption of the 
Sanskrit Dhyan and J nana (or gnyana phoneticall}') — Wisdom, divine 
knowledge. In Tibetan, learning is called dzin. 



100 THEOSOPHICAL 



E. 



ll..— The fifth letter of the English alphabet. The he (soft) of the 
Hebrew alphabet becomes in the Ehevi system of reading that language 
an E. Its numerical value is five, and its symbolism is a window; the 
womb, in the Kabbala. In the order of the divine names it stands for 
the fifth, which is Hadoor or the "majestic" and the "splendid." 

Ea (Chald.). also Hca. The second god of the original Babylonian 
trinity composed of Auu, Hea and Bel. Hea was the "Maker of Pate", 
"Lord of the Deep", "God of Wisdom and Knowledge", and "Lord of 
theCity of Eridu". 

Eagle. This symbol is one of the most ancient. Witli the Greeks 
and Persians it was sacred to the Sun ; with the Egyptians, under the 
name of Ah, to Horus, and the Kopts worshipped the eagle under the 
name of Ahoni. It was regarded as the sacred emblem of Zeus by the 
Greeks, find as that of the highest god by the Druids. The symbol has 
passed down to our day, when following the example of the pagan Marius, 
who, in the second century B.C. used the double-headed eagle as the ensign 
of liome, the Christian crowned heads of Europe made ilie double- 
headed sovereign of the air sacred to themselves and their scions. Jupi- 
ter was satisfied with a one-headed eagle and so was the Sun. The 
imperial houses of Russia, Poland, Austria, Germany, and the late Em- 
pire of the Napoleons, have adopted a two-headed eagle as their device. 

Easter. The word evidently comes from Ostara, the Scandinavian 
goddess of spring. She was the symbol of the resurrection of all nature 
and was worshipped in early spring. It was a custom with the pagan 
Norsemen at that time to exchange colored eggs called the eggs of 
Ostara. These have now become Easter-Eggs. As expressed in Asgard 
and the Gods: "Christianity put another meaning on the old custom, by 
connecting it with the feast of the Resurrection of the Saviour, who, 
like the hidden life in the egg, slept in the grave for three days before he 
awakened to new life". This was the more natural since Christ was 
identified with that same Spring Sun wliich awakens in all his glory, 
after the dreary and long death of winter. (See "Eggs".) 

Ebionites (Hch.). Lit., "the poor"; the earliest sect of Jewish 
Christians, the other being Nazarenes. They existed when the term 
"Christian" was not yet heard of. Many of the relations of lasson 
(Jesus), the adept asetic around whom the legend of Christ was formed, 
were among the Ebionites. As the existence of these mendicant ascetics 
can be traced at least a century earlier than chronological Christianity, 



GLOSSARY 101 

it is an additional proof that lassou or Jesus lived during the reign of 
Alexander Jannaeus at Lyd (or Lud), where he was put to death as 
stated in the Sepher Toldos Jeshu. 

Ecbatana. A famous city in Media worthy of a place among the 
seven wonders of the world. It is thus described by Draper in his Con- 
flict hetwcen Religion and Science, q\\^\). I, . . . " The cool summer 
retreat of the Persian Kings was defended by seven encircling walls of 
hewn and polished blocks, the interior ones in succession of increasing 
height, and of different colors, in astrological accordance with the seven 
planets. The palace was roofed with silver tiles; its beams were plated 
with gold. At midnight in its halls, the sun was rivalled by many a row 
of naphtha cressets. A paradise, that luxury of the monarchs of the East, 
was planted in the midst of the city. The Persian Empire was truly 
the garden of the world." 

Echath Ilrb.). Tlie same as the following— the "One", but feminine. 

Echod (Hfh.). or Echad. "One", masculine applied to Jehovah. 

Eclectic Philosophy. One of the names given to the Neo-Platonic 
school of Alexandria. 

Ecstasis (Gr.). A psycho-spiritual state; a physical trance which 
induces clairvoyance and a beatific state bringing on visions. 

Edda (Iceland.). Lit., "great-grandmother" of the Scandinavian 
Lays. It was Bishop Brynjiild Sveinsson, who collected them and 
brought them to light in 1643. There are two collections of Sagas, 
translated by the Northern Skalds, and there are two Eddas. The ear- 
liest is of unknown authorship and date and its antiquity is very great. 
These Sagas were collected in the Xlth century by an Icelandic priest ; 
the second is a collection of the history (or myths) of the gods spoken 
of in the first, which became Germanic deities, giants, dwarfs and heroes. 

Eden (Heb.). "Delight", pleasure. In Genesis the "Garden of 
Delight" built by God ; in the Kabbala the "Garden of Delight", a place 
of Initiation into the mysteries. Orientalists identify it with a place 
which was situated in Babylonia in the district of Karduniyas, called also 
Gan-dunu, which is almost like the Gan-eden of the Jews. (See the 
works of Sir H. Rawlinson, and G. Smith.) That district has four rivers, 
Euphrates, Tigris, Surappi, IJkni. The two first have been adopted 
without any change by the Jews; the other two they have probably 
transformed into "Gihon and Pison", so as to have something original. 
The following are some of the reasons for the identification of Eden, 
given by Assyriologists. The cities of Babylon, Larancha and Sippara, 
were founded before the flood, according to the chronology of the Jews. 
"Surippak was the city of the ark, the mountain east of the Tigris was 
the resting place of the ark, Babylon was the site of the tower, and Ur 
of the Chaldees the birthplace of Abraham." And, as Abraham, "the 
first leader of the Hebrew race, migrated from Ur to Harran in Syria 
and from thence to Palestine", the best Assyriologists think that it is "so 



102 THEOSOPHICAL 

much evidence in favor of the hypothesis that Chaldea was the original 
home of these stories (in the Bible) and that the Jews received them 
originally from the Babylonians". 

Edom (Heh.). Edomite Kings. A deeply concealed mystery is to be 
found in the allegory of the seven Kings of Edom, who "reigned in the 
land of Edom before there reigned any King over the children of Israel". 
(Gen. xxxvi. 31.) The Kabbala teaches that this Kingdom was one of 
',' unbalanced forces" and necessarily of unstable character. The world 
of Israel is a type of the condition of the worlds which came into exist- 
ence subsequently to the later period when the equilibrium had become 
established, [w.w.w.] 

On the other hand the Eastern Esoteric philosophy teaches that the 
seven Kings of Edom are not the type of perished worlds or unbalanced 
forces, but the symbol of the seven human Root-races, four of which 
have passed away, the fifth is passing, and two are still to come. Though 
in the language of esoteric blinds, the hint in St. John's Revelation is 
clear enough when it states in chapter xvii, 10: "And there are seven 
Kings; five are fallen, and one (the fifth, still) is, and the other (the 
sixth Root-race) is not yet come. . . ." Had all the seven Kings of 
Edom perished as worlds of "unbalanced forces", how could the fifth 
still he, and the other or others "not yet come"? In The Kahhalah Un- 
veiled, we read on page 48, "The seven Kings had died and their pos- 
sessions had been broken up", and a footnote emphasizes the statement 
by saying, "these seven Kings are the Edomite Kings". 

Edris (Arab.), or Idris. Meaning "the learned One", an epithet 
applied by the Arabs to Enoch. 

Eggs (Easter). Eggs were symbolized from an earh' time. There 
was the "Mundane Egg", in which Brahma gestated, with the Hindus the 
Hiranya-Gharha, and the Mundane Egg of the Egyptians, which pro- 
ceeds from the mouth of the "unmade and eternal deity", Knepli, and 
which is the emblem of generative power. Then the Egg of Babylon, 
which hatched Ishtar, and was said to have fallen from heaven into the 
Euphrates. Therefore coloured eggs were used yearly during spring in 
almost every country, and in Egypt were exchanged as sacred symbols 
in the spring-time, which was, is, and ever will be, the emblem of birth 
or rebirth, cosmic and human, celestial and terrestrial. They were hung 
up in Egyptian temples and are so suspended to this day in Mahometan 
mosques. 

Egkosmioi (Gr.). "The intercosmic gods each of which presides 
over a great number of daemons, to whom they impart their power and 
change it from one to another at will", says Proclus, and he adds, that 
which is taught in the esoteric doctrine. In his system he shows the 
uppermost regions from the zenith of the Universe to the moon belong- 
ing to the gods, or planetary Spirits, according to their hierarchies and 
classes. The highest among them were the twelve Huper-ouranioi, the 



GLOSSARY 103 

super-celestial gods. Next to the latter, in rank and power, came the 
Egokosmioi. 

Ego (Lat.). "Self"; the consciousness in man "I am I"— or the 
feeling of "I-am-ship". Esoteric philosophy teaches the existence of 
two Egos in ftian, the mortal or personal, and the Higher, the Divine and 
the Impersonal, calling the former "personality" and the latter "In- 
dividuality". 

Egoity. From the word "Ego'\ Egoity means "individuality", 
never "personality", and is the opposite of egoism or "selfishness", the 
characteristic par excellence of the latter. 

Egregores. Eliphas Levi calls them the "chiefs of the souls who 
are the spirits of energy and action ; whatever that may or may not mean. 
The Oriental Occultists describe the Egregores as Beings whose bodies 
and essence is a tissue of the so-called astral light. They are the shadows 
of the higher Planetary Spirits whose bodies are of the essence of the 
higher divine light. 

Eheyeh (Hch.). "I am", according to Ibn Gebirol, but not in the 
sense of "I am that I am". 

Eidolon (Gr.). The same as that which we term the luiman plian- 
tom, the astral form. 

Eka (Sk.). "One"; also a synonym of Uahat, the Universal Mind, 
as the principle of Intelligence. 

Ekana-rupa (><k.}. The One (and tlie Many) bodies or forms; a 
term applied by the Pardnas to Deity. 

Ekasloka Shastra (Sk.). A work on the Shastras (Scriptures) by 
Nagarjuna ; a mystic work translated into Chinese. 

El-Elion (Ileh.). A name of the Deity borrowed by the Jews from 
the Phoenician Elon, a name of the Sun. 

Elementals. Spirits of the Elements. The creatures evolved in 
the four Kingdoms or Elements — earth, air, fire, and water. They are 
called by the Kabbalists, Gnomes (of the earth), Sylphs (of the air), 
Salamanders (of the fire), and Undines (of the water). Except a few 
of the higher kinds, and their rulers, they are rather forces of nature 
than ethereal men and women. These forces, as the servile agents of the 
Occultists, may produce various effects; but if employed by "Ele- 
mentaries" {q.v.) — in which case they enslave the mediums — they will 
deceive the credulous. All the lower invisible beings generated on the 
r)th, 6th, and 7th planes of our terrestrial atmosphere, are called Ele- 
mentals: Peris, Devs, Djins, Sylvans, Satyrs, Fauns, Elves, Dwarfs, 
Trolls, Kobolds, Brownies, Nixies, Goblins, Pinkies, Banshees, Moss 
People, White Ladies, Spooks, Fairies, etc., etc., etc. 

Elementaries. Properly, the disembodied souls of the depraved ; 
these souls having at some time prior to death separated from them- 
selves their divine spirits, and so lost their chance for immortality; but 



104 THEOSOPHICAL 

at the present stage of learning it has been thought best to apply the 
term to the spooks or phantoms of disembodied persons, in general, to 
those whose temporary habitation is the Kama Loka. Eliphas Levi and 
some other Kabbalists make little distinction between elementary spirits 
who have been men, and those beings which people the elements, and are 
the blind forces of nature. Once divorced from their higher triads and 
their bodies, these souls remain in their Kdma-rupic envelopes, and are 
irresistibly drawn to the earth amid elements congenial to their gross 
natures. Their stay in the Kama Loka varies as to its duration ; but 
ends invariably in disintegration, dissolving like a column of mist, atom 
by atom, in the surrounding elements. 

Elephanta. An island near Bombay, India, on which are the well- 
preserved ruins of the cave-temple of that name. It is one of the 
most ancient in the country and is certainly a Cyclopeian work, though 
the late J. Fergusson has refused it a great antiquity. 

Eleusinia (Gr.). The Eleusinian Mysteries were the most famous 
and the most ancient of all the Greek Mysteries (save the Samothracian), 
and were celebrated near the hamlet of Eleusis, not far from Athens. 
Epiphanius traces them to the days of Inachos (1800 B.C.), founded, as 
another version has it, by Eumolpus, a King of Thrace and a Hierophant. 
They were celebrated in honour of Demeter, the Greek Ceres and the 
Egyptian Isis ; and the last act of the performance referred to a sacri- 
ficial victim of atonement and a resurrection, when the Initiate was ad- 
mitted to the highest degree of *'Epopt" (q.v.). The festival of the 
Mysteries began in the month of Boedromion (September), the time of 
grape-gathering, and lasted from the 15th to the 22nd, seven days. The 
Hebrew feast of Tabernacles, the feast of Ingatherings, in the month of 
Ethanim (the seventh), also began on the 15th and ended on the 22nd 
of that month. The name of the month (Ethanim) is derived, according 
to some, from Adonim, Adonia, Attenim, Ethanim, and was in honour of 
Adonai' or Adonis (Thammuz), whose death was lamented by the He- 
brews in the groves of Bethlehem. The sacrifice of both "Bread and 
Wine" was performed before the Mysteries of initiation, and during 
the ceremony the mysteries were divulged to the candidates from the 
petroma, a kind of book made of two stone tablets (petrai) , joined at one 
side and made to open like a volume. (See Isis Unveiled II., pp. 44 and 
91, et seq., for further explanations.) 

Elivagar (Scand.). The waters of Chaos, called in the cosmogony 
of the Norsemen "the stream of Elivagar". 

Elohim (Heh.). Also Alhim, the word being variously- spelled. 
Godfrey Higgins, who has written much upon its meaning, always 
spells it Aleim. The Hebrew letters are aleph, lamed, he, yod, mem, and 
are numerically 1, 30, 5, 10, 40=86. It seems to be plural of the feminine 
noun Eloah, ALH, formed by adding the common plural form IM, a 
masculine ending ; and hence the whole seems to imply the emitted active 



GLOSSARY 105 

and passive essences. As a title it is referred to "Binah" the Supernal 
Motlier, as is also the fuller title IHVII ALHIM, Jehovali Elohim. As 
Binah leads on to seven sueceedent Emanations, so "Elohim" has been 
said to represent a sevenfold power of godhead, [w.w.w.] 

Eloi (Gn.). The Genius or ruler of Jupiter; its Planetary Spirit. 
(See Origen, Contra Celsum). 

Elu (Sing.). An ancient dialect used in Ceylon. 

Emanation the Doctrine of. In its metaphysical meaning, it is opposed 
to Evolution, yet one with it. Science teaches that evolution is physiolog- 
ically a mode of generation in which tlie germ that develops the fcetus 
pre-exists already in the parent, the development and final form 
and characteristics of that germ being accomplished in nature ; and that 
in cosmology the process takes place hlindly through the correlation 
of the elements, and their various compounds. Occultism answers that 
this is only the apparent mode, the real process being Emanation, guided 
by intelligent Forces under an immutable Law. Therefore, while the 
Occultists and Theosophists believe thoroughly in the doctrine of Evolu- 
tion as given out by Kapila and Manu, they are Emanationists rather 
than Evolutionists. The doctrine of Emanation was at one time uni- 
versal. It was taught by the Alexandrian as well as by the Indian phil- 
osophers, by the Egyptian, the Chaldean and Hellenic Hierophants, and 
also by the Hebrews (in their Kabbala, and even in Genesis). For it is. 
only owing to deliberate mistranslation that the Hebrew word asdt has 
been translated "angels" from the Septuagint, when it means Emana- 
tions, Mons, precisely as with the Gnostics. Indeed, in Deuteronomy 
(xxxiii., 2) the word asdt or ashdt is translated as "fiery law", whilst 
the correct rendering of the passage should be ' ' from his right hand went 
[not a fiery law, but] a fire according to law"; viz., that the fire of one 
flame is imparted to, and caught up by another like as in a trail of in- 
flammable substance. This is precisely emanation. As shown in Isis 
Unveiled: "In Evolution, as it is now beginning to be understood, there 
is supposed to be in all matter an impulse to take on a higher form — 
a supposition clearly expressed by Manu and other Hindu philosophers 
of the highest antiquity. The philosopher's tree illustrates it in the case 
of the zinc solution. The controversy between the followers of this 
.school and the Emanationists may be briefly stated thus: The Evolu- 
tionist stops all inquiry at the borders of "the Unknowable" ; the Emana- 
tionist believes that nothing can be evolved — or, as the word means, un- 
wombed or born — except it has first been involved, thus indicating that 
life is from a spiritual potency above the whole. 

Empusa (Gr.). A ghoul, a vampire, an evil demon taking various 
forms. 

En (or Ain) Soph (Ileh.). The endless, limitless and boundless. 
The absolute deific Principle, impersonal and unknowable. It means 
literally "no-thing" i.e., nothing that could be classed with anything 



106 THEOSOPHICAL 

else. The word and ideas are equivalent to the Vedantic conceptions of 
Parabrahm. [w.w.w.] 

Some Western Kabbalists, however, contrive to make of It, a personal 
''He", a male deity instead of an impersonal deity. 

En (Chald.). A negative particle, like a in Greek and Sanskrit. Tlie 
first syllable of "En-Soph" (q.v.), or tiothing that begins or ends, the 
"Endless". 

Enoichion (Gr.). Lit., the inner Eye"; the "Seer" a reference 
to the third inner, or Spiritual Eye, the true name for Enoch disfigured 
from Chanoch. 

Ens (Gr.). The same as the Greek To On "Being", or the real 
Presence in Nature. 

Ephesus (Gr.). Famous for its great metaphysical College where 
Occultism (Gnosis) and Platonic philosophy were taught in the days of 
the Apostle Paul. A city regarded as the focus of secret sciences," and 
that Gnosis, or Wisdom, which is the antagonist of the perversion of 
Christo-Esotericism to this day. It was at Ephesus where was the great 
College of the Essenes and all the lore the Tanaim had brought from 
the Chaldees. 

Epimetheus (Gr.). Lit., "He who takes counsel afcer" the event. 
A brother of Prometheus in Greek Mythology. 

Epinoia (Gr.). Thought, invention, design. A name adopted by 
the Gnostics for the first passive .i^on. 

Episcopal Crook. One of the insignia of Bishops, derived from 
the sacerdotal sceptre of the Etruscan Augurs. It is also found in the 
hand of several gods. 

Epoptes (Gr.). An Initiate. One who lias passed his last degree 
of initiation. 

Eridanus (Lat.). Ardan, the Greek name for the river Jordan. 

Eros (Gr.). Hesiod makes of the god Eros the third personage of 
the Hellenic primordial Trinity composed of Ouranos, Gsea and Eros. 
It is the personified procreative Force in nature in its abstract sense, the 
propeller to "creation" and procreation. Exoterically, mythology 
makes Eros the god of lustful, animal desire, whence the term erotic; 
esoterically, it is different. (See "Kama"). 

Eshmim (Hch.). The Heavens, the Firmament in which are the 
Sun, Planets and Stars; from the root Sm, meaning to place, dispose; 
hence, the planets, as disposers, [w.w.w.] 

Esoteric (Gr.). Hidden, secret. Frof the Greek csotericos, "inner", 
concealed. 

Esoteric Bodhism. Secret wisdom or intelligence from the Greek 
esotericos "inner", and the Sanskrit Bodhi, "knowledge", intelli- 
gence—in contradistinction to Buddhi, "the faculty of knowledge 
or intelligence", and Buddhism, the philosophy or Law of Buddha (the 



GLOSSARY 107 

Enlightened). Also written "Budhism", from Budha (Intelligence 
and Wisdom) the Son of Soma. 

Essasua. Tlie African and Asiatic sorcerers and serpent charmers. 

Essenes. A hellenized word, from the Hebrew Asa, a "healer". A 
mysterious sect of Jews said by Pliny to have lived near the Dead Sea 
prr milUa scfculorum — for thousands of ages. "Some have supposed 
them to be extreme Pharisees, and others — which may be tlie true theory 
— the descendants of the Bcnim-ncibim of the Bible, and think that they 
were 'Kenites' and Nazarites. They had many Buddhistic ideas and 
practices; and it is noteworthy that the priests of the Great Mother at 
Ephesus, Diana-Bhavani with many breasts, were also so denominated. 
Eusebius, and after him De Quincey, declared them to be the same as 
the early Christians, which is more than probable. The title 'brother', 
used in the early Church, was Essenean ; they were a fraternity, or a 
koinohion or community like the early converts." {Isis Unveiled). 

Ether. Students are but too apt to confuse this with Akdsa and 
with Astral Liglit. It is neither, in the sense in M'hich ether is described 
by physical Science. Ether is a material agent, though hitherto unde- 
tected by any physical apparatus ; whereas Akasa is a distinctly spiritual 
agent, identical, in one sense, with the Anima Mundi, while the Astral 
Light is only the seventh and highest principle of the terrestrial atmos- 
phere, as undetectable as Akasa and real Ether, because it is something^ 
quite on anotlier plane. The seventh principle of the earth's atmosphere, 
as said, the Astral Light, is only the second on the Cosmic scale. The 
scale of Cosmic Forces, Principles and Planes, of Emanations — on the 
metaphysical — and Evolutions — on the physical plane — is the Cosmic 
Serpent biting its own tail, the Serpent reflecting the Higher, and re- 
flected in its turn by the lower Serpent. The Caduceus explains the 
mystery, and the four-fold Dodecahedron on the model of which the 
universe is said by Plato to have been built by the manifested Logos — 
synthesized by the unmanifested First-Born — yields geometrically the 
key to Cosmogony and its microcosmic reflection — our Earth. 

Eurasians. An abbreviation of "European-Asians". The mixed 
coloured races : the children of the white fathers and the dark mothers of 
India, or vice versa. 

Evapto. Initiation ; tlie same as Epoptiia. 

Evolution. The development of higher orders of animals from 
lower. As said in Isis Unveiled: "Modern Science holds but to a one- 
sided physical evolution, prudently avoiding and ignoring the higher or 
spiritual evolution, Avhich would force our contemporaries to confess the 
superiority of the ancient philosophers and psychologists over themselves. 
The ancient sages, ascending to the unknowable, made their starting- 
point from the first manifestation of the unseen, the unavoidable, and, 
from a strictly logical reasoning, the absolutely necessary creative Being, 
the Demiurgos of the universe. Evolution began with them from pure 



log THEOSOPHiCAL 

spirit, which descending lower and lower down, assumed at last a visible 
and comprehensible form, and became matter. Arrived at this point, 
they speculated in the Darwinian method, but on a far more large and 
comprehensive basis." (See "Emanation".) 

Exoteric. Outward, public ; the opposite of esoteric or hidden. 

Extra-Cosmic. Outside of Kosmos or Nature ; a nonsensical word 
invented to assert the existence of a personal god, independent of, or out- 
side, Nature per se, in opposition to the Pantheistic idea that the whole 
Kosmos is animated or informed with the Spirit of Deity, Nature being 
but the garment, and matter the illusive shadow, of the real unseen 
Presence. 

Eye of Horus. A very sacred symbol in ancient Egypt. It was 
called the auta: the right eye represented the sun, the left, the moon. 
Says Macrobius: "The outa (or uta) is it not the emblem of the sun, 
king of the world, who from his elevated throne sees all the Universe 
below him ? " 

Eyes (divine). The "eyes" the Lord Buddha developed in him 
at the twentieth hour of his vigil when sitting under the Bo-tree, when 
he was attaining Buddhaship. They are the eyes of the glorified Spirit, 
to which matter is no longer a physical impediment, and which have the 
power of seeing all things within the space of the limitless Universe. On 
the following morning of that night, at the close of the third watch, the 
"Merciful One" attained the Supreme Knowledge. 

Ezra (Heb.). The Jewish priest and scribe, who, circa 450 B.C., 
compiled the Pentateuch (if indeed he was not author of it) and the 
rest of the Old Testament, except Nehemiah and Malachi. [w.w.w.] 

Ezra (Heh.). The same as Azareel and Azriel, a great Hebrew 
Kabbalist. His full name is Rabbi Azariel ben Manahem. He flourished 
at Valladolid, Spain, in the twelfth century, and was famous as a phil- 
osopher and Kabbalist. He is the author of a work on the Ten Sephiroth. 



(ILOSSARY 109 



F. 

•T • — The sixth letter of the English alphabet, for which there is no 
equivalent in Hebrew. It is the double Fj of the ^olians which became 
the Digamma for some mysterious reasons. It corresponds to the Greek 
phi. As a Latin numeral it denotes 40, with a dash over the letter (F) 
400,000. 

Faces (Kahbalistic), or, as in Hebrew, Partzupheem. The word us- 
ually refers to Areekh Anpeen or Long Face, and Zeir-Anpen, or Short 
Face, and Bcsha Hivrah tlie "White Head" or Face. The Kabbala 
states that from the moment of their appearance (the hour of differ- 
entiation of matter) all the material for future forms was contained in 
the three Heads which are one, and called Atteckah Kadosha, (Holy 
Ancients and the Faces). It is when the Faces look toward each other, 
that the "Holy Ancients" in three Heads, or Atteekah Kadosha, are 
called Areek Appayem, i.e., "Long Faces". (See Zohar iii., 292a.) 
This refers to the three Higher Principles, cosmic and human. 

Fafnir (Scand.). The Dragon of Wisdom. 

Fahian (Chin.). A Chinese traveller and writer in the early cen- 
turies of Christianity, who wrote on Buddhism. 

Fa-Hwa-King- (Chin.). A Chinese work on Cosmogony. 

Faizi (Arab.). Literally tlie "heart". A writer on occult and 
mystic subjects. 

Fakir (Ai'ah.). A Mussulman ascetic in India, a Mahometan 
"Yogi". The name is often applied, though erroneously, to Hindu as- 
cetics; for strictly speaking only Mussidman ascetics are entitled to it. 
This loose way of calling things by general names was adopted in Isis 
Unveiled but is now altered. 

Falk, Cain Chenul. A Kahbalistic Jew, reputed to have worked 
"miracles". Kenneth Mackenzie quotes in regard to him from the 
German annalist Archenoilz' work on England (1788) : — "There exists 
in London an extraordinary man who for thirty years has been cele- 
brated in Kahbalistic records. He is named Cain Chenul Falk. A 
certain Count de Rautzow, lately dead in the service of France, with the 
rank of Field-Marslial, certifies that he has seen this Falk in Brunswick, 
and that evocations of spirits took place in the presence of credible wit- 
nessess." These "spirits" were Elementals, whom Falk brought into 
view by the conjurations used by every Kabbalist. His son, Johann 
Frederieh Falk, likewise a Jew, was also a Kabbalist of repute, and was 
once the head of a Kabbalist college in London. His occupation was 
that of a jeweler and appraiser of diamonds, and he was a wealthy man. 



110 THEO'SOPHICAL 

To this day the mystic writings and rare Kabbalistic works bequeathed 
by him to a trustee may be perused in a certain half-public library in 
London, by every genuine student of Occultism. Falk's own writings- 
are still in MS., and some in cypher. 

Farbauti (Scand.). A giant in the Edda; Jit., "the oarsman"; 
the father of Loki, whose mother was the giantess Laufey (leafy isle) ; a 
genealogy which makes W. S. W. Anson remark in Asgard and the Gods- 
that probably the oarsman or Farbauti "was . . . the giant who 
saved himself from the flood in a boat, and the latter (Laufey) the 
island to which he rowed" — which is an additional variation of the 
Deluge. 

Fargard (Zend.). A section or chapter of verses in the Vendidad 
of the Parsis. 

Farvarshi (Mazd.). The same as Fcrouer, or the opposite (as 
contrasted) double. The spiritual counterpart of the still more spiritual 
original. Thus, Ahriman is the Ferouer or the Farvarshi of Ormuzd — 
''demon est dens inversus"— ^atan of God. Michael the Archangel, "he 
like god", is a Fcrouer of that god. A Farvarshi is the shadowy or dark 
side of a Deity — or its darker lining. 

Ferho (Gnost.). The highest and greatest creative power witli 
the Nazarene Gnostics. {Codex Nazarceus). 

Fetahil (Gr.). The lower creator, in the same Codex. 

First Point. Metaphysically the first point of manifestation, the 
germ of primeval differentiation, or the point in the infinite Circle- 
"whose centre is everywhere, and circumference nowhere". The Point 
is the Logos. 

Fire (Living). A figure of speech to denote deity, the "One" life. 
A theurgic term, used later by the Rosicrucians. The symbol of the 
living fire is the sun, certain of whose rays develop the fire of life in a 
diseased body, impart the knowledge of the future to the sluggish mind, 
and stimulate to active function a certain psychic and generally dor- 
mant faculty in man. The meaning is very occult. 

Fire-Philosophers. The name given to the Hermetists and 
Alchemists of the Middle Ages, and also to the Rosicrucians. The latter,, 
the successors of the Theurgists, regarded fire as the symbol of Deity. It 
was the source, not only of material atoms, but the container of the 
spiritual and psychic Forces energizing them. Broadly analyzed, fire is 
a triple principle ; esoterically, a septenary, as are all the rest of the 
Elements. As man is composed of Spirit, Soul and Body, plus a four- 
fold aspect: so is Fire. As in the works of Robert Fludd (de Fluctibus) 
one of the famous Rosicrucians, Fire contains (1) a visible flame (Body) ; 
(2) an invisible, astral fire (Soul) ; and (3) Spirit. The four aspects are 
heat (life), light (mind), electricity (Kamic, or molecular powers) and 
the Synthetic Essence, beyond Spirit, or the radical cause of its exist- 
ence and manifestation. For the Hermetist or Rosicrucian, when a flame- 



GLOSSARY 111 

is extinct ou the objective plane it has only passed from the seen world 
unto the unseen, from the knowable into the unknowable. 

Fifty Gates of Wisdom (Kah.). The number is a blind, and 
there are really 49 gates, for Moses, than whom the Jewish world has no 
higher adept, reached, according to the Kabbalas, and passed only the 
49th. These "gates" typify the different planes of Being or Ens. They 
are thus the "gates" of Life and the "gates" of understanding or de- 
grees of occult knowledge. These 49 (or 50) gates correspond to the 
seven gates in the seven caves of Initiation into the Mysteries of Mithra 
(see Celsus and Kircher). The division of the 50 gates into five chief 
gates, each including ten — is again a blind. It is the fourth gate of 
these five, from which begins, ending at the tenth, the world of Planets, 
thus making seven, corresponding to the seven lower Sephiroth — that 
the key to their meaning lies hidden. They are also called the "gates of 
Binah" or understanding. 

Flagae (Herm.). A name given by Paracelsus to a particular kind 
of guardian angels or genii. 

Flame (Hohj). The "Holy P'lame" is the name given by the 
Eastern Asiatic Kabbalists (Semites) to the Anima Mundi, the "world- 
soul". The Initiates were called the "Sons of the Holy Flame". 

Fludd (Robert), generally known as Rohertus de Fluctihus the 
chief of the "Philosophers by Fire". A celebrated English Hermetist of 
the sixteenth century, and a voluminous writer. He wrote on the essence 
of gold and other mystic and occult subjects. 

Fluvii Transitus (Lat.). Or crossing of the River (Chebar). 
Cornelius Aggrippa gives this alphabet. In the Ars Quatuor Corona- 
torum, Vol. III., part 2, 1890, which work is the Report of the proceed- 
ings of the Quartuor Coronati Lodge of Freemasons, No. 2076, will be 
found copies of this alphabet, and also the curious old letters called 
Melachim, and the Celestial alphabet, supplied by W. Wynn Westcott, 
P.M. This lodge seems to be the only one in England which really does 
study "the hidden mysteries of Nature and Science" in earnest. 

Fohat (Tib.). A term used to represent the active (male) potency 
of the Sakti (female reproductive power) in nature. The essence of 
cosmic electricity. An occult Tibetan term for Daiviprakriti, primordial 
light : and in the universe of manifestation the ever-present electrical 
energy and ceaseless destructive and formative power. Esoterically, 
it is the same, Fohat being the universal propelling Vital Force, at 
once the propeller and the resultant. 

Foh-tchou (Chin.). Lit., "Buddha's Lord", meaning, however, 
simply the teacher of the doctrines of Buddha. Fob means a Guru who 
lives generally in a temple of a Sakyamuni Buddha — the Foh-Maeyu. 

Fons Vitae (Lat.). A word of Ibn Gebirol, the Arabian Jewisli 
philosopher of the Xlth century, who called it Me-gor Hayyun or the 



112 THEOSOPHICAL 

"Fountain of Life" (De Materia Universali and Fans Vitce). The 
Western Kabbalists have proclaimed it a really Kabbalistic work. 
Several MSS., Latin and Hebrew, of this wonderful production have 
been discovered by scholars in public libraries; among others one hy 
Munk, in 1802. The Latin name of Ibn Gebirol was Avicebron, a name 
well-known to all Oriental scholars. 

Four Animals. The symbolic animals of the vision of Ezekiel (the 
Mercahah). "With the first Christians the celebration of the Mys- 
teries of the Faith was accompanied by the burning of seven lights, 
with incense, the Trishagion, and the reading of the book of the gos- 
pels, upon which was wrought, both on covers and pages, the winged 
man, lion, bull, and eagle" {Qahtalah, by Isaac Myer, LL.B.). To this 
day these animals are represented along with the four Evangelists and 
prefixing their respective gospels in the editions of the Greek Church. 
Each represents one of the four lower classes of worlds or planes, into 
the similitude of which each personality is cast. Thus the Eagle (as- 
sociated with St. John) represents cosmic Spirit or Ether, the 
all-piercing Eye of the Seer ; the Bull of St. Luke, the waters of Life, 
the all-generating element and cosmic strength ; the Lion of St. Mark, 
fierce energy, undaunted courage and cosmic fire ; while the human 
Head or the Angel, which stands near St. Matthew is the synthesis of 
all three combined in the higher Intellect of man, and in cosmic Spirit- 
uality. All these symbols are Egyptian, Chaldean, and Indian. The 
Eagle, Bull and Lion-headed gods are plentiful, and all represented 
the same idea, whether in the Egyptian, Chaldean, Indian or Jewish 
religions, but beginning with the Astral body they went no higher than 
the cosmic Spirit or the Higher Manas — Atma-Buddhi, or Absolute 
Spirit and Spiritual Soul its vehicle, being incapable of being sym- 
bolised by concrete images. 

Fravasham (Zend). Absolute spirit. 

Freya or Frigga (Scand.). In the Edda, Frigga is the mother of 
the gods like Aditi in the Vedas. She is identical with the Northern 
Frea of the Germans, and in her lowest aspect was worshipped as the 
all-nourishing Mother Earth. She was seated on her golden throne, 
formed of webs of golden light, with three divine virgins as her hand- 
maidens and messengers, and was occupied with spinning golden threads 
with which to reward good men. She is Isis and Diana at the same time, 
for she is also Holda, the mighty huntress, and she is Ceres-Demeter, 
who protects agriculture — the moon and nature. 

Frost Giants or Hrimthurses (Scand.). They are the great build- 
ers, the Cyclopes and Titans of the Norsemen, and play a promin- 
ent part in the Edda. It is they who build the strong wall round Asgard 
(the Scandinavian Olympus) to protect it from the Jotuns, the wicked 
giants. 

Flyfot (Scand.). A weapon of Thor, like the Swastika, or the Jaina,. 
the four-footed cross; generally called "Thor's Hammer' 



.' ' 



GLOSSARY 113 



G. 



• — The seventh letter in the English alphabet. "In Greek, Chal- 
dean, Syriac, Hebrew, Assyrian, Samaritan, Etrurian, Coptic, in the 
modern Romaic and Gothic, it occupies the third place in the alphabet, 
while in Cyrillic, Glagolitic, Croat, Russian, Servian and Wallachian, 
it stands fourth." As the name of "god" begins with this letter (in 
Syriac, gad; Swedish, gud; German, gott; English, god; Persian, gada, 
etc., etc.), there is an occult reason for this which only the students 
of esoteric philosophy and of the Secret Doctrine, explained esoterically, 
will understand thoroughly ; it refers to the three logoi — the last, the 
Elohim, and the emanation of the latter, the androgynous Adam Kad- 
mon. All these peoples have derived the name of "god" from their 
respective traditions, the more or less clear echoes of the esoteric tra- 
dition. Spoken and "Silent Speech" (writing) are a "gift of the 
gods", say all the national traditions, from the old Aryan Sanskrit- 
speaking people who claim that their alphabet, the Devanagari {lit., 
the language of the devas or gods) was given to them from heaven, 
down to the Jews, who speak of an alphabet, the parent of the one 
which has survived, as having been a celestial and mystical symbolism 
given by the angels to the patriarchs. Hence, every letter had its 
manifold meaning. A symbol itself of a celestial being and objects, it 
was in its turn represented on earth by like corresponding objects 
whose form symbolised the shape of the letter. The present letter 
called in Hebrew gimel and symbolised by a long camel's neck, or 
rather a serpent erect, is associated with the third sacred divine name, 
Gkadol or Magnus (great). Its numeral is four, the Tetragrammaton 
and the sacred Tetraktys; hence its sacredness. With other people it 
stood for 400 and with a dash over it, for 400,000. 

Gabriel. According to the Gnostics, the "Spirit" or Christos, the 
"messenger of life", and Gabriel are one. The former "is called some- 
times the Angel Gabriel — in Hebrew 'the mighty one of God'," and 
took with the Gnostics the place of the Xiogos, while the Holy 
Spirit was considered one with tlie ^on Life (see Irencetis I., xii.). 
Therefore we find Theodoret saying (in Hceret. Fah., II., vii.) : "The 
heretics agree with us (Christians) respecting the beginning of all 
things. . . . but they say there is not one Christ (God), hut one 
ahove and the other below. And this last formerly dwelt in many; but 
the Jesus, they at one time say is from God, at another they call him 
a Spirit." The key to this is given in the esoteric philosophy. The 
"spirit" with the Gnostics was a female potency exoterically, it was 



114 



THEOSOPHIOAL 



the ray proceeding from the Higher Manas, the Ego, and that which 
the Esotericists refer to as the Kama-Manas or the lower personal Ego, 
which is radiated in every human entity by the Higher Ego or Christos, 
the god within us. Therefore, they were right in saying: "there is 
not one Christ, but one above and the other below". Every student 
of Occultism will understand this, and also that Gabriel— or "the 
mighty one of God"— is one with the Higher Ego. (See Isis Unveiled.) 

Gaea (Gr.). Primordial Matter in the Cosmogony of Hesiod; Earth, 
as some think; the wife of Ouranos, the sky or heavens. The female 
personage of the primeval Trinity, composed of Ouranos, Gaea and Eros. 

Gaffarillus. An Alchemist and philosopher who lived in the 
middle of the seventeenth century. He is the first philosopher known 
to maintain that every natural object {e.g., plants, living creatures, 
etc.). when burned, retained its form in its ashes and that it could be 
raised again from them. This claim was justified by the eminent chem- 
ist Du Chesne, and after him Kircher, Digby and Vallemont have as- 
sured themselves of the fact, by demonstrating that the astral forms 
of burned plants could be raised from their ashes. A receipt for 
raising such astral phantoms of flowers is given in a work of Oetinger, 
Thoughts on the Birth and the Generation of Things. 

Gaganeswara (Sk.). "Lord of the Sky", a name of Garuda. 

Gai-hinnom (Hch.). The name of Hell in the Talmud. 

Gambatrin (Scand.). The name of Hermodur's magic staif" 
in the Edda. 

Ganadevas (8k.). A certain class of celestial Beings who are 
said to inhabit Maharloka. They are the rulers of our Kalpa (Cycle) 
and therefore termed Kalpadhikarins, or Lord of the Kalpas. They 
last only "One Day" of Brahma. 

Grandapada (8k.). A celebrated Brahman teacher, the author 
of tlie Commentaries on the 8ankhya Karika, Mandukya Upanishad, 
and other works. 

Gandhara (8k.). A musical note of great occult power in the 
Hindu gamut — the third of the diatonic scale. 

Gandharva (8k.). The celestial choristers and musicians of India. 
In the Vedas these deities reveal the secrets of heaven and earth and 
esoteric science to mortals. They had charge of the sacred Soma plant 
and its juice, the ambrosia drunk in the temple which gives "omni- 



science". 



Gan-Eden (Heh.). Also Ganduniyas. (See "Eden"). 

Ganesa (Sk.). The elephant-headed God of Wisdom, the son of Siva. 
He is the same as the Egyptian Thoth-Hermes, and Anubis or Her- 
manubis (q.v.). The legend shows him as having lost his human head, 
which was replaced by that of an elephant. 

Ganga (8k.). The Ganges, the principal sacred river in India. 



GLOSSARY 115 

There are two versions of its myth : one relates that Ganga (the goddess) 
having transformed herself into a river, flows from the big toe of Vishnu ; 
the other, that the Ganga drops from the ear of Siva into the Anava- 
tapta lake, thence passes out, through the mouth of the silver cow 
(gomukhi), crosses all Eastern India and falls into the Southern Ocean. 
"An 'heretical superstition' ", remarks Mr. Eitel in his Sanskrit, 
Chinese Dictionary "ascribes to the waters of the Ganges sin-cleansing 
power". No more a "superstition" one would say, than the belief 
that the waters of Baptism and the Jordan have "sin-cleansing power". 

Gangadwara (Sk.). "The gate or door of the Ganges", literally; 
the name of a town now called Hardwar, at the foot of the Himalayas. 

Gangi (Sk.). A renowned Sorcerer in the time of Kasyapa Buddha 
(a predecessor of Gautama). Gangi was regarded as an incarnation of 
Apalala, the Naga (Serpent), the guardian Spirit of the Sources of 
Subhavastu, a river in Udyana. Apalala is said to have been converted 
by Gautama Buddha, to the good Law, and become an Arhat. The al- 
legory of the name is comprehensible : all the Adepts and Initiates were 
called ndgas, "Serpents of Wisdom". 

Ganinnanse. A Singhalese priest who has not yet been ordained 
— from gana, an assemblage or brotherhood. The higher ordained priests 
"are called terunndnse from the Pali thero, an elder" (Hardy). 

Garm (Scand.). The Cerberus of the Edda. This monstrous dog 
lived in the Gnypa cavern in front of the dwelling of Hel, the goddess 
of the nether-world. 

Garuda (Sk.). A gigantic bird in the Ramdyana, the steed of Vishnu. 
Esoterically — the symbol of the great Cycle. 

Gatha (Sk.). Metrical chants or hymns, consisting of moral aphor- 
isms. A gatha of thirty-two words is called Aryagiti. 

Gati (Sk.). The six (esoterically seven) conditions of sentient ex- 
istence. These are divided into two groups: the three higher and the 
three lower paths. To the former belong the devas, the asuras and (im- 
mortal) men; to the latter (in exoteric teachings) creatures in hell, 
pretas or hungry demons, and animals. Explained esoterically, how- 
ever, the last three are the personalities in Kamaloka, elementals and 
animals. Tlie seventh mode of existence is that of the Nirmanakaya (q.v.). 

Gatra (Sk.). Lit., the limbs (of Brahma) from which the "mind- 
born" sons, the seven Kumaras, were born. 

Gautama (Sk.). The Prince of Kapilavastu, son of Sudhodana, the 
Sakya king of a small realm on the borders of Nepaul, born in the 
seventh century B.C., now called the "Saviour of the World". Gautama 
or Gotama was the sacerdotal name of the Sakya family, and Sidhartha 
was Buddha's name before he became a Buddha. Sakya Muni, means 
the Saint of the Sakya family. Born a simple mortal he rose to Buddha- 
ship through his own personal and unaided merit. A man — verily 
greater than any god ! 



116 THEOSOPHICAL 

Gaya (Sk.). Ancient city of Magadha, a little north-west of the 
modern Gay ah. It is at the former that Sakyamuni reached his Buddha- 
ship, under the famous Bodhi-tree, Bodhidruma. 

Gayatri (Sk.), also Sdvitri. A most sacred verse, addressed to the 
Sun, in the Rig- Veda, which the Brahmans have to repeat mentally 
every morn and eve during their devotions. 

Geber (Heb.), or Gibhorim. "Mighty men"; the same as the 
Kahirim. In heaven, they are regarded as powerful angels, on earth 
as the giants mentioned in chapter vi, of Genesis. 

Gebirol, Salomon Ben Jehudah. Called in literature Avicebron. 
An Israelite by birth, a philosopher, poet and Kabbalist, a voluminous 
writer and a mystic. He was born in the eleventh century at Malaga 
(1021), educated at Sargossa, and died at Valencia in 1070, murdered 
by a Mahommedan. His fellow-religionists called him Salomon the 
Sephardi, or the Spaniard, and the Arabs, Abu Ayyub Suleiman ben 
ya'hya Ibn Dgebirol, whilst the scholastics named him Avicebron. (See 
Myer's Qabbalah). Ibn Gebirol was certainly one of the greatest phi- 
losphers and scholars of his age. He wrote much in Arabic and most 
of his MSS. have been preserved. His greatest work appears to be the 
Megor Hayijim, i.e., the Fountain of Life, "one of the earliest exposures 
of the secrets of the Speculative Kabbalah", as his biographer informs 
us. (See "Fons Vitffi"). 

Geburah (Hcb.). A Kabbalistic term; the fifth Sephira, a female 
and passive potency, meaning severity and power ; from it is named 
the Pillar of Severity, [w.w.w.] 

Gedulah (Hcb.). Another name for the Sephira Chcsed. 

Gehenna, in Hebrew Hinnom. No hell at all, but a valley near 
Jerusalem, where Israelites immolated their children to Moloch. In that 
valley a place named Tophet was situated, where a fire was perpetually 
preserved for sanitary purposes. The prophet Jeremiah informs us that 
his countrymen, the Jews, used to sacrifice their children on that spot. 

Gehs (Zend). Parsi prayers. 

Gelukpa (Tib.). "Yellow Caps" literally; the highest and most 
orthodox Buddhist sect in Tibet, the antithesis of the Dugpa ("Red 
Caps"), the old "devil worshippers". 

Gemara (Hcb.). The latter portion of the Jewish Talmud, begun 
by Rabbi Ashi and completed by Rabbis Mar and Meremar, about 300 
A.D. [w.w.w.] 

Lit., to finish. It is a commentary on the Mishna. 

Gematria (Ileb.). A division of the practical Kabbalah. It shows 
the numerical value of Hebrew words by summing up the values of the 
letters composing them; and further, it shows by this means, analogies 
between words and phrases, [w.w.w.] 

One of the methods (arithmetical) for extracting the hidden meaning 
from letters words and sentences. 



GLOSS AEY 117 

Gems, Three precioiis. In Southern Buddhism these are the sacred 
books, the Buddhas and the priesthood. In Nortliern Buddhism and its 
secret schools, the Buddha, his sacred teachings, and the Narjols (Bud- 
dhas of Compassion). 

Genesis. The whole of the Book of Genesis down to the death of 
Joseph, is found to be a hardly altered version of the Cosmogony of 
the Chaldeans, as is now repeatedly proven from the Assyrian tiles. 
The first three chapters are transcribed from the allegorical narratives 
of the beginnings common to all nations. Chapters four and five are 
a new allegorical adaptation of the same narration in the secret Booh 
of Numhers; chapter six is an astronomical narrative of the Solar 
year and the seven cosmocratorcs from the Egyptian original of the 
Pymander and the symbolical visions of a series of Enoichioi (Seers) 
— from whom came also the Book of Enoch. The beginning of Exodus, 
and the story of Moses is that of the Babylonian Sargon, who having 
flourished (as even that unwilling authority Dr. Sayce tells us) 3750 
B.C. preceded the Jewish lawgiver by almost 2300 years. (See Secret 
Doctrine, vol. II., pp. 691 et seq.). Nevertheless, Genesis is an unde- 
niably esoteric work. It has not borrowed, nor has it disfigured the 
universal symbols and teachings on the lines of which it was written, 
but simply adapted the eternal truths to its own national spirit and 
clothed them in cunning allegories comprehensible only to its Kabbal- 
ists and Initiates. The Gnostics have done the same, each sect in its 
own way, as thousands of years before, India, Egypt, Chaldea and 
Greece, had also dressed the same incommunicable truths each in its 
own national garb. The key and solution to all such narratives can 
be found only in the esoteric teachings. 

Genii (Lat.). A name for ^ons, or angels, with the Gnostics. The 
names of their hierarchies and classes are simply legion. 

Geonic Period. The era of the Geonim may be found mentioned 
in works treating of the Kabbalah ; the ninth century a.d. is implied. 

[w.w.w.] 

Gharma (Sk.). A title of Karttikeya, the Indian god of war and 
the Kumara born of Siva's drop of sweat that fell into the Ganges. 

Ghocha (8k.). Lit., "the miraculous Voice". The name of a great 
Arhat, the author of Ahhidharmdmrita Shasta, who restored sight to a 
blind man by anointing his eyes with the tears of the audience moved by 
his ( Ghocha 's) supernatural eloquence. 

Gilgoolem (Heh.). The cycle of rebirths with the Hebrew Kab- 
balists; with the orthodox Kabbalists, the ''whirling of the soul" after 
death, which finds no rest until it reaches Palestine, the "promised 
land", and its body is buried there. 

Gimil (Scanel.). "The Cave of Gimil" or Wingolf. A kind of 
Heaven or Paradise, or perhaps a New Jerusalem, built by the "Strong 



]^lg THEOSOPHICAL 

and Mighty God" who remains nameless in the Edda, above the Field 
of Ida, and after the new earth rose out of the waters. 

Ginnungagap (Scand.). The "cup of illusion" literally; the 
abyss of the great deep, or the shoreless, beginningless, and endless yawn- 
ing gulf; which in esoteric parlance we call the "World's Matrix", the 
primordial living space. The cup that contains the universe, hence the 
"ciip of illusion". 

Giol (Scand.). The Styx, the river Giol which had to be crossed 
before the nether-world was reached, or the cold Kingdom of Hel. It 
was spanned by a gold-covered bridge, which led to the gigantic iron 
fence that encircles the palace of the Goddess of the Under-World or 
Hel. 

Gna (Scand.). One of the three handmaidens of the goddess Freya. 
She is a female Mercury who bears her mistress' messages into all parts 
of the world. 

Gnana (Sk.). Knowledge as applied to the esoteric sciences. 

Gn§,n Devas (Sk.). Lit., "the gods of knowledge". The higher 
classes of gods or devas; the "mind-born" sons of Brahma, and others 
including the Manasa-putras (the Sons of Intellect). Esoterically, our 
reincarnating Egos. 

Gnanasakti (Sk.). The power of true knowledge, one of the 
seven great forces in Nature {six, exoterically). 

Gnatha (Sk.). The Kosmic Ego; the conscious, intelligent Soul of 
Kosmos. 

Gnomes (Alch.). The Rosicrucian name for the mineral and eartli 
elementals. 

Gnosis (Gr.). Lit., "knowledge". The technical term used by the 
schools of religious philosophy, both before and during the first centuries 
of so-called Christianity, to denote the object of their enquiry. This 
Spiritual and Sacred Knowledge, the Gupta Vidyd of the Hindus, could 
only be obtained by Initiation into Spiritual Mysteries of which the 
ceremonial "Mysteries" were a type. 

Gnostics (Gr.). The philosophers who formulated and taught the 
Gnosis or Knowledge (q.v.). They flourished in the first three centuries 
of the Christian era : the following were eminent, Valentinus, Basilides, 
Marcion, Simon Magus, etc. [w.w.w.] 

Gnypa (Scand.). The cavern watched by the dog Garm (q.v.). 

Gogard (Zend). The Tree of Life in the Avesta. 

Golden Age. The ancients divided the life cycle into the Golden, 
Silver, Bronze and Iron Ages. The Golden was an age of primeval 
purity, simplicity and general happiness. 

Gonpa (Tib.). A temple or monastry; a Lamasery. 

Gopis (Sk.). Sliepherdesses — the playmates and companions of 
Krishna, among whom was his wife Raddha. 



GLOSSARY 119 

Gossain (Six.). The name of a certain class of ascetics in India. 

Great Age. There were several "great ages" mentioned by the 
ancients. In India it embraced the whole Maha-manvantara, the '"age 
of Brahma", each "Daj-" of which represents the life cycle of a 
chain — i.e. it embraces a period of seven Rounds. (See Esoteric Bud- 
dhism, by A. P. Sinnett.) Thus while a "Day" and a "Night" repre- 
sent, as Manvantara and Pralaya, 8,640,000,000 years, an "age" lasts 
through a period of 311,040,000,000,000 years ; after which the Pralaija, 
or dissolution of the universe, becomes universal. With the Egyptians 
and Greeks the "great age" referred only to the tropical or sidereal 
year, the duration of which is 25,868 solar years. Of the complete 
age — that of the gods — they say notliing, as it was a matter to be dis- 
cussed and divulged only in the Mysteries, during the initiating cere- 
monies. The "great age" of the Chaldees was the same in figures as 
that of the Hindus. 

Grihastha (Sk.). Lit., "a householder", "one who lives in a 
house with his family". A Brahman "family priest" in popular render- 
ing, and the sarcerdotal hierarchy of the Hindus. 

Guardian Wall. A suggestive name given to the host of trans- 
lated adepts (Narjols) or the Saints collectively, who are supposed to 
watch over, help and protect Humanity. This is the so-called "Nir- 
manakaya" doctrine in Northern mystic Buddhism. (See Voice of the 
Silence, Part III.). 

Guff (Heh.). Body; physical form; also written Gof. 

Guhya (Sk.). Concealed, secret. 

Guhya Vidya (Sk.). The secret knowledge of mystic Mantras. 

GuUweig (Scand.). The personification of the "golden" ore. It 
is said in the Edda that during the Golden Age, when lust for gold 
and wealth was yet unknown to man, "when the gods played with 
golden disks, and no passion disturbed the rapture of mere existence", 
the whole earth was happy. But no sooner does "Gullweig (Gold ore) 
the bewitching enchantress come, who, thrice cast into the fire, arises 
each time more beautiful than before, and fills the souls of gods and 
men with unappeasable longing", than all became changed. It is then 
that the Norns, the Past, Present and Future, entered into being, the 
blessed peace of childhood's dreams passed away and Sin came into 
existence with all its evil consequences. (Asgard and the Gods.) 

Gunas (Sk.). Qualities, attributes (See "Triguna"); a thread, 
also a cord. 

Gunavat (Sk.). That which is endowed with qualities. 

Gupta Vidya (Sk.). The same as Guhya Vidya; Esoteric or Secret 
Science ; knowledge. 

Guru (Sk.). Spiritual Teacher; a master in metaphysical and 
ethical doctrines; used also for a teacher of any science. 



120 THEOSOPHICAL 

Guru Deva (Sk.). Lit., "divine Master". 

Gyan-Ben-Gian (Pers.). The King of the Peris, the Sylphs, in 
the old mythology of Iran. 

Gyges (Gg.). "The ring of Gyges" has become a familiar meta- 
phor in European literature. Gyges was a Lydian who, after murder- 
ing the King Candaules, married his widow. Plato tells us that Gyges 
descended once into a chasm of the earth and discovered a brazen 
horse, within whose open side was the skeleton of a man who had a 
brazen ring on his finger. This ring when placed on his own finger 
made him invisible. 

Gymnosophists (Gr.). The name given by Hellenic writers to a 
class of naked or "air-clad" mendicants; ascetics in India, extremely 
learned and endowed with great mystic powers. It is easy to recognise 
in these gymnosophists the Hindu Aranyaka of old, the learned yogis 
and ascetic-philosophers who retired to the jungle and forest, there 
to reach, through great austerities, superhuman knowledge and ex- 
perience. 

Gyn (Tib.). Knowledge acquired under the tuition of an adept 
teacher or guru. 



GLOSSARY 121 



H. 



H, 



-The eighth letter and aspirate of the English alphabet, and also 
the eighth in the Hebrew. As a Latin numeral it signifies 200, and 
with the addition of a dash 200,000; in the Hebrew alphabet Cheth 
is equivalent to h, corresponds to eight, and is symbolized by a Fence 
and Venus according to Seyffarth, being in affinity and connected with 
He, and therefore witli the opening or womb. It is pre-eminently a 
Yonic letter. 

Ha (Sk.). A magic syllable used in sacred formulae; it represents 
the power of AMsa Sakti. Its efficacy lies in the expirational accent 
and the sound produced. 

Habal de Garmin (Heh.). According to the Kabbalah this is 
the Resurrection Body : a tzelem image or dcmooth similitude to the 
deceased man ; an inner fundamental spiritual type remaining after 
death. It is the "Spirit of the Bones" mentioned in Daniel and Isaiah 
and the Psalms, and is referred to in the Vision of Ezekiel about the 
clothing of the dry bones with life : consult C. de Leiningen on the 
Kabbalah, T. P. S.' Pamphlet, Vol. II., No. 18. [w.w.w.] 

Hachoser (Heh.). Lit., "reflected Lights"; a name for the minor 
or inferior powers, in the Kabbalah. 

Hades (Gr.). or Aides. The "invisible", i.e., the land of the 
shadows, one of whose regions was Tartarus, a place of complete dark- 
ness, like the region of profound dreamless sleep in the Egyptian 
Amenti. Judging by the allegorical description of the various punish- 
ments inflicted therein, the place was purely Karmic. Neither Hades 
nor Amenti were the hell still preached by some retrograde priests and 
clergymen ; but whether represented by the Blysian Fields or by Tar- 
tarus, Hades was a place of retributive justice and no more. This 
could only be reached by crossing the river to the "other shore", i.e., 
by crossing the river Death, and being once reborn, for weal or for 
Avoe. As well exi)ressed in Egyptian Bdirf: "The story of Charon, the 
ferryman (of the Styx) is to be found not only in Homer, but in the 
poetry of many lands. The River must be crossed before gaining the 
Isles of the Blest. The Ritual of Egypt described a Charon and his 
boat long ages before Homer. He is Khu-en-ua, the hawk-headed 
steersman." (See "Amenti", "Hel" and "Happy Fields".) 

Hagadah (Heh.). A name given to parts of the Talmud which 
are legendary, [w.w.w.] 

Hahnir (Scand.), or Honir. One of the mighty gods (Odin, 



]^22 THEOSOPHICAL 

Hahnir and Lodur) who, while wandering on earth, found lying on the 
sea-shore two human forms, motionless, speechless, and senseless. Odin 
gave them souls ; Hahnir, motion and senses ; and Lodur, blooming com- 
plexions. Thus were men created. 

Haima Heh.). The same as the Sanskrit hiraiiya (golden), as "the 
golden Egg" Hiranyagarhha. 

Hair. Occult philosophy considers the hair (whether- hiiman or 
animal) as the natural receptacle and retainer of the vital essence 
which often escapes with other emanations from the body. It is closely 
connected with many of the brain functions — for instance memory. 
With tlie ancient Israelites the cutting of the hair and beard was a 
sign of defilement, and "the Lord said unto Moses. . . . They 
shall not make baldness upon their head", etc. (Lev. xxi., 1-5.) "Bald- 
ness", whether natural or artificial, was a sign of calamity, punish- 
ment, or grief, as when Isaiah (iii., 24) enumerates, "instead of well- 
set hair baldness", among the evils that are ready to befall the chosen 
people. And again, "On all their heads baldness and every beard cut" 
{Ihid. XV., 2). The Nazarite was ordered to let his hair and beard 
grow, and never to permit a razor to touch them. With the Egyptians 
and Buddhists it was only the initiated priest or ascetic to whom life is 
a burden, who shaved. The Egyptian priest was supposed to have be- 
come master of his body, and hence shaved his head for cleanliness; 
yet the Hierophants wore their hair long. The Buddhist still shaves 
"his head to this day — as a sign of scorn for life and health. Yet 
Buddha, after shaving his hair when he first became a mendicant, let 
it grow again and is always represented with the top-knot of a Yogi. 
The Hindu priests and Brahmins, and almost all the castes, shave the 
rest of the head but leave a long lock to grow from the center of the 
crown. The ascetics of India wear their hair long, and so do the war- 
like Sikhs, and almost all of the Mongolian peoples. At Byzantium 
and Rhodes the shaving of the beard was prohibited by law, and in 
Sparta the cutting of the beard was a mark of slavery and servitude. 
Among the Scandinavians, we are told, it was considered a disgrace, 
"a mark of infamy", to cut off the hair. The whole population of the 
island of Ceylon (the Buddhist Singhalese) wear their hair long. So 
do the Russian, Greek and Armenian clergy, and monks. Jesus and 
the Apostles are always represented with their hair long, but fashion 
in Christendom proved stronger than Christianity, the old ecclesiastical 
rules (Constit. Apost. lih. I. c. 3) enjoining the clergy "to wear their 
hair and beards long". (See Riddle's Ecclesiastical Antiquities.) The 
Templars were commanded to wear their beards long. Samson wore his 
hair long, and the biblical allegory shows that health and strength and 
the very life are connected with the length of the hair. If a pat is 
shaved it will die in nine cases out of ten. A dog whose coat is not 
interfered with lives longer and is more intelligent than one whose 



GLOSSARY 123 

coat is shaven. Many old people as they lose their hair lose much of 
their memory and become weaker. While the life of the Yogis is 
proverbially long, the Buddhist priests (of Ceylon and elsewhere) are 
not generally long-lived. Mussulmen shave their heads but wear their 
beards ; and as their head is always covered, the danger is loss. 

Hajaschar (Hel.). The Light Forces in the Kabbalah; the 
^'Powers of Light", which are the creative but inferior forces. 

Hakem. Lit., "the Wise One", the Messiah to come, of the Druzes 
or the "Disciples of Hamsa". 

Hakim (Arab.). A doctor, in all the Eastern countries, from Asia 
Minor to India. 

Halachah (Heh.). A name given to parts of the Talmud, which 
are arguments on points of doctrine; the word means "rule", [w.w.w.] 

Hallucination. A state produced sometimes by physiological 
disorders, sometimes by mediumship, and at others by drunkenness. 
But the cause that produces the visions has to be sought deeper than 
phj'siology. All such visions, especially when produced through 
mediumship, are preceded by a relaxation of the nervous system, in- 
variably generating an abnormal magnetic condition which attracts to 
the sufferer waves of astral light. It is the latter that furnishes the 
various hallucinations. These, however, are not always what physicians 
would make them, empty and unreal dreams. No one can see that 
which does not exist — i.e., which is not impressed — in or on the astral 
waves. A Seer may, however, perceive objects and scenes (whether 
past, present, or future) which have no relation whatever to himself, 
and also perceive several things entirely disconnected with each other 
at one and the same time, thus producing the most grotesque and 
absurd combinations. Both drunkard and Seer, medium and Adept, 
see their respective visions in the Astral Light ; but while the drunk- 
ard, the madman, and the untrained medium, or one suffering from 
brain-fever, see, because they cannot help it, and evoke the jumbled 
visions unconsciously to themselves, the Adept and the trained Seer 
have the choice and the control of such visions. They know where to 
fix their gaze, how to steady the scenes they want to observe, and how 
to see beyond the upper outward layers of the Astral Light. With 
the former such glimpses into the tvaves are hallucinations: with the 
latter they become the faithful reproduction of what actually has been, 
is, or will be, taking place. The glimpses at random caught by the 
medium, and his flickering visions in the deceptive light, are trans- 
formed under the guiding will of the Adept and Seer into steady pic- 
tures, the truthful representations of that which he wills to come within 
the focus of his perception. 

Hamsa or Ilansa (Sk.). "Swan or goose", according to the Orien- 
talists; a mystical bird in Occultism analogous to the Rosicrucian Peli- 
can. The sacred mystic name which, when preceded by that of Kala 



124 THEOSOPHICAL 

(infinite time), i.e. KalaJiansa, is a name of Parabrahm ; meaning the 
"Bird out of space and time". Hence Brahma (male) is called Hansa 
Vahana "the Vehicle of Hansa" (the Bird). We find the same idea 
in the Zohar, where Ain Suph (the endless and infinite) is said to 
descend into the universe, for purposes of manifestation, using Adam 
Kadmon (Humanity) as a chariot or vehicle. 

Hamsa (Arab.). The founder of the mystic sect of the Druzes of 
Mount Lebanon. (See "Druzes"). 

Hangsa (Sk.). A mystic syllable standing for evolution, and mean- 
ing in its literal sense "I am he ' ', or Ahamsa. 

Hansa (Sk.). The name, according to the Bhdgavata Purdna, of the 
"One Caste" when there were as yet no varieties of caste, but verily 
"one Veda, one Deity and. one Caste". 

Hanuman (Sk.). The monkey god of the Ramayana; the general- 
issimo of Rama's army; son of Vayu, the god of the wind, and of a 
virtuous she-demon. Hanuman was the faithful ally of Rama and 
by his unparalleled audacity and wit, helped the Avatar of Vishnu to 
finally conquer the demon-king of Lanka, Ravana, who had carried oft' 
the beautiful Sita, Rama's wife, an outrage which led to the celebrated 
war described in the Hindu epic poem. 

Happy Fields. The name given by the Assyrio-Chaldeans to 
their Elysiau Fields, which were intermingled with their Hades. As Mr. 
Boscawen tells his readers — "The Kingdom of the underworld was the 
realm of the god Hea, and the Hades of the Assyrian legends was placed 
in the underworld and was ruled over by a goddess, Nin-Kigal, or 
'the Lady of the Great Land'. She is also called Allat." A translated 
inscription states : — ' ' After the gifts of these present days, in the feasts 
of the land of the silver sky, the resplendent courts, the abode of blessed- 
ness, and in the light of the Happy Fields, may he dwell in life eternal, 
holy, in the presence of the gods who inhabit Assyria". This is worthy 
of a Christian tumulary inscription. Ishtar, the beautiful goddess, de- 
scended into Hades after her beloved Tammuz, and found that this dark 
place of the shades had seven spheres and seven gates, at each of which 
she had to leave something belonging to her. 

Hara (Sk.). A title of the god Siva. 

Hare-Worship. The hare was sacred in many lands and espec- 
ially among the Egyptians and Jews. Though the latter consider it an 
unclean, hoofed animal, unfit to eat, yet it was held sacred by some tribes. 
The reason for this was that in certain species of hare the male suckled 
the little ones. It was thus considered to be androgynous or hermaphro- 
dite, and so typified an attribute of the Demiurge, or creative Logos. The 
hare was a symbol of the moon, wherein the face of the prophet Moses is 
to be seen to this day, say the Jews. Moreover the moon is connected 
with the worship of Jehovah, a deity pre-eminently the god of generation, 
perhaps also for the same reason that Eros, the god of sexual love, is 



GLOSS AEY 125 

represented as carrying a hare. The hare was also sacred to Osiris. 
Lenormand writes that the hare "has to be considered as the symbol of 
the Logos . . . the Logos ought to be hermaphrodite and we know- 
that the hare is an androgynous type". 

Hari (Sk.). A title of Vishnu, but used also for other gods. 

Harikesa (Sk.). Tlie name of one of the seven rays of tlu- Sun. 

Harivansa (Sk.). A i:)ortioii of the MaMhkdrata, a poem on the 
genealogy of Vishnu, or Hari. 

Harmachus (Or.). The Egyptian Sphinx, called Har-i in-chu or 
"Horns (the Sun) in the Horizon", a form of Ra the sun-god; esoter- 
ically the risen god. An inscription on a tablet reads: "0 blessed Ra- 
Harmachus! Thou careerest by him in triumph. shine, Amoun-Ra- 
Harmachus self-generated". The temple of the Sphinx was dis- 
covered by Mariette Bey close to the Sphinx, near the great 
Pyramid of Gizeh. All the Egyptologists agree in pronouncing the 
Sphinx and her temple the ' ' oldest religious monument of the world ' ' — 
at any rate of Egypt. ''The principal chamber", writes the late Mr. 
Fergusson "in the form of a cross, is supported by piers, snnple prisms 
of Syenite granite without base or capital . . no sculptures or in- 
scriptions of any sort are found on the walls of this temple, no orna- 
ment or symbol nor any image in the sanctuary". This proves the 
enormous antiquity of both the Sphinx and the temple. "The great 
bearded Sphinx of the Pyramids of Gizeh is the symbol of Harmachus, 
the same as each Egyptian Pharaoh who bore, in the inscriptions, the 
name of 'living form of the Solar Sphinx upon the Earth'," writes 
Brugsh Bey. And Renan recalls that "at one time the Egyptians were 
said to have temples without sculptured images" (Bonwick). Not only 
the Egyptians but every nation of the earth began with temples devoid 
of idols and even of symbols. It is only when the remembrance of the 
great abstract truths and of the primordial Wisdom taught to humanity 
by the dynasties of the divine kings died out that men had to resort to 
mementos and symbology. In the story of Horus in some tablets of- 
Edfou, Rouge found an inscription showing that the god had once as- 
sumed "the shape of a human-headed lion to gain advantage over his 
enemy Typhon. Certainly Horus was so adored in Leoutopolis. He is 
the real Sphinx. That accounts, too, for the lion figure being sometimes 
seen on each side of Isis. . . It was her child." (Bonwick.) And 
yet the story of Harmachus, or Har-em-chu, is still left untold to the 
world, nor is it likely to be divulged to this generation. (See "Sphinx".) 

Harpocrates (Gr.). The child Horus or Ehoou represented with 
a finger on his mouth, the solar disk upon his head and golden hair. He 
is the "god of Silence" and of Mystery. (See "Horus"). Harpocrates 
was also worshipped by both Greeks and Romans in Europe as a son of 
Isis. 



126 THEOSOPHICAL 

Harshana (Sl\). A deity presiding over offerings to the dead, or 
Srdddha. 

Harviri (Eg.). Horns, the elder: the ancient name of a solar god: 
the rising sun represented as a god reclining on a full-blown lotus, the 
symbol of the Universe. 

Haryaswas (Sk.). The five and ten thousand sons of Daksha, 
who instead of peopling the world as desired by their father, all became 
yogis, as advised by the mysterious sage Narada, and remained celibates. 
"They dispersed through the regions and have not returned." This 
means, according to the secret science, that they had all incarnated in 
mortals. The name is given to natural born mystics and celibates, who 
are said to be incarnations of the "Haryaswas". 

Hatchet. In the Egyptian Hieroglyphics a symbol of power, and 
also of death. The hatchet is called the "Severer of the Knot" i.e., of 
marriage or any other tie. 

Hatha Yoga (Sk.). The lower form of Yoga practice; one which 
uses physical means for purposes of spiritual self-development. The 
opposite of Raja Yoga. 

Hathor (Eg.). Tlie lower or infernal aspect of Isis, corresponding 
to the Hecate of Greek mythology. 

Hawk. The Hieroglyphic and type of the Soul. The same varies 
with the postures of the bird. Thus when lying as dead it represents 
the transition, larva state, or the passage from the state of one life to 
another. When its wings are opened it means that the defunct is resur- 
rected in Amenti and once more in conscious possession of his soul. The 
chrysalis has become a butterfly. 

Hayo Bischat (Heh.). The Beast, in the Zohar-. the Devil and 
Tempter. Esoterically our lower animal passions. 

Hay-yah (Hrh.). One of the metaphysical human "Principles". 
Eastern Occultists divide men into seven such Principles ; Western Kab- 
balists, we are told, into three only — namely, Ncphesh, Ruach and Nes- 
hamah. But in truth, this division is as loose and as mere an abbre- 
viation as our "Body, Soul, Spirit". For, in the Qahhalah of Myer 
{Zohar ii., 141, h., Cremona Ed. ii., fol. 63 h., col. 251) it is stated that 
Neshamah or Spirit has three divisions, "the highest being Ye'hee-dah 
(Atma) the middle, Hay-yah (Buddhi), and the last and third, the 
Neshamah, properly speaking (Manas)". Then comes Mahshahah, 
Thought (the lower Manas, or conscious Personality), In which the 
higher then manifest themselves, thus making four; this is followed by 
Tzelem, Phantom of the Image (Kama-rupa, in life the Kamic element) ; 
D'yooq-iiah, Shadow of the image (Linga Sharira, the Double) ; and Zu- 
rath. Prototype, which is Life — seven in all, even without the D'mooth, 
Likeness or Similitude, which is called a lower manifestation, and is in 
reality the Guf, or Body. Theosophists of the E. S. who know the trans- 
position made of Atma and the part taken by the auric prototype, will 



GLOSSARY 127 

easily find wliich are the real sfvcn, and assure tliemselves that between 
the division of Principles of the Eastern Occultists and that of the real 
Eastern Kabbalists there is no difference. Do not let us forget that 
neither the one nor the other are prepared to give out the real and final 
classitication in their public writings. 

Hay-yoth ha Qadosh (Hch.). The holy living creatures of 
Ezekiel's vision of the Mcrkahah, or vehicle, or chariot. These are the 
four symbolical beasts, the cherubim of Ezekiel, and in the Zodiac Tau- 
rus, Leo, Scorpio (or the Eagle), and Aquarius, the man. 

Hea (Chahl). The god of the Deep and the Underworld; some see 
in him Ea or Oannes, the fish-man, or Dragon. 

Heabani (Chald.). A famous astrologer at the Court of Izdubar, 
frequently mentioned in the fragments of the Assyrian tablets in refer- 
ence to a dream of Izdubar, the great Babylonian King, or Nimrod, the 
"mighty hunter before the Lord". After his death, his soul being 
unable to rest underground, the ghost of Heabani was raised by INIero- 
dach, the god, his body restored to life and then transferred alive, like 
Elijah, to the regions of the Blessed. 

Head of all Heads (Hah.). Used of the "Ancient of the An- 
cients" Atteekah D'attcekeen, who is the "Hidden of the Hidden, the 
Concealed of the Concealed". In this cranium of the "White Head", 
Resha Hivrah, "dwell daily 13,000 myriads of worlds, which rest upon 
It, lean upon It" {Zohar Hi. I drah Rahhah). . . " In tlmt Atteekah 
nothing is revealed except the Head alone, because it is the Head of all 
Heads. . . The Wisdom above, which is the Head, is hidden in it. 
the Brain which is tranquil and quiet, and none knows it but Itself. 
.... And this Hidden Wisdom . . . the Concealed of the 
Concealed, the Head of all Heads, a Head which is not a Head, nor does 
any one know, nor is it ever known, what is in that Head which Wisdom 
and Reason cannot comprehend" {Zohar iii., fol. 288 a) This is said 
of the Deity of which the Head {i.e., Wisdom perceived by all) is alone 
manifested. Of that Principle which is still higher nothing is even predi- 
cated, except that its universal presence and actuality are a philosophical 
necessity. 

Heavenly Adam. The synthesis of the Sephirothal Tree, or of 
all the Forces in Nature and their informing deific essence. In the dia- 
grams, the Seventh of the lower Sephiroth, Sephira Malkhooth — the 
Kingdom of Harmony — represents the feet of the ideal ^Macrocosm, 
whose head reaches tothe first manifested Head. This Heavenly Adam 
is the natnra natnrans, the abstract world, while the Adam of Earth 
(Humanity) is the natura naturata or the material universe. The for- 
mer is the presence of Deity in its universal essence ; the latter the mani- 
festation of the intelligence of that essence. In the real Zohar — not the 
fantastic and anthroi)omorphic caricature which we often find in the 
writings of Western Kabbalists— there is not a particle of the personal 



228 THEOSOPHICAI. 

deity Avhicli we find so prominent in the dark cloakiiig of the Secret 
Wisdom known as the Mosaic Pentateuch. 

Hebdomad \Gr.}. The Septenary. 

Hebron or Kirjath-Arha. The city of the Four Kebeiri, for Kir- 
jath-Arha signifies "the City of the Four". It is in that city, according 
to the legend, that an Isarim or an Initiate found the famous Smarag- 
dine tablet on the dead body of Hermes. 

Hel or Hela (Scand.). The Goddess-Queen of the Land of the Dead; 
the inscrutable and direful Being who reigns over the depths of Helheim 
and Nifelheim. In the earlier mythology, Hel was the earth-goddess, 
the good and beneficent mother, nourisher of the weary and the hungry. 
But in the later Skalds she became the female Pluto, the dark Queen of 
the Kingdom of Shades, she who brought death into this world, and 
sorrow afterwards. 

Helheim (Scand.). The Kingdom of the Dead in the Norse myth- 
ology. In the Edda, Helheim surrounds the Northern Mistworld, called 
Nifelheim. 

Heliolatry (Gr.). Sun-Worship. 

Hell. A term with the Anglo-Saxons, evidently derived from the 
name of the goddess Hela {q.v.) and by the Sclavonians from the Greek 
Hades: hell l3eing in Russian and other Sclavonian tongues — dd, the 
only difference between the Scandinavian cold hell and the hot hell of 
the Christians, being found in their respective temperatures. But even 
the idea of those overheated regions is not original with the Europeans, 
many peoples having entertained the conception of an underworld cli- 
mate ; as well may we if we localise our Hell in the center of the earth. 
All exoteric religions — the creeds of the Brahmans, Buddhists, Zoroast- 
rians Mahommedans, Jews, and the rest, make their hells hot and dark, 
though many are more attractive than frightful. The idea of a hot hell 
is an afterthought, the distortion of an astronomical allegory. With the 
Egyptians, Hell became a place of punishment by fire not earlier than 
the seventeenth or eighteenth dynasty, when Typhon was transformed 
from a god into a devil. But at whatever time this dread superstition 
was implanted in the minds of the poor ignorant masses, the scheme of 
a burning hell and souls tormented therein is purely Egyptian. Ra (the 
Sun) became the Lord of the Furnace in Karr, the hell of the Pharaohs, 
and the sinner was threatened with misery "in the heat of infernal fires". 
"A lion was there" says Dr. Birch "and was called the roaring mons- 
ter". Another describes the place as "the bottomless pit and lake of 
fire, into which the victims are thrown" (compare Eevelation). The 
Hebrew word gdi-hinnom. (Gehenna) never really had the significance 
given to it in Christian orthodoxy. 

Hemadri (8k.). The golden Mountain; Meru. 



GLOSSARY 129 

Hemera (Gr.). "The light of the inferior or terrestrial regions" 
as Ether is the light of the superior heavenly spheres. Both are born 
of Erebos (darkness) and Nvx (night), 

Heptakis xGr.). "The Seven-rayed One" of the Chaldean astrolaters: 
the same as Iao. 

Herakles (Gr.). The same as Hercules. 

Heranasikha (Siug.). From Hcrana "novice" and Sikha "rule" or 
l)recept : manual of Precepts. A work written in Elu or tlie ancient 
Singhalese, for the use of young priests. 

Hermanubis (Gr.). Or Hermes Anubis "the revealer of the mys- 
teries of the lower world" — not of Hell or Hades as interpreted, but of 
our Earth (the loivcst world of the Septenary chain of worlds) — and 
also of the sexual mysteries. Creuzer must have guessed at the truth 
of the right interpretation, as he calls Anubis-Thoth-Hermes "a symbol 
of science and of the intellectual ivorld". He was always represented 
with a cross in his hand, one of the earliest symbols of the mystery of 
generation, or procreation on this earth. In the Chaldean Kabbala 
{Book of Numhers) the Tat symbol, or +) is referred to as Adam and 
Eve, the latter being the transverse or horizontal bar drawn out of the 
side (or rib) of Iladam, the perpendicular bar. Tlie fact is that, esoter- 
ically, Adam and Eve while representing the early third Root Race — 
those who, being still mindless, imitated the animals and degraded them- 
selves with the latter — stand also as the dual symbol of the sexes. Hence 
Anubis, the Egyptian god of generation, is represented with the head of 
an animal, a dog or a jackal, and is also said to be the "Lord of the 
under world" or "Hades" into which he introduces the souls of the 
(had (the reincarnating entities), for Hades is in one sense tiie womb, as 
some of the writings of the Church Fathers fully show. 

Hermaphrodite (Gr.). Dual-sexed; a male and female Being, 
whether man or animal. 

Hermas (Gr.). An ancient Greek writer of whose w'orks only a 
few fragments are now extant. 

Hermes-fire. The same as "Elmes-fire". (See Isis Unveiled Vol. 
I., p. 125). 

Hermes Sarameyas (Greco-Sanskrit). The God Hermes, or Mercury, 
"he who watches over the flock of stars" in the Greek mythology. 

Hermes Trismegistus (Gr.). The "thrice great Hermes", the 
Egyptian. The mythical personage after whom the Hermetic philosophy 
was named. In Egypt the God Thoth or Thot. A generic name of 
many ancient Greek writers on philosophy and Alchemy. Hermes Tris- 
megistus is the name of Hermes or Thoth in his human aspect, as a 
god he is far more than this. As Hermes-Thoth-Aah, he is Tliotli, the 
moon, i.e., his symbol is the bright side of the moon, supposed to contain 
the essence of creative Wisdom, "the elixir of Hermes". As such he is 



-|^30 THEO'SOPHICAL 

associated with the Cynocephalus, the dog-headed monkey, for the same , 
reason as was Anubis, one of the aspects of Thoth. (See "Hermanubis",) 
The same idea underlies the form of the Hindu God of Wisdom, the 
elephant-headed Ganesa, or Ganpat, the son of Parvati and Siva. (See 
"Ganesa".) When he has the head of an ihis, he is the sacred scribe of 
the gods; but even then he wears the crown atef and the lunar disk. 
He is the most mysterious of gods. As a serpent, Hermes Thoth is the 
divine creative Wisdom. The Church Fathers speak at length of 
Thoth-Hermes. (See "Hermetic".) 

Hermetic. Any doctrine or writing connected with the esoteric 
teachings of Hermes, who, whether as the Egyptian Thoth or the Greek 
Hermes, was the God of Wisdom with the Ancients, and, according to 
Plato, "discovered numbers, geometry, astronomy and letters". Though 
mostly considered as spurious, nevertheless the Hermetic writings were 
highly prized by St. Augustine, Lactantius, Cyril and others. In the 
words of Mr. J. Bonwick, "They are more or less touched up by the 
Platonic philosophers among the early Christians (such as Origen and 
Clemens Alexandrinus) who sought to substantiate their Christian argu- 
ments by appeals to these heathen and revered writings, though they 
could not resist the temptation of making them say a little too much". 
Though represented by some clever and interested writers as teaching 
pure monotheism, the Hermetic or Trismegistic books are, nevertheless, 
purely pantheistic. The Deity referred to in them is defined by Paul as 
that in which "we live, and move and have our being"— notwithstanding 
the "in Him" of the translators. 

Hetu (Sk.). A natural or physical cause. 
Heva (HchJ. Eve, "the mother of all that lives". 
Hiarchas (Gr.). The King of the "Wise Men", in the Journey of 
Apollonius of Tyana to India. 

Hierogrammatists. The title given to those Egyptian priests who 
were entrusted with the writing and reading of the sacred and secret 
records. The "scribes of the secret records" literally. They were the 
instructors of tlie neophytes preparing for initiation. 

Hierophant. From the Greek "Hierophantes" : literally, "One 
who explains sacred things". The discloser of sacred learning and the 
Chief of the Initiates. A title belonging to the highest Adepts in the 
temples of antiquity, who were the teachers and expounders of the 
Mysteries and the Initiators into the final great Mysteries. The Hiero- 
phant represented the Demiurge, and explained to the postulants for 
Initiation the various phenomena of Creation that were produced for 
their tuition. "He was the sole expounder of the esoteric secrets and 
doctrines. It was forbidden even to pronounce his name before an un- 
initiated person. He sat in the East, and wore as a symbol of authority 
a golden globe suspended from the neck. He was also called Mystagogus" 
(Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie, ix., F. T. S., in The Royal Masonic Cyclo- 



GLOSSARY 131 

pi£dia). In Hebrew and Chaldaic the term was Peter, the opener, dis- 
closer; hence (the Pope as the successor of the hierophant of the ancient 
Mj^steries, sits in the Pagan chair of St. Peter.) 

Higher Self. The Supreme Divine Spirit overshadowing man. The 
crown of the upper spiritual Triad in man — Atman. 

Hillel. A great Babylonian Rabbi of the century preceding the 
Christian era. He was the founder of the sect of the Pharisees, a 
learned and a sainted man. 

Himachala Himadri (8k.). The Himalayan Mountains. 

Himavat (Sk.). The personified Himalayas; the father of the river 
(langa, or Ganges. 

Hinayana (Sk.). The "Smaller Vehicle"; a Scripture and a 
Scliool of the Northern Buddhists, opposed to the Mahayana, "the 
Greater Vehicle", in Tibet. Both schools are mystical. (See "Mahay- 
ana"). Also in exoteric superstition the lowest form of transmigration. 

Hiouen Thsang. A great Chinese writer and philosopher who 
travelled in India in the sixth century, in order to learn more about 
Buddhism, to which he was devoted. 

Hippocrates (Gr.). A famous physician of Cos, one of the Cy- 
clades, who flourished at Athens during the invasion of Artaxerxes, and 
delivered that to^Mi from a dreadful pestilence. He was called "the 
father of IMedicine". Having studied his art from the votive tablets 
offered by the cured patients at the temples of ^sculapius, he became an 
Initiate and the most proficient healer of his day, so much so that he 
was almost deified. His learning and knowledge were enormous. Galen 
says of his writings that they are truly the voice of an oracle. He died 
in his 100th year 361 B.C. 

Hippopotamus ((Gr.). In Egyptian symbolism Typhon was called 
"the hippopotamus who slew his father and violated his mother," Rhea 
(mother of the Gods). His father was Chronos. As applied therefore to 
Time and Nature (Chronos and Rhea), the accusation becomes com- 
prehensible. The type of Cosmic Disharmony, Typhon, who is also 
Python, the monster formed of the slime of the Deluge of Deucalion, 
"violates" his mother, Primordial Harmony, whose beneficence was so 
great that she was called "The Mother of the Golden Age". It was 
Typhon, who put an end to tlie latter, i.e., produced the first war of the 
t'lements. 

Hiquet (Eg.). The frog-goddess; one of the symbols of immortality 
and of the "water" principle. The early Christians had their church 
lamps made in the form of a frog, to denote that baptism in water led to 
immortality. 

Hiram Abiff. A biblical personage; a skilful builder and a 
"Widow's Son", whom King Solomon procured from Tyre, for the 
purpose of superintending the works of the Temple, and who became 



132 THEOSOPHICAL 

later a masonic character, the hero on whom hangs all the drama, or 
rather play, of the Masonic Third Initiation. The Kabbala makes a 
great deal of Hiram Abiff. . 

Hiranya (Sk.). Radiant, golden, used of the "Egg of Brahma". 

Hiranya Garbha (Sk.). The radiant or golden egg or womb. 
Esoterically the luminous "fire mist" or ethereal stuff from which the 
Universe was formed. 

Hiranyakasipu (Sk.). A King of the Daityas, whom Vishnu— in 
his avatar of the "man-lion" — puts to death. 

Hiranyaksha (Sk.). "The golden-e.yed". The king and ruler 
of the 5th region of Patala, the nether-world ; a snake-god in the Hindu 
Pantheon. It has various other meanings. 

Hiranyapura (Sk.). The Golden City. 

Hisi (Fin.). The "Principle of Evil" in theKalevala, the epic poem 
of Finland. 

Hitopadesa (Sk.). "Good Advice". A work composed of a col- 
lection of ethical precepts, allegories and other tales from an old Script- 
ure, the Panchatantra. 

Hivim or Chivim (Heh.). Whence the Hivites who, according to 
some Roman Catholic commentators, descend from Heth, son of Canaan, 
son of Ham, "the accursed". Brasseur de Bourbourg, the missionary 
translator of the Scripture of the Guatemalians, the Popol Vuh, indulges 
in the theory that the Hivim of the Quctzo Cohuatl, the Mexican Serpent 
Deity, and the "descendants of Serpents" as they call themselves, are 
identical with the descendants of Ham (!!) "whose ancestor is Cain". 
Such is the conclusion, at any rate, drawn from Bourbourg 's writings 
by Des Mousseaux, the demonologist. Bourbourg hints that the chiefs 
of the name of Votan, the Quetzo Cohuatl, are the descendants of Ham 
and Canaan. "I am Hivim", they say. "Being a Hivim, I am of the 
great Race of the Dragons. I am a snake, myself, for I am Hivim" 
{Cortes 51). But Cain is allegorically shown as the ancestor of the 
Hivites, the Serpents, because Cain is held to have been the first initiate 
in the mystery of procreation. The ' ' race of the Dragons ' ' or Serpents 
means the Wise Adepts. The names Hivi or Hivite, and Levi — signify a 
"Serpent"; and the Plivites or Serpent-tribe of Palestine, were, like all 
Levites and Ophites of Israel, initiated Ministers to the temples, i.e., 
Occultists, as are the priests of Quetzo Cohuatl. The Gibeonites whom 
Joshua assigned to the service of the sanctuary were Hivites. (See Isis 
Unveiled, Vol. II. 481.) 

Hler (Scand.). The god of the sea. One of the three mighty sons 
of the Frost-giant, Ymir. These sons were Kari, god of the air and the 
storms; Hler of the Sea; and Logi of the Fire. They are the Cosmic 
trinity of the Norsemen. 



GLOSSARY 138 

Hoa (Hcb.). That, from which proceeds Ah, the "Father"; there- 
fore the Concealed Logos. 

Hoang Ty (Chin.). "Tlie Great Spirit". His Sons are said to have 
acquired new wisdom, and imparted what they knew before to mortals, 
by falling— like the rebellious angels— into the "Valley of Pain", which 
is allegorically our Earth. In other words they are identical with the 
"Fallen Angels" of exoteric religions, and with the reincarnating Egos, 
esoterically. 

Hochmah (Heh.). See "Chochmah". 

Hod (Hch.). Splendour, the eighth of the ten Sepiroth a female 
passive potency, [w.w.w.] 

Holy of Holies. The Assyriologists, Egyptologists, and Orien- 
talists, in general, show that such a place existed in every temple of 
antiquity. Tlie great temple of Bel-Merodach whose sides faced the 
four cardinal points, had in its extreme end a "Holy of Holies" hidden 
from the profane by a veil: here, "at the beginning of the year 'the 
divine king of heaven and earth, the lord of the heavens, seats himself." 
According to Herodotus, here was the golden image of the god with a 
golden table in front like the Hebrew table for the shew bread, and upon 
this, food appears to have been placed. In some temples there also was 
"a little coffer or ark with two engraved stone tablets on it". (Myer's 
Qahbalah.) In short, it is now pretty well proven, that the "chosen 
people" had nothing original of their own, but that every detail of their 
ritualism and religion was borrowed from older nations. The Hihhert 
Lectures by Prof. Sayce and others show this abundantly. The story of 
the birth of Moses is that of Sargon, the Babylonian, who preceded 
Moses by a couple of thousand years ; and no w^onder, as Dr. Sayce tells 
us that the name of Moses, 3Iosheh, has a connection with the name of 
the Babylonian sun-god as the "hero" or "leader". {Hih. Led., p. 46 
et seq.) Says Mr. J. Myer, "The orders of the priests were divided into 
high priests, those attached or bound to certain deities, like the Hebrew 
Levites; anointers or cleaners; the Kali, 'illustrious' or 'elders'; the 
soothsayers, and the MaJchkhu or 'great one', in which Prof. Delitzsch 
sees the Bab -mag of the Old Testament. . . The Akkadians and 
Chaldeans kept a Sabbath day of rest every seven days, they also had 
thanksgiving days, and days for humiliation and prayer. There were 
sacrifices of vegetables and animals, of meats and wine. . . . The 
number seven was especially sacred. . . . The great temple of 
Babylon existed long before 2,250 b.c. Its 'Holy of Holies' was with- 
in the shrine of Nebo, the prophet god of wisdom." It is from the 
Akkadians that the god Mardak passed to the Assyrians, and he had 
been before Merodach, "the merciful", of the Babylonians, the only 
son and interpreter of the will of Ea or Hea, the great Deity of Wisdom. 
The Assyriologists have, in short, unveiled the whole scheme of the 
"chosen people". 



134 THEOSOPHICAL 

Holy Water. This is one of the oldest rites practised in Egypt, 
and thence in Pagan Rome. It accompanied the rite of bread and wine. 
"Holy water was sprinkled by the Egyptian priest alike upon his gods' 
images and the faithful. It was both poured and sprinkled. A brush 
has been found, supposed to have been used for that purpose, as at this 
day." (Bonwick's Egyptian Belief). As to the bread, "the cakes of Isis 
. . . were placed upon the altar. Gliddon writes that they were 
'identical in shape with the consecrated cake of the Roman and Eastern 
Churches'. Melville assures us 'the Egyptians marked this holy bread 
with St. Andrew's cross'. The Presence bread was broken before being 
distributed by the priests to the people, and was supposed to become the 
flesh and blood of the Deity. The miracle was wrought by the hand of 
the officiating priest, who blessed the food. . . Rouge tells us 'the 
bread offerings bear the imprint of the fingers, the mark of consecra- 
tion'." (7Hd, page 418.) (See also "Bread and Wine".) 

Homogeneity. From the Greek words homos "the same" and 
genos "kind". That which is of the same nature throughout, undif- 
ferentiated, non-compound, as gold is supposed to be. 

Honir (Scand.). A creative god who furnished the first man with 
intellect and understanding after man had been created by him jointly 
with Odin and Lodur from an ash tree. 

Honover (Zned). The Persian Logos, the manifested Word. 

Hor Ammon (Eg.). "The Self -engendered", a word in theogony 
which answers to the Sanskrit Anupadaka, parentless. Hor-Ammon is a 
combination of the ram-headed god of Thebes and of Horus. 

Horchia (Ch'ald.). According to Berosus, the same as Vesta, god- 
dess of the Hearth. 

Horus (Eg.). The last in the line of divine Sovereigns in Egypt, 
said to be the son of Osiris and Isis. He is the great god "loved of 
Heaven", the "beloved of the Sun, the offspring of the gods, the subju- 
gator of the world". At the time of the Winter SoLstice (our Christ- 
mas), his image, in the form of a small newly-born infant, was brought 
out from the sanctuary for the adoration of the worshipping crowds. As 
he is the type of the vault of heaven, he is said to have come from the 
Maem Misi, the sacred birth-place (the womb of the World), and is, 
therefore, the "mystic Child of the Ark" or the argha, the symbol of the 
matrix. Cosmically, he is the Winter Sun. A tablet describes him as 
the "substance of his father", Osiris, of whom he is an incarnation and 
also identical with him. Horus is a chaste deity, and "like Apollo has 
no amours. His part in the lower world is associated with the Judgment. 
He introduces souls to his father, the Judge" (Bonwick). An ancient 
hymn says of him, "By him the world is judged in that which it con- 
tains. Heaven and earth are under his immediate presence. He rules 
all human beings. The sun goes round according to his purpose. He 



GLOSSARY 135 

brings forth abundance and dispenses it to all the earth. Every one 
adores his beauty. Sweet is his love in us." 

Hotri (Sk.). A priest who recites the hjanns from the Rig Veda, 
and makes oblations to the fire. 

Hotris (Sk.). A symbolical name for the seven senses called, in 
the Anugita "the Seven Priests". "The senses supply the fire of mind 
{i.e., desire) with the oblations of external pleasures". An occult term 
used metaphysically. 

Hrimthurses (Scand.). The Frost-giants; Cvclopean builders in 
the Edda. 

Humanity. Occultly and Kabbalistically, the whole of mankind is 
symbolized, by ]\Ianu in India ; by Vajrasattva or Dorjcsitnpa, the head 
of the Seven Dhyani, in Northern Buddhism ; and by Adam Kadmon in 
the Kabbala. All these represent the totality of mankind whose begin- 
ning is in this androgynic protoplast, and whose end is in the Absolute, 
beyond all these symbols and myths of human origin. Humanity is a 
great Brotherhood by virtue of the sameness of the material from which 
it is formed physically and morally. Unless, however, it becomes a 
Brotherhood also intellectually, it is no better tlian a superior genus of 
animals. 

Hun-desa (Sk.). The country around lake Mansaravara in Tibet. 

Hvanuatha (Mazd.). The name of the earth on which we live. 
One of the seven Karshvare (Earths), spoken of in Orma Ahr. (See 
Introduction to the Vendidnd by Prof. Darmsteter). 

Hwergelmir (Scand.). A roaring cauldron wherein the souls 
of the evil doers perish. 

Hwun (Chin.). Spirit. The same as Atman. 

Hydranos (Gr.). Lit., the "Baptist". A name of the ancient 
Hierophant of the M,ysteries who made the candidate pass through the 
"trial by water", wherein he was plunged thrice. This was his baptism 
by the Holy Spirit which moves on the waters of Space. Paul refers to 
St. John as Hydranos, the Baptist. The Christian Church took this rite 
from the ritualism of the Eleusinian and other Mysteries. 

Hyksos (Eg.). The mysterious nomads, the Shepherds, wlio invaded 
Egypt at a period unknown and far anteceding the days of Moses. They 
are called the "Shepherd Kings". 

Hyle (Gr.). Primordial stuff oi- matter; tesoterically the homo- 
geneous s(dini( )it of Chaos or the Great Dee]). The first principle out of 
which the objective Universe was formed. 

Hypatia (Gr.). The girl-philosophei", who lived at Ale.xandria 
during the fifth century, and taught many a famous man — among others 
Bishop Synesius. She was the daughter of the mathematician Theon, 
and became famous for her learning. Falling a martyr to the fiendish 
conspiracy of Tlienphilos, Bisliop of Alexandria, and his nephew Cyril, 



136 THEOSOPHICAL 

she was foully murdered by their order. With her death fell the Neo- 
Platonic School. 

Hyperborean (Gr.). The regions around the North Pole in the 
Arctic Circle. 

Hypnotism (Gr.). A name given by Dr. Braid to various processes 
by which one person of strong will-power plunges another of weaker 
mind into a kind of trance ; once in such a state the latter will do any- 
thing suggested to him by the hypnotiser. Unless produced for beneficial 
purposes, Occultists would call it Mack magic or Sorcery. It is the most 
dangerous of practices, morally and physically, as it interferes with the 
nerve fluid and the nerves controlling the circulation in the capillary 
blood-vessels. 

Hypocephalus (Gr.). A kind of a pillow for the head of the 
mummy. They are of various kinds, e.g., of stone, wood, etc., and very 
often of circular disks of linen covered with cement, and inscribed with 
magic figures and letters. They are called "rest for the dead" in the 
Ritual, and every mummy-coffin has one. 



GLOSSARY 137 



L 



1. — The ninth letter in the English, the tenth in the Hebrew alphabet. 
As a numeral it signifies in both languages one, and also ten in the 
Hebrew (see J), in which it eorresi^onds to the Divine name J ah, the 
male side, or asj^ect, of the hermaphrodite being, or the male-female 
Adam, of which hovah ( Jah-hovah) is the female aspect. It is symbolized 
by a hand with bent fore-finger, to show its phallic signification. 

lacchos (Gr.). A synonym of Bacchus. Mythology mentions three 
persons so named : they were Greek ideals adopted later by the Romans. 
The word lacchos is stated to be of Phrenician origin, and to mean "an 
infant at the breast". Many ancient monuments represent Ceres or 
Demeter with Bacchus in her arms. One lacchos was called Theban 
and Conqueror, son of Jupiter and Semele ; his mother died before his 
birth and he was preserved for some time in the thigh of his father ; he 
was killed by the Titans. Another was son of Jupiter, as a Dragon, and 
Persephone ; this one was named Zagr^eus. A third was lacchos of 
Eleusis, son of Ceres : he is of importance because he appeared on the 
sixth day of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Some see an analogy between 
Bacchus and Noah, both cultivators of the Vine, and patrons of alcoholic 
excess, [w.w.w.] 

lachus (Gr.). An Egyptian physician whose memory, according 
to JElian, was venerated for long centuries on account of his wonderful 
occult knowledge. lachus is credited with having stopped epidemics 
simply by certain fumigations, and cured diseases by making his patients 
inhale herbs. 

laho. Though this name is more fully treated under the word 
"Yaho" and "lao", a few words of explanation will not be found amiss. 
Diodorus mentions that the God of Moses was lao ; but as the latter name 
denotes a "mystery god", it cannot therefore be confused with laho or 
Yaho (q.v.) The Samaritans pronounced it labe, Yahva, and the Jews 
Yaho, and then Jehovah, by change of Masoretic vowels, an elastic 
scheme by which any change may be indulged in. But "Jehovah" is a 
later invention and invocation, as originally tlic name was Jah, or lacchos 
(Bacchus). Aristotle shows the ancient Arabs representing lach (lac- 
chos) by a horse, i.e., the horse of the Sun (Dionysus), which followed 
the chariot on which Ahura Mazda, the god of the Heavens, daily rode. 

lamblichus (Gr.). A great Theurgist, mystic, and writer of the 
third and fourtli centuries, a Neo-Platonist and philosopher, born at 
Chalcis in Ccele-Syria. Correct biographies of him have never existed 



238 THEO«OPHIC.U^ 

because of the hatred of the Christians ; but that which has been gathered 
of his life in isolated fragments from works by impartial pagan and 
independent writers shows how excellent and holy was his moral char- 
acter, and how great his learning. He may be called the founder of 
theurgic magic among the Neo-Platonists and the reviver of the practical 
mysteries outside of temple or fane. His school was at first distinct 
from that of Plotinus and Porphyry, who were strongly against cere- 
monial magic and practical theurgy as dangerous, though later he con- 
vinced Porphyry of its advisability on some occasions, and both master 
and pupil firmly believed in theurgy and magic, of which the former 
IS principally the highest and most efficient mode of communication 
with one's Higher Ego, through the medium of one's astral body. 
Theurgic is benevolent magic, and it becomes goetic, or dark and evil, 
only when it is used for necromancy or selfish purposes ; but such dark 
magic has never been practised by any theurgist or philosopher, whose 
name has descended to us unspotted by any evil deed. So much was 
Porphyry (who became the teacher of lamblichus in Neo-Platonic phil- 
osophy) convinced of this, that though he himself never practised the- 
urgy, yet he gave instructions for the acquirement of this sacred science. 
Thus he says in one of his writings, "Whosoever is acquainted with the 
nature of divinely luminous appearances {(^aa^ata) knows also on 
what account it is requisite to abstain from all birds (and animal food) 
and especially for him who hastens to be liberated from terrestrial con- 
cerns and to be established with the celestial gods". (See Select Works 
by T. Taylor, p. 159.) Moreover, the same Porphyry mentions in his 
Life of Plotinus a priest of Egypt, who, "at the request of a certain 
friend of Plotinus, exhibited to him, in the temple of Isis at Rome, the 
familiar daimon of that philosopher"'. In other words, he produced the 
theurgic invocation (see "Theurgist") by which Egyptian Hierophant 
or Indian Mahatma, of old, could clothe their own or any other person's 
astral double with the appearance of its Higher Ego, or what Bulwer 
Lytton terms the "Luminous Self", the Augoeides, and confabulate with 
It. This it is which lamblichus and many others, including the me- 
diaeval Rosicrucians, meant by union with Deity. lamblichus wrote 
many books but only a few of his works are extant, such as his "Egypt- 
ian Mysteries" and a treatise "On Daemons", in which he speaks very 
severely against any intercourse with them. He was a biographer of 
Pythagoras and deeply versed in the system of the latter, and was also 
learned in the Chaldean Mysteries. He taught that the One, or univer- 
sal Monad, was the principle of all unity as well as diversity, or of 
Homogeneity and Heterogeneity; that the Duad, or two ("Principles"), 
was the intellect, or that which we call Buddhi-Manas ; three, was the 
Soul (the lower Manas), etc., etc. There is much of the theosophical in 
his teachings, and his works on the various kinds of daemons (Elemen- 
tals) are a well of esoteric knowledge for the student. His austerities, 
purity of life and earnestness were great. lamblichus is credited with 



GLOSSARY 139 

having been once levitated ten cubits high from the ground, as are some 
of the modern Yogis, and even great mediums. 

lao (Gr.). See Taho. The highest god of the Phoenicians— "the 
light conceivable only by intellect", the physical and spiritual Principle 
of all things, "the male Essence of Wisdom". It is the ideal Sun- 
light. 

lao Hebdomai (Gr.). The collective "Seven Heavens" (also 
angels) according to Irensus. The mystery-god of the Gnostics. The 
same as the Seven Manasa-putras (q.v.) of the Occultists. (See also 
"Yah" and "Yaho"). 

Ibis Worship. The Ibis, in Egyptian Hah, was sacred to Thoth at 
Hermopolis. It was called the messenger of Osiris, for it is the symbol 
of Wisdom, Discrimination, and Purity, as it loathes water if it is the 
least impure. Its usefulness in devouring the eggs of the crocodiles and 
serpents was great, and its credentials for divine honours as. a symbol 
were: (a) its black wings, which related it to primeval darkness— chaos ; 
and (&) the triangular shape of them— the triangle being the tirst geo- 
metrical figure and a symbol of the trinitarian mystery. To this day 
the Ibis is a sacred bird with some tribes of Kopts who live along the 
Nile. 

Ibn Gebirol. Solomon Ben Ychudah : a great philosopher and 
scholar, a Jew by birth, who lived in the eleventh century in Spain. The 
same as Avicenna {q.v.). 

Ichchha (Sk.). Will, or will-power. 

Ichchha Sakti (Sk.). Will-power; force of desire; one of the 
occult Forces of nature. That power of the will which, exercised in 
occult practices, generates the nerve-currents necessary to set certain 
muscles in motion and to paralyze certain others. 

Ichthus (Gr.). A Fish: the symbol of the Fish has been frequently 
referred to Jesus, the Christ of the New Testament, partly because the 
five letters forming the word are the initials of the Greek phrase, lesoit.s- 
Christos The on Uios Sotcr, Jesus Christ the Saviour, Son of God. Hence 
his followers in the early Christian centuries were often called fishes. 
and drawings of fish are found in the Catacombs. Compare also the 
narrative that some of his early disciples were fishermen, and the as- 
sertion of Jesus— "I will make you fishers of men". Note also tlie Vesica 
Piscis, a conventional shape for fish in general, is frequently found en- 
closing a picture of a Christ, holy virgin, or saint ; it is a long oval with 
pointed ends, the space marked out by the intersection of two equal cir- 
cles, when less than half the area of one. Compare the Christian female 
recluse, a Nun— this word is the Chaldee name for fish, and fish is con- 
nected with tlie worship of Venus, a goddess, and the Roman Catholics 
still eat fish on the Dies Veneris or Friday, [w.w.w.] 

Ida (Scand.). The plains of Ida, on whicli the gods assemble to hold 
counsel in the Edda. The field of peace and rest. 



140 THEOSOPHICAL 

Ideos, in Paracelsus the same as Chaos, or Mysterium Magnum as 
that philosopher palls it. 

Idises (Scand.). The same as Dises, the Fairies and Walkyries, 
the divine women in the Norse legends; they were reverenced by the 
Teutons before the day of Tacitus, as the latter shows. 

Idaeic Finger. An iron finger strongly magnetized and used in 
the temples for healing purposes. It produced wonders in that direction, 
and therefore was said to possess magical powers. 

Idol. A statue or a picture of a heathen god; or a statue or picture 
of a Romish Saint, or a fetish of uncivilized tribes. 

Idospati (Sk.). The same as Narayana or Vishnu; resembling 
Poseidon in some respects. 

Idra Rabba (Hel.). "The Greater Holy Assembly", a division 
of the Zohar. 

Idra Suta (ILh.). "The Lesser Holy Assembly", another division 
of the Zohar. 

Iduna (Scand.). The goddess of immortal youtli. The daughter of 
Iwaldi, the Dwarf. She is said in the Edda to have hidden "life" in the 
Deep of the Ocean, and when the right time came, to have restored it to 
Earth once more. She was the wife of Bragi, the god of poetry ; a most 
charming myth. Like Heimdal, "born of nine mothers", Bragi at his 
birth rises upon the crest of the wave from the bottom of the sea (see 
"Bragi"). He married Iduna, the immortal goddess, who accompanies 
him to Asgard where every morning she feeds the gods with the apples of 
eternal youth and health. (See Asgard and the Gods.) 

Idwatsara (Sk.). One of the five periods that form the Yuga. 
This cycle is pre-eminently the Vedic cycle, which is taken as the basis 
of calculation for larger cycles. 

leu. The "first man"; a Gnostic term used in Pistis-Sophia. 

lezedians or Iczidi (Pers.). This sect came to Syria from Basrah. 
They use baptism, believe in the archangels, but reverence Satan at the 
same time. Their prophet lezad, who preceded Mahomet by long cen- 
turies, taught that a messenger from heaven would bring them a book 
written from the eternity, 

Ifing (Scand.). The broad river that divides Asgard, the home of 
the gods, from that of the Jotuns, the great and strong magicians. Below 
Asgard was Midgard, where in the sunny sether was built the home of 
the Light Elves. In their disposition and order of locality, all these 
Homes answer to the Deva and other Lokas of the Hindus, inhabited by 
the various classes of gods and Asuras. 

Igaga (Chald.). Celestial angels, the same as Archangels. 

I.H.S. This triad of initials stands for the in hoc signo of the alleged 
vision of Constantine, of which, save Eusebius, its author, no one ever 
knew. I.H.S. is interpreted Jesus Hominum Salvator, and In hoc signo. 



GLOSSARY 141 

It is, however, well known that the Greek IHS was one of the most 
ancient names of Bacchus. As Jesus was never identical with Jehovah, 
but with his own "Father" (as all of us are), and had come rather to 
destroy the worship of Jehovah than to enforce it, as the Rosicrucians 
well maintained, the scheme of Eusebius is very transparent. In hoc 
signo Victoreris, 'r the Ldharum y (the tau and the resh) is a very old 
signum, placed on the foreheads of those who were just initiated. Kenealy 
translates it as meaning "he who is initiated into the Naronic Secret, 
or the 600, shall be Victor"; but it is simply "through this sign hast 
thou conquered"; i.e., through the light of Initiation — Lux. (See Neo- 
phyte" and "Naros".) 

Ikhir Bonga. A "Spirit of the Deep" of the Kolarian tribes. 

Ikshv^aku (^k.). Tlie progenitor of the Solar tribe (the Surya- 
vansas) in India, and the Son of Vaivaswata Manu, the progenitor of 
the present human Race. 

Ila (8k.). Daughter of Vaivaswata IManu ; wife of Buddha, the son 
of Soma ; one month a woman and the other a man by the degree of 
Saraswati ; an illusion to the androgynous second race. Ila is also Vach 
in another aspect. 

Ilavriti (Sk.). A region in the center of whicli is placed Mount 
Meru, the habitat of the gods. 

Idal Boath. Lit., "the child from the Egg", a Gnostic term. He 
is the creator of our physical globe (the earth) according to the Gnostic- 
teaching in the Codex Nazarmis (the Evangel of the Nazarenes and the 
Ebionites). The latter identifies him with Jehovah the God of the Jews. 
Ildaboath is "the Son of Darkness" in a bad sense and the father of the 
six terrestrial "Stellar", dark spirits, the antithesis of the bright Stellar 
spirits. Their respective abodes are the seven spheres, the upper of 
which begins in the "middle space", the region of their mother Sophia 
Achamoth, and the lower ending on this earth — the seventh region (see 
Tsis Unveiled, Vol. II., 183.) Ilda-Baoth is the genius of Saturn, the 
planet ; or rather the evil spirit of its ruler. 

Iliados. In Paracelsus the same as "Ideos" (q.v.) Primordial 
matter in the subjective state. 

lUa-ah, Adam (Heh.). Adam Illa-ah is the celestial, superior 
Adam, in the Zohar. 

minus. One of the gods in the Chaldean Theogony of Damascius. 

Ihnatar (Finn.). The Virgin who falls from heaven into the sea 
before creation. She is the "daughter of the air" and the mother of 
seven sons (the seven forces in nature). (See Kalevala, the epic poem 
of Finland.) 

Illusion. In Occultism everything finite (like the universe and 
Jill in it) is called illusion or maya. 

niuminati (Lat.). The "Enlightened", the initiated adepts. 



1^2 THEOSOPHICAL 

lUus (Gr.). Primordial mud or slime; called also Hyle. 
Image, Occultism permits no other image than that of the livinyr 
image of divine man (the symbol of Humanity) on earth. The Kahhala 
teaches that this divine Image, the copy of the suUime and holy upper 
Image (the Elohim) has now changed into another similitude, owing to 
the development of men's sinful nature. It is only the upper divine 
Image (the Ego) which is the same ; the lower (personality) has changed, 
and man, now fearing the wild beasts, has grown to bear on his face the 
similitude of many of them. (Zohar I. fol. 71a.) In the early period of 
Egypt there were no images; but later, as Lenormand says, "In the 
sanctuaries of Egypt they divided the properties of nature and conse- 
quently of Divinity (the Elohim, or the Egos), into seven abstract qual- 
ities, characterized each by an emblem, which are matter, cohesion, flux- 
ion, coagulation, accumulation, station and division". These were all 
attributes symbolized in various images. 

Imagination. In Occultism this is not to be confused with fancy, 
as it is one of the plastic powers of the higher Soul, and is the memory 
of the preceding incarnations, which, however disfigured by the lower 
Manas, yet rests always on a ground of truth. 

Imhot-pou or Imhotep (Eg.). The god of learning (the Greek 
Imouthes). He was the son of Ptah, and in one aspect Hermes, as he 
is represented as imparting wisdom with a book before him. He is a 
solar god; lit., "the god of the handsome face". 

Immah (Heb.). Mother, in contradistinction to Ahha, father. 
Immah Illa-ah (Heh.). The upper mother; a name given to 
Shekinah. 

In (Chin.). The female principle of matter, impregnated by Yo, the 
male ethereal principle, and precipitated thereafter down into the uni- 
verse. 

Incarnations (Divine) or Avatars. .The Immaculate Conception 
is as pre-eminently Egyptian as it is Indian. As the author of Egyptian 
Belief has it: "It" is not the vulgar, coarse and sensual story as in Greek 
mythology, but refined, moral and spiritual"; and again the incarna- 
tion idea was found revealed on the wall of a Theban temple by Samuel 
Sharpe, who thus analyzes it: "First the god Thoth . . . as the 
messenger of the gods, like the Mercury of the Greeks (or the Gabriel of 
the first Gospel), tells the maiden queen Mautmes, that she is to give 
birth to a son, who is to be king Amunotaph III. Secondly, the god 
Kneph, the Spirit . . . and the goddess Hathor (Nature) . . . 
both take hold of the queen by the hands and put into her mouth the 
character for life, a cross, which is to be the life of the coming child", 
etc., etc. Truly divine incarnation, or the avatar doctrine, constituted 
the grandest mystery of every old religious system ! 

Incas (Peruvian). The name given to the creative gods in the Peru- 
vian theology, and later to the rulers of the country. "The Incas,. 



GLOSSARY 143 

seven ill number have repeopled the earth after the Deluge", Coste 
makes them say (I. iv., p. 19). They belonged at the beginning of the 
fifth Root-race to a dynasty of divine kings, such as those of Egypt, 
India and Chaldea. 

Incubus (Lat.). Soinetliing more real and dangerous than thi- 
ordinary meaning given to the word, viz., that of "nightmare". An 
Incuhus is the male Elemental, and Succuho. the female, and these are 
undeniably the spooks of mediaeval demonology, called forth from the 
invisible regions by human passion and lust. They are now called 
■'Spirit brides" and "Spirit husbands" among some benighted Spiritists 
and spiritual mediums. But these i)oetical names do not prevent them 
in the least being that which they are — Ghools, Vampires and soulless 
Elementals ; formless centers of Life, devoid of sense ; in short, suhjective 
protoplasms when left alone, but called into a definite being and form by 
the creative ami diseased imagination of certain mortals. They were 
known under every clime as in every age, and the Hindus can tell more 
than one terrible tale of the dramas enacted in the life of young students 
and mystics by the Pisachas, their name in India. 

Individuality. One of the names given in Theosophy and Oc- 
cultism to the Human Higher Ego. We make a distinction between the 
immortal and divine Ego, and the mortal human Ego which perishes. 
The latter, or "personality" (personal Ego) survives the dead body only 
foi" a time in the Kama Loka; the Individuality prevails for ever. 

Indra (Sk.). The god of the Firmament, the King of the sidereal 
gods. A Vedic Deity. 

Indrani (Sk.). The female aspect of Indra. 

Indriya or Deha Sanjjama (Sk.). The control of the senses in 
Yoga practic^^ These are the ten external agents ; the five senses which 
are used for perception are called Jnana-indriya, and the five used for 
action — Karma-indriya. Pancha-indriya, means literally and in its oc- 
cult sense ' 'the five roots producing life ' ' (eternal) . With the Buddhists, 
it is the five positive agents producing five supernal qualities. 

Induvansa (Sk.). Also Somavansa or the lunar race (dynasty), 
from /nrf», the Moon. (See "Sur.yavansa"). 

Indwellers. A name or the substitute for the right Sanskrit 
esoteric name, given to our "inner enemies", which are seven in the 
esoteric philosophy. The early Christian Church called them the "Seven 
capital Sins": the Nazarene Gnostics named them, the "seven badly 
disposed Stellars", and so on. Hindu exoteric teachings speak only of 
the "six enemies'" and under the term Arishadivarga enumerate them as 
follows: (1) Personal desire, lust or any passion {Kama) ; (2) Hatred or 
malice {Krodha) ; (3) Avarice or cupidity (Lohha) ; (4) Ignorance 
{Moha) ; (5) Pride or arrogance {Mada) ; (6) Jealousy, envy (Mat- 
(harya) : forgetting the seventh, which is the "unpardonable sin", and 
the worst of all in Occultism. (See Theosophist, May, 1890, p. 431.) 



144 THEOSOPHICAL 

Ineffable Name. With the Jews, the substitute for the "tmjs- 
tery name" of their tribal deity Eh-yeh, "I am", or Jehovah. The third 
commandment prohibiting the using of the latter name "in vain", the 
Hebrews substituted for it that of Adonai or "the Lord". But the- 
Protestant Christians who, translating indifferently Jehovah and Elohim 
— which is also a substitute per se, besides being an inferior deity name 
— by the words "Lord" and "God", have become in this instance more 
Catholic than the Pope, and include in the prohibition both the names. 
At the present moment, however, neither Jews nor Christians seem to 
remember, or so much as suspect, the occult reason why the qualifica- 
tion of Jehovah or YHVH had become reprehensible ; most of the West- 
ern Kabbalists also seem to be unaware of the fact. The truth is, that 
the name they bring forward as "ineffable", is not in the least so._ It is. 
the "unpronounceable", or rather the name not to he pronounced, if any 
thing; and this for symbolical reasons. To begin with, the "Ineffable 
Name" of the true Occultist, is no name at all, least of all is it that of 
Jehovah. The latter implies, even in its Kabbalistical, esoteric meaning, 
an androgynous nature, YHVH, or one of a male and female nature. 
It is simply Adam and Eve, or man and woman blended in one, and as 
now written and prounced, is itself a substitute. But the Rabbins do 
not care to remember the Zoharic admission that YHVH means "not 
as I Am written, Am I read" {Zohar, fol. III., 230a). One has to know 
how to divide the Tetragrammaton ad infinitum before one arrives at the 
sound of the truly unprounceable name of the Jewish mystery-god. 
That the Oriental' Occultists have their own "Ineffable name" it is. 
hardly necessary to repeat. 

Initiate. From the Latin Initiatus. The designation of anyone 
who was received into and had revealed to him the mysteries and secrets- 
of either Masonry or Occultism. In times of antiquity, those who had 
been initiated into the arcane knowledge taught by the Hierophants of 
the Mysteries ; and in our modern days those who have been initiated by 
the adepts of mystic lore into the mysterious knowledge, which, not- 
withstanding the lapse of ages, has yet a few real votaries on earth. 

Initiation. From the same root as the Latin initia, which means, 
the basic or first principles of any Science. The practice of initiation or 
admission into the sacred Mysteries, taught by the Hierophants and 
learned priests of the Temples, is one of the most ancient customs. This 
was practised in every old national religion. In Europe it was abolished 
with the fall of the last pagan temple. There exists at present but one 
kind of initiation known to the public, namely that into the Masonic rites. 
Masonry, however, has no more secrets to give out or conceal. In the 
palmy days of old, the Mysteries, according to the greatest Greek and 
Roman philosophers, were the most sacred of all solemnities as well as. 
the most beneficent, and greatly promoted virtue. The Mysteries rep- 
resented the passage from mortal life into finite death, and the ex- 
periences of the disembodied Spirit and Soul in the world of subjec- 



GLOSSARY 145 

tivity. In our own day, as the secret is lost, the candidate passes through 
sundry meaningless ceremonies and is initiated into the solar allegory 
of Hiram Abift', the ' ' Widow 's Son ' '. 

Inner Man. An occult term, used to designate the true and im- 
mortal Entity in us, not the outward and mortal form of clay that we 
call our body. The term applies, strictly speaking, only to the Higher 
Ego, the "astral man" being the appellation of the Double and Kama 
Rupa (q.v.) or the surviving eidolon. 

Innocents. • A nick-name given to the Initiates and Kabbalists be- 
fore the Christian era. The "Innocents" of Bethlehem and of Lud (or 
hydda) who were put to death by Alexander Janneus, to the number of 
several thousands (b.c. 100, or so), gave rise to the legend of the 40,000 
innocent babes murdered by Herod while searching for the infant Jesus. 
The first is a little known historical fact, the second a fable, as sufficiently 
shown by Renan in his Vie de Jesus. 

Intercosmic gods. The Planetary Spirits, Dyhan-Chohans, Devas 
of various degrees of spirituality, and "Archangels" in general. 

Iranian Morals. The little work called Ancient Iranian and 
Zoroastrian Morals, compiled by Mr. Dhunjibhoy Jamsetjee Medhora, a 
Parsi Theosophist of Bombay, is an excellent treatise replete with the 
highest moral teachings, in English and Gujerati, and will acquaint the 
student better than many volumes with the ethics of the ancient Iranians. 

Irdhi (Sk.). The synthesis of the ten "supernatural" occult powers, 
in Buddhism and Brahmanism. 

Irkalla (Chald.). Tlie god of Hades, called by the Babylonians 
"the country unseen". 

Isarim (Hch.). Tlie Essenian Initiates. 

Ishim (Chald.). The B'ne-Aleim, the "beautiful sons of god", the 
originals and prototypes of the later "Fallen Angels". 

Ishmonia (Arab.). The city near which is buried the so-called 
"petrified city" in the Desert. Legend speaks of immense subter- 
ranean halls and chambers, passages, and libraries secreted in them. 
Arabs dread its neighbourhood after sunset. 

Ishtar (Chald.). The Babylonian Venus, called "the eldest of 
heaven and earth ' ', and daughter of Anu, the god of heaven. She is the 
goddess of love and beauty. The planet Venus, as the evening star, is 
identified with Ishtar, and as the morning star with Anunit, the goddess 
of the Akkads. There exists a most remarkable story of her descent into 
Hades, on the sixth and seventh Assyrian tiles or tablets deciphered by 
the late G. Smith. Any Occultist who reads of her love for Tammuz, 
his assassination by Izdubar, the despair of the goddess and her descent 
in search of her beloved through the seven gates of Hades, and finally 
her liberation from the dark realm, will recognize the beautiful allegory 
of the soul in search of the Spirit. 



146 THEOSOPHICAL 

Isiac table. A true monument of Egyptian art. It represents 
tlie goddess Isis under many of her aspects. The Jesuit Kircher describes 
it as a table of copper overlaid with black enamel and silver incrustations. 
It was in the possession of Cardinal Bembo, and therefore called ' ' Tabula 
Bembina sive Mensa Isiaca". Under this title it is described by W. 
Wynn Wescott, M.B., who gives its "History and Occult Significance" 
in an extremely interesting and learned volume (with photographs and 
illustrations). The tablet was believed to have been a votive offering 
to Isis in one of her numerous temples. At the sack of Rome in 1525, 
it came into the possession of a soldier who sold it to Cardinal Bembo. 
Then it passed to the Diike of Mantua in 1630, when it was lost. 

Isis. In Egyptian Issa, the goddess Virgin-Mother; personified na- 
ture. In Egyptian or Koptic Uasi, the female reflection of Uasar or 
Osiris. She is the "woman clothed with the sun'' of the land of Chemi. 
Isis-Latona is the Roman Isis. 

Isitwa (Sk.). Tlie divine Power. 

Israel (Heb.). The Eastern Kabbalists derive tne name from 
Isaral or Asar, the Sun-God. "Isra-el" signifies "striving with god": 
the "sun rising upon Jacob-Israel" means the Sun-god Israel (or Isar- 
el) striving with, and to fecundate matter, which has power with "God 
and with man" and often prevails over both. Esau, ^saou, Asu, is 
also the Sun. Esau and Jacob, the allegorical twins, are the emblems 
of the ever struggling dual principle in nature — good and evil, darkness 
and sunlight, and the "Lord" (Jehovah) is their antetype. Jacob- 
Israel is the feminine principle of Esau, as Abel is that of Cain, both 
Cain and Esau being the male principle. Hence, like Malach-Iho, the 
"Lord" Esau fights with Jacob and prevails not. In Genesis xxxii. the 
God-Sun first strives with Jacob, breaks his thigh (a phallic symbol) 
and yet is defeated by his terrestrial type— matter ; and the Sun-God 
rises on Jacob and his thigh in covenant. All these biblical personages, 
their "Lord God" included, are types represented in an allegorical se- 
quence. They are types of Life and Death, Good and Evil, Light and 
Darkness, of Matter and Spirit in their synthesis, all these being under 
their contrasted aspects. 

Iswara (Sk.). The "Lord" or the personal god — divine Spirit in 
man. Lit., sovereign (independent) existence. A title given to Siva and 
other gods in India. Siva is also called Iswaradeva, or soverign deva. 

Ithyphallic (Gr.). Qualifications of the gods as males and her- 
maphrodites, such as the bearded Venus, Apollo in woman's clothes, 
Ammon the generator, the embryonic Ptah, and so on. Yet the phallus, 
so conspicuous and, according to our prim notions, so indecent, in the 
Indian and Egyptian religions, was associated in the earliest symbology 
far more with another and much purer idea than that of sexual creation. 
As shown l)y many an Orientalist, it expressed resurrection, the rising 
in life from death. Even the other meaning liad nought indecent in it : 



GLOSSARY 147 

"These images only symbolize in a very expressive manner the creative 
force of nature, without obscene intention," writes Marietta Bey, and 
adds, "It is but another way to express celestial generation, which should 
cause the deceased to enter into a new life". Christians and Europeans 
are very hard on tlie phallic symbols of the ancients. The nude gods 
and goddesses and their generative emblems and statuary have secret 
departments assigned to them in our museums ; why then adopt and 
preserve the same symbols for Clergy and Laity ? The love-feasts in the 
early Church — its agapa' — were as pure (or as impure) as the Phallic 
festivals of the Pagans ; the long priestly robes of the Roman and Greek 
Churches, and the long hair of the latter, the holy tvater sprinklers and 
the rest, are there to show that Christian ritualism has preserved in more 
or less modified forms all the symbolism of old Egypt. As to the sym- 
bolism of a purely feminine nature, we are bound to confess that in the 
sight of every impartial archseologist the half nude toilets of our cultured 
ladies of Society are far more suggestive of female-sex worship than are 
the rows of yoni-shaped lamps, lit along the highways to temples in 
India. 

lurbo Aduna'i. A Gnostic term, or the compound name for lao- 
Jehovah, whom the Ophites regarded as an emanation of their llda- 
Baoth, the Son of Sophia Achamoth. — the proud, ambitious and jealous 
god, and impure Spirit, whom many of the Gnostic sects regarded as the 
god of Moses. "lurbo is called by the Abortions (the Jews) Adunai" 
says the Codex Nazarceus (vol. iii., p. 13). The "Abortions" and Ahor- 
tives was the nickname given to the Jews by their opponents the 
Gnostics. 

lu-Kabar Zivo (On.). Known also as Nebat-Iavar-bar-Iufin-Ifafin. 
"Lord of the JEons" in the Nazarene System. He is the procreator 
(Emanator) of the seven holy lives (the seven primal Dhyan Chohans, 
or Archangels, each representing one of the cardinal Virtues), and is 
himself called i\\e thirel life (third Logos). In the Codex he is addressed 
as "the Helm and Vine of the food of life". Thus, he is identical with 
Christ (Christos) who says "I am the true Vine and my Father is the 
Husbandman" (John xv. 1). It is well known that Christ is regarded 
in the Roman Catholic Church as the "chief of the --Eons", and also as 
Michael "who is like god". Such was also the belief of the Gnostics. 

Iwaldi (Scand.). The dwarf whose sons fabricated for Odin the 
magic spear. One of the subterranean master-smiths who, together with 
other gnomes, contrived to make an enchanted sword for the great war- 
god Cheru. This two-edged-sword figures in the legend of the Emperor- 
Vitellius, who got it from the god, "to his own hurt", according to the 
oracle of a "wise woman", neglected it and was finally killed with it at 
the foot of the capitol, by a German soldier who had purloined the 
weapon. The "sword of the war-god" has a long biography, since it 
also re-appears in the half-legendary biography of Attila. Having 
married against her will lldikd, the beautiful daughter of the King of 



148 THEOSOPHICAL 

Burgundy whom he had slaiu, his bride gets the magic sword from a 
mysterious old woman, and with it kills the King of the Huns. 

Izdubar. A name of a hero in the fragments of Chaldean History 
and Theogony on the so-called Assyrian tiles, as read by the late George 
Smith and others. Smith seeks to identify Izudubar with Nimrod. 
Such may or may not be the case ; but as the name of that Babylonian 
King itself only "appears" as Izdubar, his identification with the son 
of Cush may also turn out more apparent than real. Scholars are but 
too apt to check their archseological discoveries by the far later state- 
ments found in the Mosaic books, instead of acting vice versa. The 
"chosen people" have been fond at all periods of history of helping 
themselves to other people's property. From the appropriation of the 
early history of Sargon, King of Akkad, and its wholesale application to 
Moses born (if at all) some thousands of years later, down to their 
"spoiling" the Egyptians under the direction and divine advice of their 
Lord God, the whole Pentateuch seems to be made up of unacknowledged 
mosaical fragments from other people's Scriptures. This ought to have 
made Assyriologists more cautious ; but as many of these belong to the 
clerical caste, such coincidences as that of Sargon affect them very little. 
One thing is certain : Izdubar, or whatever may be his name, is shown 
in all the tablets as a mighty giant who towered in size above all other 
men as a cedar towers over brushwood — a hunter, according to cuneiform 
legends, who contended with, and destroyed the lion, tiger, wild bull, and 
buffalo, tlie most formidable animals. 



GLOSSARY 149 



J. 

J. — The tenth letter in the English and Hebrew alphabet, in the 
latter of which it is equivalent to y, and i, and is numerically number 
10, the perfect number (See Jodh and Yodh), or one. (See also I.) 

Jabalas (Sk.). Students of the mystical portion of the White Yajur 
Veda. 

Jachin (Ilch.). "In Hebrew letters IKIN, from the root KUN 
"to establish", and the symbolical name of one of the Pillars at the 
porch of King Solomon's Temple." [w.w.w.] 

The other pillar was called Boaz, and the two were respectively white 
and black. They correspond to several mystic ideas, one of which is that 
they represent the dual Manas or the higher and the lower Ego ; another 
connected these two pillars in Slavonian mysticism with God and the 
Devil, to the "White'' and the Black God" or By cloy Bog and Tcher- 
noy Bog. (See "Yakin and Boaz" infra). 

Jacobites. A Christian sect in Syria of the Vlth century (550), 
which held that Christ had only one nature and that confession was not 
of divine origin. They had secret signs, passwords and a solemn initia- 
tion with mysteries. 

Jadoo (Hind.). Sorcery, black magic, enchantment. 

Jadoogar (Hind.). A Sorcerer, or Wizard. 

Jagaddhatri (Sk.). Substance; the name of "the nurse of the 
world", the designation of the power which carried Krishna and his 
brother Balarama into Devaki, their mother's bosom. A title of Saras- 
vati and Durga. 

Jagad-Yoni (Sk.). The womb of the world; space. 

Jagat (Sk.). The Universe. 

Jagan-Natha (Sk.). Lit., "Lord of the World", a title of Vishnu. 
The great image of Jagan-natha on its car, commonly pronounced and 
spelt Jagernath. The idol is that of Vishnu Khrishna. Puri, near the 
town of Cuttack in Orissa, is the great seat of its worship ; and twice a 
year an immense number of pilgrims attend the festivals of the Snana- 
yatra and Ratha-yatra. During the first, the image is bathed, and dur- 
ing the second it is placed on a car, between the images of Balarama the 
brother, and Svhhadrd the sister of Krishna and the huge vehicle is 
drawn by the devotees, who deem it felicity to be crushed to death 
under it. 

Jagrata (Sk.). The waking state of consciousness. When men- 



150 THEOSOPHICAL 

tioned in Yoga philosophy, Jagrata-avastha is the waking condition, one 
of the four states of Pranava in ascetic practices, as nsed by the Yogis. 

Jahnavi (Sk.). A name of Ganga, or the river Ganges. 

Jahva Alhim (Hch.). The name that in Genesis replaces 
"Alhim", or Elohim, the gods. It is used in chapter I., while in chapter 
II. the "Lord God" or Jehovah steps in. In Esoteric philosophy and 
exoteric tradition, Jahva Alhim {Java Aleim) was the title of the chief 
of the Hierophants, who initiated into the good and the evil of this world 
in the college of priests known as the Aleim College in the land of Gan- 
clunya or Babylonia. Tradition and rumor assert, that the chief of 
the temple Fo-ma'iyu, called Foh-tchou (teacher of Buddhist law), a 
temple situated in the fastnesses of the great mount of Kouenlong-sang 
(between China and Tibet), teaches once every three years under a tree 
called Sung-Mhi-Shu, or the "Tree of Knowledge and (the tree) of 
life", which is the Bo (Bodhi) tree of Wisdom. 

Jaimini (Sk.). A great sage, a disciple of Vyasa, the transmitter 
and teacher of the Sama Veda which as claimed he received from his 
Guru. He is also the famous founder and writer of the Purva Mimansa 
philosophy. 

Jaina Cross. The same as the "Swastika" (q.v.) "Thor's hammer" 
also, or the Hermetic cross. 

Jainas (Sk.). A large religious body in India closely resembling 
Buddhism, but who preceded it by long centuries. They claim that 
Gautama, the Buddha, was a disciple of one of their Tirtankaras, or 
Saints. They deny the authority of the Vedas and the existence of any 
personal supreme god, but believe in the eternity of matter, the periodic- 
ity of the universe and the immortality of men's minds (Manas) as also 
of that of the animals. An extremely mystic sect. 

Jalarupa (Sk.). Lit., "water-body, or form". One of the names 
of Makara (the sign capricornus). It is one of the most occidt and 
mysterious of the Zodiacal signs ; it figures on the banner of Kama, god 
of love, and is connected with our immortal Egos. (See Secret Doctrine). 

Jambu-dwipa (Sk.). One of the main division of the globe, in the' 
Puranic system. It includes India. Some say that it was a continent, 
— others an island — or one of the seven islands (Sapta dwipa). It is 
"the dominion of Vishnu". In its astronomical and mystic sense it is the 
name of our globe, separated by the plane of objectivity from the six 
other globes of our planetary chain. 

Jamin (Hch.). The right side of a man esteemed the most worthy. 
Benjamin means "son of the right side", i.e., testis, [w.w.w.] 

Janaka (Sk.). One of the Kings of Mithila of the Solar race. He 
was a great royal sage, and lived twenty generations before Janaka the 
father of Sita who was King of Videha. 

Jana-loka (Sk.). The world wherein the Munis (tne Saints) are 



OLOSSARY 151 

supposed to dwell after their corporeal death (See Purduas). Also a 
terrestrial loealit3\ 

Janarddana (Sk.). Lit., "the adored of mankind"', a title of Krishna. 

Japa (Sk.). A mystical practice of certain Yogis. It consists in the 
repetition of various magical formulae and mantras. 

Jaras (Sk.). "Old Age". The allegorical name of the hunter who 
killed Krishna by mistake, a name showing the great ingenuity of the 
Brahmans and the symbolical character of the World-Scriptures in 
general. As Dr. Criicefix, a high mason well says, "to preserve the 
occult mysticism of their order from all except their own class, the priests 
invented symbols and hieroglyphics to embody sublime truths". 

Jatayu (Sk.). The Son of Garuda. The latter is the great cycle, 
or Mahakalpa symbolized by the giant bird which served as a steed for 
Vishnu, and other gods, when related to space and time. Jatayu is 
called in the Ramaijana "the King of the feathered tribe". For defend- 
ing Sita carried away by Ravana, the giant king of Lanka, he was killed 
Dy him. Jatayu is also called "the king of the vultures". 

Javidan Khirad (Pers.). A work on moral precepts. 

Jayas (Sk.). The twelve great gods in the Purdnas who neglect to 
create men, and are therefore, cursed by Brahma to be rehorn "in every 
(racial) Manvantara till the seventh". Another form or aspect of the 
reincarnating Egos. 

Jebel Djudi (Aral.). The "Deluge Mountain" of the Arabic 
legends. The same as Ararat, and the Babylonian Mount of Nizar where 
Xisuthrus landed with his ark. 

Jehovah (Hch.). The Jewish "Deity name J'hovah, is a compound 
of the two words, viz of Jah (y, i, or j, Yodh, the tenth letter of the 
alphabet) and hovah (Havah, or Eve)," says a Kabbalistic authority, 
Mr. J. Ralston Skinner of Cincinnati, U.S.A. And again, "The word 
Jehovah, or Jah -Eve, has the primary meaning of existence or being as 
male female". It means Kabbalistically the latter, indeed, and nothing 
more ; and as repeatedly shown is entirely phallic. Thus, verse 26 in 
the IVth chapter of Genesis, reads in its disfigured translation . . . 
"then began men to call upon the name of the Lord", whereas it ought 
to read correctly . . . "then began men to call themselves by the 
name Jah-hovah" or males and females, which they had become after the 
separation of sexes. In fact the latter is described in the same chapter, 
when Cain (the male or Jah) "rose np against Abel, his {.<iister, not) 
brother who slew him" {spilt his blood, in the original). Chapter IV of 
Genesis contains in truth, the allegorical narrative of that period of an- 
thropological and physiological evolution which is described in the 
Secret Doctrine when treating of the third Root race of mankind. It is 
followed by Chapter V as a blind; but ought to be succeeded by Chap- 
ter VI, where the Sons of God took as their wives the daughters of men 



152 



THEOSOPHICAL 



or of the giants. For this is an allegory hinting at the mystery of the 
Divine Egos incarnating in mankind, after which the hitherto senseless 
races "became mighty men, . . men of renown" (v. 4), having ac- 
quired minds (manas) which they had not before. 

Jehovah Nissi (Heh.). The androgyne of Nissi (See "Diony- 
sos"). The Jews worshipped under this name Bacchus-Osiris, Dio- 
Nysos, and the multiform Joves of Nyssa, the Sinai of Moses. Universal 
tradition shews Bacchus reared in a cave of Nysa. Diodorus locates 
Nysa between Phoenicia and Egypt, and adds, "Osiris was brought up 
in Nysa .... he was son of Zeus and was named from his father 
(nominative Zeus, genitive Dios) and the place Dio-nysos" — the Zeus or 
Jove of Nyssa. 

Jerusalem, Jirosalcm (Septnag.) and Hierosohjma (Vulgate). 
In Hebrew it is written Yrshlim or "city of peace", but the ancient 
Greeks called it pertinently Hierosalem or "Secret Salem", since Jeru- 
salem is a rebirth from Salem of which Melchizedek was the King-Hiero- 
phant, a declared Astrolator and worshipper of the Sun, "the Most 
High" by-the-bye. There also Adoni-Zedek reigned in his turn, and 
was the last of' its Amorite Sovereigns. He allied himself with four 
others, and these five kings went to conquer back Gideon, but (according 
to Joshua X) came out of the fray second best. And no wonder, since 
these five kings were opposed, not only by Joshua but by the "Lord 
God ' ', and by the Sun and tlie Moon also. On that day, we read, at the 
command of the successor of Moses, "the sun stood still and the moon 
stayed" (v. 13) for the whole day. No mortal man, king or yeoman, 
could withstand, of course, such a shower "of great stones from heaven" 
as was cast upon them by the Lord himself . . . "from Beth-horon 
unto Azekah" . . . "and they died" (v. 11). After having died 
they "fled and hid themselves in a cave at Makkedah" (v. 16)._ It ap- 
pears, however, that such undignified behaviour in a God received its 
Karmic punishment afterwards. At different epochs of history, the 
Temple of the Jewish Lord was sacked, ruined and burnt (See "Mount 
Moriah") — holy ark of the covenant, cherubs, Shekinah and all, but 
that deity seemed as powerless to protect his property from desecration 
as though there were no more stones left in heaven. After Pompey had 
taken the Second Temple in 63, b.c, and the third one, built by Herod 
the Great, had been razed to the ground by the Romans, in 70 a.d., no 
new temple was allowed to be built in the capitol of the "chosen people" 
of the Lord. In spite of the Crusades, since the Xlllth century Jeru- 
salem has belonged to the Mahommedans, and almost every site holy 
and dear to the memory of the old Israelites, and also of the Christians, 
is now covered by minarets and mosques, Turkish barracks and other 
monuments of Islam. 

Jesod (Heh.). Foundation; the ninth of the Ten Sephiroth, a mas- 
culine active potency, completing the six which form the Microprosopus. 
[w.w.w.] 



GLOSS AKY 153 

Jetzirah (Hch.). See "Yetzirah". 

Jetzirah, Sephcr: or Book of the Creation. The most occult of all 
the Kabalistic works now in the possession of modern mystics. Its al- 
leged origin, of having been written by Abraham, is of course nonsense ; 
but its intrinsic value is great. It is composed of six Perakim (chap- 
ters), subdivided into thirty-three short Mishnas or Sections; and treats 
of the evolution of the Universe on a system of correspondences and 
numbers. Deity is said therein to have formed ("created") the Uni- 
verse by means of numbers "by thirty-two paths (or ways) of secret 
wisdom", these ways being made to correspond with the twenty-two 
letters of the Hebrew alphabet and the ten fundamental numbers. These 
ten are the primordial numbers whence proceeded the whole Universe, 
and these are followed by the twenty-two letters divided into Three 
Mothers, the seven double consonants and the twelve simple consonants. 
He who would well understand the system is advised to read the excellent 
little treatise upon Sepher Jetzirah, by Dr. W. Wynn Westcott. (See 
^'Yetzirah".) 

Jhana (Sk.). or J nana. Knowledge; Occult Wisdom. 

Jhana Bhaskara (8k.). A work on Asuramaya, the Atlautean astrono- 
mer and magician, and other prehistoric legends. 

Jigten Gonpo (Tib.). A name of Avalokiteswara, or Chenresi- 
Padmapani, the "Protector against Evil", 

Jishnu (Sk.). "Leader of the Celestial Host", a title of Indra, 
who, in the War of the Gods with the Asuras, led the "host of devas". 
He is the "Michael, the leader of the Archangels" of India. 

Jiva (Sk.). Life, as the Absolute; the Monad also or "Atma-Buddhi". 

Jivanmukta (Sk.). An adept or yogi who has reached the ulti- 
mate state of holiness, and separated himself from matter ; a Mahatma, or 
Nirvance, a "dweller in bliss" and emancipation. Virtually one who 
has reached Nirvana during life. 

Jivatma (Sk.). The one universal life, generally; but also the divine 
Spirit in Man. 

Jnanam ^^7i-.;. The same as "Gnana". etc., the same as "Jhana" 
{q.v.). 

Jnanendriyas (Sk.). The five channels of knowledge. 
Jnana Sakti (Sk.). The power of intellect. 

Jord. In Northern Germany the goddess of the Earth, the same as 
Nerthus and the Scandinavian Freya or Frigg. 

Jotunheim (Scand.). The land of the Ilrimtliurses or Frost-giants. 

Jotuns (Scand.). The Titans or giants. Mimir, who taught Odin 
magic, the "thrice wise", was a Jotun. 

Jul (Scand.). The wheel of the Sun from whence Yuletidc, which 
was sacred to Freyer, or Fro, the Sun-god, the ripener of the fields and 



154 THEOSOPHICAL 

fruits, admitted later to tiie circle of the Ases. As god of sunshine and 
fruitful harvests he lived in the Home of the Light Elves. 

Jupiter (Lat.). From the same root as the Greek Zeus, the great- 
est god of the ancient Greeks and Romans, adopted also by other nations. 
His names are among others: (1) Jupiter- Aerios ; (2) Jupiter- Ammon 
of Egypt; (3) Jupiter Bel-Moloch, the Chaldean; (4) Jupiter-Mundus, 
Deus Mundus, "God of the World"; (5) Jupiter-Fulgur, "the Fulgur- 
ant", etc., etc. 

Jyotisha (Sk.). Astronomy and Astrology; one of the Vedangas. 

Jyotisham Jyotch (Sk.). The "light of lights", the Supreme 
Spirit, so called in the Upanishads. 

Jyotsna (Sk.). Dawn; one of the bodies assumed by Brahma; the 
morning twilight. 



GLOSSARY 155 



K. 



K. 



-The eleventh hotter in both the English and the Hebrew alphabets. 
As a numeral it stands in the latter for 20, and in the former for 250, 
and with a stroke over it (K) for 250,000. The Kabalists and the Masons 
appropriate the Kodesh or Kadosh as the name of the Jewish god under 
tliis letter. 

Ka (Sk.). According to ^lax Miiller, the interrogative pronoun 
"who-" — raised to the dignity of a deity without cause or reason. Still 
it has its esoteric significance and is a name of Brahma in his phallic 
character as generator or Prajdpoti (q.v.). 

Kabah or Kaaha (Arab.). The name of the famous ]\Iahommedan 
temple at Mecca, a great place of pilgrimage. The edifice is not large 
but very original; of a cubical form 23X24 cubits in length and breadth 
and 27 cubits high, with only one aperture on the East side to admit 
light. In the north-east corner is the "black-stone" of Kaaba, said to 
have been lowered down direct from heaven and to have been as white 
as snow, but subsequently it became black, owing to the sins of mankind. 
The "white stone", the reputed tomb of Ismael, is in the north side and 
the place of Abraham is to the east. If, as the Mahommedans claim, 
this temple was, at the prayer of Adam after his exile, transferred by 
Allah or Jehovah direct from Eden down to earth, then the "heathen" 
may truly claim to have far exceeded the divine primordial architecture 
in the beauty of their edifices. 

Kabalist. From Q B L H, Kabala, an unwritten or oral tradition. 
Tlie kabalist is a student of "secret science", one who interprets the 
hidden meaning of the Scriptures with the help of the symbolical Kabala, 
and explains the real one by these means. The Tanai'm were the first 
kabalists among the Jews ; they appeared at Jerusalem about the begin- 
ning of the third century before the Christian era. The books of Ezekiel, 
Daniel, Ilotoch, and the Rcvelaiion of St. John, are purely kabalistical. 
This secret doctrine is identified with that of the Chaldeans, and includes 
at the same time much of the Persian wisdom, or "magic". History 
catches glimpses of famous kabalists ever since the eleventh century. 
The Mediasval ages, and even our own times, have had an enormous 
number of the most learned and intellectual men who were students of 
the Kabala (or Qabbalah, as some spell it). The most famous among the 
former were Paracelsus, Henry Khunrath, Jacob Bcihmen, Robert Fludd, 
the two Va)i Helmonts, the Abbot John Trithemius, Cornelius Agrippa, 
Cardinal Nicolao Cusani, Jerome Carden, Pope Sixtus IV., and such 
Christian scholars as Raymond Lully, Giovanni Pico de la Mirandola, 



156 



THEOSOPHICAL 



Guillaume Postel, the great John Reuehlin, Dr. Henry More, Eugenius 
Philalethes (Thomas Vaughan), the erudite Jesuit Athanasius Kireher, 
Christian Knorr (Baron) von Rosenroth ; then Sir Isaac Newton, Leib- 
niz, Lord Bacon, Spinosa, etc., etc., the list being almost inexhaustible. 
As remarked by Mr. Isaac Myer, in his Qahlalah, the ideas of the Kabal- 
ists have largely influenced European literature. "Upon the practical 
Qabbalah, the Abbe de Villars (nephew of the de Montfaucon) in 1670, 
published his celebrated satirical novel, 'The Count de Gabalis', upon 
which Pope based his 'Rape of the Lock'. Qabbalism ran through the 
Medieval poems, the 'Romance of the Rose', and permeates the writings 
of Dante." No two of them, however, agreed upon the origin of the 
Kabala, the Zohar, SepJier Yetzirah, etc. Some show it as coming from 
the Biblical Patriarchs, Abraham, and even Seth; others from Egypt, 
others again from Chaldea. The system is certainly very old ; but like 
all the rest of systems, whether religious or philosophical, the Kabala is 
derived directly from the primeval Secret Doctrine of the East ; through 
the Vedas, the Upanishada, Orpheus and Thales, Pythagoras and the 
Egyptians. Whatever its source, its substratum is at any rate identical 
with that of all the other systems from the Book of the Dead down to the 
later Gnostics. The best exponents of the Kabala in the Theosophical 
Society were among the earliest, Dr. S. Pancoast, of Philadelphia, and 
Mr. G. Felt ; and among the latest, Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, Mr. S. L. 
Mac Gregor Mathers (both of the Rosicrucian College) and a few others. 
(See "Qabbalah".) 

Kabalistic Faces. These are Nephesch, Ruach and Nesehamah, 
or the animal (vital), the Spiritual and the Divine Souls in man — Body, 
Soul and Mind. 

Kabalah (Heh.). The hidden wisdom of the Hebrew Rabbis of the 
middle ages derived from the older secret doctrines concerning divine 
things and cosmogony, which were combined into a theology after the 
time of the captivity of the Jews in Babylon. All the works that fall 
under tlie esoteric category are termed Kabalistic. 

Kabiri (Phan.). or t\he Kahirim. Deities and very mysterious gods 
with the ancient nations, including the Israelites, some of whom— as 
Terah, Abram's father— worshipped them under the name of Terephim. 
With the Christians, however, they are now devils, although the modern 
Archangels are the direct transformation of these same Kabiri. In 
Hebrew the latter name means "the mighty ones", Gihhorim. At one 
time all the deities connected with fire— whether they were divine, in- 
fernal or volcanic — were called Kabirian. 

Kadmon (Hch.). Archetypal man. See "Adam Kadmon". 
Kadosh (Heh.). Consecreted, holy; also written Kodesh. Some- 
thing set apart for temple worship. But between the etymological mean- 
ing of the word, and its subsequent significance in application to the 
Kadeshim (the "priests" set apart for certain temple rites)— there is an 



GLOSSARY , 157 

abyss. Tlic words Kadosh and Kadeshim are used in II. Kings as rather 
an opprobrious name, for the Kadeshuth of the Bible were identical in 
their office and duties with the Nautch girls of some Hindu temples. 
They were Galli, the mutilated priests of the lascivious rites of Venus 
Astarte, who lived "by the house of tlie Lord". Curiously enough the 
terms Kadosh, etc., were appropriated and used by several degrees of 
Masonic knighthood. 

Kailasa (S.). In metaphysics "heaven", the abode of gods; 
geographically a mountain range in the Himalayas, north of the Man- 
saravara lake, called also lake Manasa. 

Kailem (ILh.). Lit., vessels or vehicles; the vases for the source of 
the Waters of Life ; used of the Ten Sephiroth, considered as the prime- 
val nudc'i of all Kosmic Forces. Some Kabalists regard them as man- 
ifesting in the universe through twenty-two canals, which are repre- 
sented by the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet, thus making 
with the Ten Sephiroth thirty-two paths of wisdom, [w.w.w.] 

Kaimarath (Pers.). The last of the race of the prehuman kings. 
He is identical with Adam Kadmon. A fabulous Persian hero. 

Kakodaemon (Gr.). The evil genius as opposed to Agathodcenion, 
tlie good genius, or deity. A Gnostic term. 

Kala (Sk.). A measure of time; four hours, a period of thirty 
Kashthas. 

Kala (Sk.). Time, fate ; a cycle and a proper name, or title given 
to Yama, King of the nether world and Judge of the Dead. 

Kalabhana (Sk.). The same as Taraka (See Secret Doctrine, Vol. 
II., p. 382, foot-note). 

Kalagni (Sk.). The tlame of time. A divine Being created by 
Siva, a monster with 1,000 heads. A title of Siva meaning "the fire of 
fate". 

Kalahansa or Hamsa (Sk.). A mystic title given to Brahma (or 
Parabrahman) ; means "the swan in and out of time". Brahma (male) 
is called Hansa-Vahan, the vehicle of the "Swan". 

Kalavingka (Sk.). also Kuravikaya and Karanda, etc. "The 
sweet-voiced bird of immortality". Eitel identifies it with cuculus mel- 
anoleicus, though the bird itself is allegorical and non-existent. Its 
voice is heard at a certain stage of Dhyana in Yoga practice. It is said 
to have awakened King Birabisara and thus saved him from the sting 
of a cobra. In its esoteric meaning this sweet-voiced bird is our Higher 
Ego. 

Kalevala. The Finnish Epic of Creation, 

Kali (Sk.). The "black", now the name of Parvati, the consort of 
Siva, but originally tliat of one of the seven tongues of Agni, the god of 
fire — "the black, fiery tongue". Evil and wickedness. 

Kakidasa (Sk.). The greatest poet and dramatist of India. 



158 . THEOSOPHICAl, 

Kaliya (Sk.). The five-headed serpent killed by Krishna in his 
childhood. A mystical monster symbolizing the passions of man — the 
river or water being a symbol of matter. 

Kaliyuga (Sk.). The fourth, the hlack or iron age, our present 
period, the duration of which is 432,000 years. The last of the ages into 
which the evolutionary period of man is divided by a series of such 
ages. It began 3,102 years B.C. at the moment of Krishna's death, and 
the first cycle of 5,000 years will end between the years 1897 and 1898. 

Kalki Avatar (Sk.). The "White Horse Avatar", which will be the 
last manvantaric incarnation of Vishnu, according to the Brahmins; 
of Maitreya Buddha, agreeably to Northern Buddhists; of Sosiosh, the 
last hero and Saviour of the Zoroastrians, as claimed by Parsis ; and of 
the "Faithful and True" on the white Horse {Rev. xix., 2). In his future 
epiphany or tenth avatar, the heavens will open and Vishnu will appear 
"seated on a milk-white steed, with a drawn sword blazing like a comet, 
for the final destruction of the wicked, the renovation of 'creation' and 
the 'restoration of purity' ". (Compare Revelations.) This will take 
place at the end of the Kaliyuga 427,000 years hence. The latter end 
of every Yuga is called "the destruction of the world", as then the earth 
changes each time its outward form, submerging one set of continents 
and upheaving another set. 

Kalluka Bhatta (Sk.). A commentator of the Hindu Maiiu 
Smriti Scriptures; a well-known writer and historian. 

Kalpa (Sk.). The period of a mundane revolution, generally a 
cycle of time, but usually, it represents a "day" and "night" of 
Brahma, a period of 4,320,000,000 years. 

Kama (Sk.). Evil desire, lust, volition; the cleaving to existence. 
Kama is generally identified with Mara, the tempter. 

Kamadeva (Sk.). In the popular notions the god of love, a Visva- 
deva, in the Hindu Pantheon. As the Eros of Hesiod, degraded into 
Cupid by exoteric law, and still more degraded by a later popular sense 
attributed to the term, so is Kama a most mysterious and metaphysical 
subject. The earlier Vedic description of Kama alone gives the key-note 
to what he emblematizes. Kama is the first conscious, all emhracing desire 
for universal good, love, and for all that lives and feels, needs help and 
kindness, the first feeling of infinite tender compassion and mercy that 
arose in the consciousness of the creative One Force, as soon as it came 
into life and being as a ray from the Absolute. Says the Rig Veda, 
"Desire first arose in It, which was the primal germ of mind, and which 
Sages, searching with their intellect, have discovered in their heart to be 
the bond which connects Entity with non-Entity", or Manas with pure 
Atma-Buddhi. There is no idea of sexual love in the conception. Kama 
is pre-eminently the divine desire of creating happiness and love ; and 
it is only ages later, as mankind began to materialize by anthropomor- 
phization its grandest ideals into cut and dried dogmas, that Kama be- 



GLOSSARY 159 

came the power tliat gratifies desire on the animal plane. This is shown 
by what every Veda and some Brahmanas say. In the Atharva Veda, 
Kama is represented as the Supreme Deity and Creator. In the Tai- 
tariya Brahmana, he is the child of Dharma, the god of Law and Justice, 
of Sraddha and faith. In another account he springs from the heart 
of Brahma. Others show him born from water i.e., from primordial 
chaos, or the ' ' Deep ' '. Hence one of his many names, Ird-ja, ' ' the water- 
born"; and Aja, "unborn"; and Atmahhu or "Self -existent". Because 
of the sign of Makara (Capricornus) on his banner, he is also called 
"Makara Ketu". The allegory about Siva, the "Great Yogin", reduc- 
ing Kama to ashes by the fire from his central (or third) Eye, for in- 
spiring the Mahadeva with thoughts of his wife, while he was at his 
devotions — is very suggestive, as it is said that he thereby reduced Kama 
to his primeval spiritual form. 

Kamadhatu (8k.). Called also Kamavatchara, a region including 
Kamaloka. In exoteric ideas it is the first of the Trailokya — or three 
regions (applied also to celestial beings) or seven planes or degrees, each 
broadly represented by one of the three chief characteristics; namely, 
Kama, Rupa and Arupa, or those of desire, form and formlessness. The 
first of the Trailokyas, Kamadhatu, is thus composed of the earth and 
the six inferior Devalokas, the earth being followed by Kamaloka (q.v.). 
These taken together constitute the seven degrees of the material world 
of form and sensuous gratification. The second of the Trailokya (or 
Trilokj^a) is called Rupadhdtu or "material form" and is also composed 
of seven Lokas (or localities). The third is Arupadhdtu or "immaterial 
lokas". "Locality", however, is an incorrect word to use m translating 
the term dhdtu, which does not mean in some of its special applications a 
"place" at all. For instance, Arupadhdtu is a purely subjective world, 
a "state" rather than a place. But as the European tongues have no 
adequate metaphysical terms to express certain ideas, we can only point 
out the difficulty. 

Kamaloka (Sk.). The Semi-material plane, to us subjective and 
invisible, where the disembodied "personalities", the astral forms, called 
Kamarupa remain, until they fade out from it by the complete exhaus- 
tion of the effects of the mental impulses that created these eidolons of 
human and animal passions and desires. (See "Kamarupa".) It is the 
Hades of the ancient Greeks and the Amenti of the Egyptians, the land 
of Silent Shadows; a division of the first group of the Trailokya. (See 
"Kamadhatu". 

Kamarupa (Sk.). Metaphysically, and in our esoteric philosophy, 
it is the subjective form created through the mental and physical desires 
and thoughts in connection with things of matter, by all sentient beings, 
a form which survives the death of their bodies. After that death three 
of these seven "principles" — or let us say planes of senses and conscious- 
ness on which the human instincts and ideation act in turn — viz., the 



160 THEOSOPHICAL 

body, its astral prototype and physical vitality, — being of no further 
use, remain on earth ; three higher principles, grouped into one, merge 
into the state of Devachan (q.v.), in which state the Higher Ego will 
remain until the hour for a new reincarnation arrives; and the eidolon 
of the ex-Personality is left alone in its new abode. Here, the pale copy 
of the man that was, vegetates for a period of time, the duration of 
which is variable and according to the element of materiality which is 
left in it, and which is determined by the past life of the defunct. Bereft 
as it is of its higher mind, spirit and physical senses, if left alone to its 
own senseless devices, it will gradually fade out and disintegrate. But, 
if forcibly drawn back into the terrestrial sphere whether by the pas- 
sionate desires and apjaeals of the surviving friends or by regular necro- 
mantic practices — one of the most pernicious of which is mediumship — 
the "spook" may prevail for a period greatly exceeding the span of the 
natural life of its body. Once the Kamarupa has learnt the way back 
to living human bodies, it becomes a vampire, feeding on the vitality of 
those who are so anxious for its company. In India the eidolons are 
called Pisdchas, and are much dreaded, as already explained elsewhere. 
Kamea (Heh.). An amulet, generally a magic square. 

Kandu (Sk.). A holy sage of the second root-race, a yogi, whom 
Pramlocha, a "nymph" sent by Indra for that purpose, beguiled, and 
lived with for several centuries. Finally, the Sage returning to his 
senses, repudiated and chased her away. Whereupon she gave birth to 
a daughter, Marisha, The story is in an allegorical fable from the 
Purdnas. 

Kanishka (Sk.). A King of the Tochari, who flourished when the 
third Buddhist Synod met in Kashmir, i.e. about the middle of the last 
century B.C., a great patron of Buddhism, he built the finest stupas or 
dagobas in Northern India and Kabulistan. 

Kanishthas (Sk.). A class of gods which will manifest in the 
fourteenth or last manvantara of our world — according to the Hindus. 

Kanya (Sk.). A virgin or maiden. Kanya Kumdri "the virgin- 
maiden" is the title of Durga-Kali, worshipped by the Thugs and Tan- 
trikas. 

Kapila Rishi (Sk.). A great sage, a great adept of antiquity; the 
author of the Sankhya philosophy. 

Kapilavastu (Sk.). The birth-place of the Lord Buddha; called 
' ' the yellow dwelling ' ' : the caj)ital of the monarch who was the father 
of Gautama Buddha. 

Karabtanos (Gr.). The spirit of blind or animal desire; the 
symbol of Kama-rupa. The Spirit "without sense or judgment" in the 
Codex of the Nazarenes. He is the symbol of matter and stands for the 
father of the seven spirits of concupiscence begotten by him on his 
mother, the ' ' Spiritus ' ' or the Astral Light. 



GLOSSARY 161 

Karam (Sk.). A g:reat festival in honour of the Sun-Spirit with tlie 
Kolarian tribes. 

Karana (Sk.). Cause ( metaphysically). 

Karana Sarira (Sk.). The ''Causal body". It is dual in its 
meaning. Exoterically, it is Avidya, ignorance, or that which is the 
cause of the evolution of a human ego and its reincarnation ; hence the 
lower Manas esoterically — the causal body or Koran opadhi stands in the 
Taraka Rajayoga as corresponding to Buddhi and the Higher "Manas", 
or Spiritual Soul. 

Karanda (Sk.). The "sweet-voiced bird", the same as Kalavingka 
(q.v.). 

Karanopadhi (Sk.). The basis or upadhi of Karana, the "causal 
soul". In Taraka Rajayoga, it corresponds with both Manas and Bud- 
dhi. See Table in the Secret Doctrine, Vol. I., p. 157. 

Kardecists. The followers of the spiritual system oi Allan Kar- 
dec, the Frenchman who founded the modern movement of the Spiritist 
School. The Spiritists of France differ from the American and English 
Spiritualists in that their "Spirits" teach reincarnatioii, while those of 
the United States and Great Britain denounce this belief as a heretical 
fallacy and abuse and slander those who accept it. "When Spirits dis- 
agree ..." 

Karma (Sk.). Physically, action: metaphysically, the Law of Re- 
tribution, the Law of cause and effect or Ethical Causation. Nemesis, 
only in one sense, that of bad Karma. It is the eleventh Nidana in the 
concatenation of causes and effects in orthodox Buddhism ; yet it is the 
power that controls all things, the resultant of moral action, the meta- 
physical Samskdra, or the moral effect of an act committed for the at- 
tainment of something which gratifies a personal desire. There is the 
Karma of merit and the Karma of demerit. Karma neither punishes 
nor rewards, it is simply the one Universal Law w^iich guides unerringly, 
and, so to say, blindly, all other laws productive of certain effects along 
the grooves "of their respective causations. When Buddhism teaches 
that "Karma is that moral kernel (of any being) which alone survives 
death and continues in transmigration" or reincarnation, it simply 
means that there remains nought after each Personality but the causes 
produced by it; causes which are undying, i.e., which cannot be elim- 
inated from the Universe until replaced by their legitimate effects, and 
wiped out by them, so to speak, and such causes — unless compensated 
during the life of the person who produced them with adequate effects, 
will follow the reincarnated Ego, and reach it in its subsequent re- 
incarnation until a harmony between effects and causes is fully re-estab- 
lished. No "personality" — a mere bundle of material atoms and of 
instinctual and mental characteristics — can of course continue, as such, 
in the world of pure Spirit. Only that which is immortal in its very 
'lature and divine in its essence, namely, the Ego, can exist forever. 



162 THEOSOPHICAL, 

And as it is that Ego which chooses the personality it will inform, after 
each Devachan, and which receives through these personalities the ef- 
fects of the Karmic causes produced, it is therefore the Ego, that self 
wliich is the "moral kernel" referred to and embodied karma, "which 
alone survives death." 

Karnak (Eg.). The ruins of the ancient temples, and palaces which 
now stand on the emplacement of ancient Thebes. The most magnifi- 
cent representatives of the art and skill of the earliest Egyptians. A few 
lines quoted from Champollion, Denon and an English traveller, shoAv 
most eloquently what these ruins are. Of Karnak Champollion writes: 
— ' ' The ground covered by the mass of remaining buildings is square ; 
and each side measures 1,800 feet. One is astonished and overcome ty the 
grandeur of the sublime remnants, the prodigality and magnificence of 
workmanship to be seen everywhere. No peojDle of ancient or modern 
times has conceived the art of architecture upon a scale so sublime, so 
grandiose as it existed among the ancient Egyptians ; and the imagina- 
tion, which in Europe soars far above our porticos, arrests itself and falls 
powerless at the foot of the hundred and forty columns or the hypostyle 
of Karnak! In one of its halls, the Cathedral of Notre Dame might 
stand and not touch the ceiling, but be considered as a small ornament 
in the centre of the hall." 

Another writer exclaims : ' ' Courts, halls, gateways, pillars, obelisks, 
monolithic figures, sculptures, long rows of sphinxes, are found in such 
profusion at Karnak, that the sight is too much for modern compre- 
hension." Says Denon, the French traveller: "It is hardly possible to 
believe, after seeing it, in the realit.y of the existence of so many build- 
ings collected together on a single point, in their dimensions, in the reso- 
lute perseverance which their construction required, and in the incalcul- 
able expenses of go much magnificence ! It is necessary that the reader 
should fancy what is before him to be a dream, as he who views the 
objects themselves occasionally yields to the doubt whether he be per- 
fectly awake. . . . There are lakes and mountains within the per- 
iphery of the sanctuary. These two edifices are selected as examples from 
a list next to inexhaustible. The whole valley and delta of the Nile, from 
the cataracts to the sea, was covered with temples, palaces, tombs, pyra- 
mids, obelisks, and pillars. The execution of the sculptures is beyond 
praise. The mechanical perfection with which artists wrought in granite, 
serpentine, breccia, and basalt, is wonderful, according to all the experts 
. . . animals and plants look as good as natural, and artificial ob- 
jects are beautifully sculptured ; battles by sea and land, and scenes of 
domestic life are to be found in all their has-reliefs." 

Karnaim (Heh.). Horned, an attribute of Ashtoreth and Astarte ; 
those horns typify the male element, and convert the deity into an an- 
drogyne. Isis also is at times horned. Compare also the idea of the 
Crescent Moon — symbol of Isis — as horned, [w.w.w.] 

Karneios (Gr.). "Apollo Karnc'ios^' is evidently an avatar of the 



GLOSSARY 163 

Hindu "Krishna Kama". Both were Sun-gods; both "Kama" and 
Karneios meaning "radiant". (See the Secret Doctrine II., p. 44. note). 

Karshipta (Mazd.). The holy bird of Heaven in the Mazdean 
Scriptures, of which Ahura Mazda says to Zaratushta that "he recites 
the Avesta in the language of birds" {Bund. xix. ct seq.). The bird is 
the symbol of "Soul" of Angel and Deva in every old religion. It is 
easy to see, therefore, that this "holy bird" means the divine Ego of man, 
or the "Soul". The same as Karanda (q.v.) 

Karshvare (Zend). The "seven earths" (our septenary chain) 
over which rule the Amesha Spenta, the Archangels or Dhyan Chohans 
of the Parsis. The seven earths, of which one only, namely Hvanirata 
— our earth — is known to mortals. The Earths (esoterically), or seven 
divisions (exoterically), are our own planetary chain as in Esoteric 
Buddhism and the Secret Doctrine. The doctrine is plainly stated in 
Fargard XIX., 39, of the Vendidad. 

Kartikeya (Sk.), or Kartika. The Indian God of War, son of 
Siva, born of his seed fallen into the Ganges. He is also the personifica- 
tion of the power of the Logos. The planet Mars. Kartika is a very 
occult personage, a nursling of the Pleiades, and a Kumara. (See Secret 
Doctrine.) 

Karuna-Bhawana (Sk.). The meditation of pity and compassion in 
Yoga. 

Kasbeck. The mountain in the Caucasian range where Prometheus 
was bound. 

Kasi (Sk.). Another and more ancient name of the holy city of 
Benares. 

Kasina (Sk.). A mystic Yoga rite used to free the mind from all 
agitation and bring the Kamic element to a dead stand-still. 

Kasi Khanda (Sk.). A long poem, which forms a part of the 
Skanda Pur ana, and contains another version of the legend of Daksha's 
head. Having lost it in an affray, the gods replaced it with the head 
of a ram Mekha Shivas, whereas the other versions describe it as the 
head of a goat, a substitution which changes the allegorj^ considerably. 

Kasyapa (Sk.). A Vedic Sage; in the words of Atharva Veda, 
"The self -born who sprang from Time". Besides being the father of 
the Adityas headed by Indra, Kasyapa is also the progenitor of serpents, 
reptiles, birds and other walking. Hying and creeping beings. 

Katha (Sk.). One of the Upanishads commented upon by San- 
karacharya. 

Kaumara (Sk.). The "Kumara Creation", the virgin youths who 
.sprang from the body of Brahma. 

Kauravya (Sk.). The King of the Nagas (Serpents) in Patala. 
exoterically a hall. But esoterically it means something very different. 
There is a tribe of the Nagas in Upper India ; Nagal is the name in 



m 



164 THEOSOPHICAL 

Mexico of the chief medicine men to this day, and was that of the chief 
adepts in the twilight of history ; and finally Fatal means the Antipodes 
and is a name of America. Hence the story that Arjuna travelled to 
Patala, and married Vlupi, the daughter of the King Kauravya, may be 
as historical as many others regarded first as fabled and then found out 
to be true. 

Kavanim (Heh.). Also written Cunim; the name of certain mystic 
cakes offered to Ishtar, the Babylonian Venus. Jeremiah speaks of these 
Cunim offered to the "Queen of Heaven", vii. 18. Nowadays we do not 
offer the buns, but eat them at Easter, [w.w.w.] 

Kavyavahana ((Sk.). The fire of the Pitris. 

Kchana (8k.). A second incalculably short: the 90th part or 
fraction of a thought, the 4,500th part of a minute, during which from 
90 to 100 births and as many deaths occur on this earth. 

Kebar-Zivo (Gnostic). One of the chief creators in the Codex 
Nazarceus. 

Keherpas (Sk.). Aerial form. 

Keshara (Sk.). "Sky Walker", i.e., a Yogi who can travel in his 
astral form. 

Kether (Hch.). The Crown, the highest of the ten Sephiroth ; the 
first of the Supernal Triad. It corresponds to the Macroprosopus, vast 
countenance, or Arikh Anpin, which differentiates into Chokmah and 
Binah. [w.w.w.] 

Ketu (Sk.). The descending node in astronomy; the tail of the 
celestial dragon who attacks the Sun during the eclipses ; also a comet or 
meteor. 

Key. A symbol of universal importance, the emblem of silence 
among the ancient nations. Represented on the threshold of the Adytum, 
a key had a double meaning: it reminded the candidates of the obliga- 
tions of silence, and promised the unlocking of many a hitherto impene- 
trable mystery to the profane. In the "(Edipus Coloneus" of Sophocles, 
the chorus speaks of "the golden key which had come upon the tongue 
of the ministering Hierophant in the mysteries of Eleusis", (1051). 
"The priestess of Ceres, according to Callimachus, bore a key as her 
ensign of office, and the key was, in the Mysteries of Isis, symbolical of 
the opening or disclosing of the heart and conscience before the forty- 
two assessors of the dead" {R. M. Cyclopadia). 

Khado (Tih.). Evil female demons in popular folk-lore. In the 
Esoteric Philosophy occult and evil Forces of nature. Elementals known 
in Sanskrit as Dakini. 

Khaldi. The earliest inhabitants of Chaldea who were first the 
worshippers of the Moon god, Deus Lunus, a worship which was brought 
to them by the great stream of early Hindu emigration, and later a caste 
of regular Astrologers and Initiates, 



GLOSSARY 165 

Kha (Sk.) . The same as ' ' Akasa ' '. 

Khamism. A name given by the Egyptologists to the ancient lan- 
guage of Egypt. Khami, also. 

Khanda Kala (Sk.). Finite or conditioned time in contradistinction 
to infinite time, or eternity — Kala. 

Khem (Eg.). The same as Horus. ''The God Khem will avenge 
liis father Osiris"; says a text in a papyrus. 

Khepra (Eg.). An Egyptian god presiding over rebirth and trans- 
migration. He is represented with a searabaeus instead of a head. 

Khi (Chin.). Lit., "breath"; meaning Buddhi. 

Khnoom (Eg.). The great Deep, or Primordial Space. 

Khoda (Pers.). The name for the Deity. 

Khons, or Choitso. (Eg..) The Son of Maut and Ammon, the person- 
ification of morning. He is the Theban Harpocrates, according to some. 
Like Horus he crushes under his foot a crocodile, emblem of night and 
darkness or Seb (Sebek) who is Typhon. But in the inscriptions he is 
addressed as "the Healer of diseases and banisher of all evil". He is 
also the "god of the hunt", and Sir Gardner Wilkinson would see in 
him the Egyptian Hercules, probably because the Romans had a god 
named Consus who presided over horse races and was therefore called 
"the concealer of secrets". But the latter is a later variant on the 
Egyptian Khons, who is more probably an aspect of Horus, as he wears 
a hawk's head, carries the whip and crook of Osiris the tat and the crux 
ansata. 

Khoom (Eg.), or KnoopJi. The Soul of the World; a variant of 
Khnoom. 

Khubilkhan (Along.), or Shahrong. In Tibet the names given to 
the supposed incarnations of Buddha. Elect Saints. 

Khunrath, Henry. A famous Kabbalist, chemist and physician 
born in 1502, initiated into Theosophy (Rosicrucian) in 1544. He left 
some excellent Kabalistic works, the best of which is the "Amphitheatre 
of Eternal Wisdom" (1598). 

Kimapurushas (Sk.). Monstrous Devas, half-men, half-horses. 

Kings of Edom. Esoterically, the early, tentative, malformed 
races of men. Some Kabbalists interpret them as "sparks", worlds in 
formation disappearing as soon as formed. 

Kinnaras (Sk.). Lit., "What men?" Fabulous creatures of the 
same description as the Kim-pur ushas. One of the four classes of beings 
called "Maharajas". 

Kioo-tche (Chin.). An astronomical work. 

Kiratarjuniya of Bharavi (Sk.). A Sanskrit epic, celebrating the 
strife and prowess of Arjuna with the god Siva disguised as a forester. 
Kiver-Shans (Chin.). Tlie a.^tral or "Thought Body". 



IQQ THEOSOPHICAL 

Kiyrni (Heh.). Or the god Kivan which was worshipped by the 
Israelites in the wilderness and was probably identical with Saturn and 
even with the god Siva. Indeed, as the Zendic H is S in India (their 
"hapta" is "sapta", etc.), and as the letters K, H, and S, are inter- 
changeable, Siva may have easily become Kiva and Kivan. 

Klesha (8k.). Love of life, but literally "pain and misery". Cleav- 
ing to existence, and almost the same as Kama. 

Klikoosha (Russ.). One possessed by the Evil one. Lit., a "crier 
out", a "screamer", as such unfortunates are periodically attacked with 
tits during which they crow like cocks, neigh, bray and prophesy. 

Klippoth (Heh.). Shells: used in the Kabbalah in several senses; 
(1) evil spirits, demons; (2) the shells of dead human beings, not the 
physical body, but the remnant of the personality after the spirit has 
departed; (3) the Elementaries of some authors, [w.w.w.] 

Kneph (Eg.). Also Cneph and Nef, endowed with the same attri- 
butes as Khem. One of the gods of creative Force, for he is connected 
with the Mundane Egg. iHe is called by Porphyry "the creator of the 
world " ; by Plutarch the ' ' unmade and eternal deity " ; by Eusebius he 
is identified with the Logos; and Jamblichus goes so far as almost to 
identify him with Brahma, since he says of him that ' ' this god is intellect 
itself, intellectually perceiving itself, and consecrating intellections to 
itself; and is to he worshipped in silence". One form of him, adds Mr. 
Bonwick ' ' was Av meaning flesh. He was criocephalus, with a solar disk 
on his head, .and standing on the serpent Mehen. In his left hand was 
a viper, and a cross was in his right. He was actively engaged in the 
underworld upon a mission of creation." Deveria writes: "His journey 
to the lower hemisphere aj^pears to symbolize the evolutions of substances 
which are born to die and to be reborn". Thousands of years before 
Kardec, Swedenborg, and Darwin appeared, the old Egyptians enter- 
tained their several philosophies. {Eg. Belief and Mod. Thought.) 

Koinobi (Gr.). A sect which lived in Egypt in tlie early part of the 
first Christian century ; usually confounded with the Therapeutce. They 
passed for magicians. 

Kokab (Chald.). The Kabalistic name associated with the planet 
Mercury ; also the Stellar light, [w.w.w.] 

Kol (Heh.). A voice, in Hebrew letters QUL. The Voice of the 
divine. (See "Bath Kol" and "Vach"). [w.w.w.] 

Kols. One of the tribes in central India, much addicted to magic. 
They are considered to be great sorcerers. 

Konx-Om-Pax (Gr.). Mystic words used in the Eleusinian mys- 
teries. It is believed that these words are the Greek imitation of ancient 
Egyptian words once used in the secret ceremonies of the Isiac cult. 
Several modern authors give fanciful translations, but they are all 
only guesses at the truth, [w.w.w.] 



GLOSSARY 167 

Koorgan (Kuss.). An artificial mound, g'enerally an old tomb. 
Traditions of a supernatural or magical character are often attached to 
such mounds. 

Koran (Arab.), or Quran. The sacred Scripture of the Mussulmans, 
revealed to the Prophet Mohammed by Allah (god) himself. The reve- 
lation differs, however, from that given by Jehovah to Moses. The 
Christians abuse the Koran calling it a hallucination, and the work of 
an Arabian impostor. Whereas, Mohammed preaches in his Scripture 
the unity of Deity, and renders honour to the Christian prophet "Issa 
Ben Yussuf" (Jesus, son of Joseph). The Koran is a grand poem, 
replete with ethical teachings proclaiming loudly Faith, Hope and 
Charity. 

Kosmos (G)\). The Universe, as distinguished from tlie world, 
which may mean our globe or earth. 

Kounboum (Tib.). The sacred Tree of Tibet, the tree of the 
10,000 images" as Hue gives it. It grows in an enclosure on the Mon- 
astery lands of the Lamasery of the same name, and is well cared for. 
Tradition has it that it grew out of the hair of Tson-ka-pa, who was 
buried on that spot. This "Lama" was the great Reformer of the 
Buddhism of Tibet, and is regarded as an incarnation of Amita Buddha. 
In the words of the Abbe Hue, who lived several months with another 
missionary named Gabet near this phenomenal tree: ''Each of its leaves, 
in opening, bears either a letter or a religious sentence, written in sacred 
characters, and these letters are, of their kind, of such a perfection that 
the type-foundries of Didot contain nothing to excel them. Open the 
leaves, which vegetation is about to unroll, and j'ou will there discover, 
on the point of appearing, the letters or the distinct words which are 
the marvel of this unique tree ! Turn your attention from the leaves 
of the plant to the bark of its branches, and new characters will meet 
your eyes ! Do not allow your interest to tlag ; raise the layers of this 
bark, and still other characters will show themselves below those whose 
beauty had surprised you. For, do not fancy that these superposed 
layers repeat the same printing. No, quite the contrary ; for each lamina 
3'ou lift presents to view its distinct type. How, then, can we suspect 
jugglery ? I have done my best in that direction to discover the slightest 
trace of human trick, and my baffled mind could not retain the slightest 
suspicion. ' ' Yet promptly the kind French Abbe suspects — the Devil. 

Kratudwishas (Sk.). The enemies of the Sacrifices; the Dait- 
yas, Danavas, Kinnaras, etc., etc., all represented as great ascetics and 
Yogis. This shows who are really meant. They were the enemies of 
religious mummeries and ritualism. 

Kravyad (Sk.). A flesh-eater; a carnivorous man or animal. 

Krisaswas Sons of (Sk.). The weapons called Agneydstra. The 
magical living weapons endowed with intelligence, spoken of in the 
Ramayana and elsewhere. An occult allegory. 



168 THEOSOPHICAL 

Krishna (Sk.). The most celebrated avatar of Vishtin, the 
"Saviour" of the Hindus and their most popular god. He is the eighth 
Avatar, the son of Devaki, and the nephew of Kansa, the Indian King: 
Herod, who while seeking for him among the shepherds and cow-herds 
who concealed him, slew thousands of their newly-born babes. The 
story of Krishna's conception, birth, and childhood are the exact proto- 
tj^e of the New Testament story. The missionaries, of course, try to 
show that the Hindus stole the story of the Nativity from the early 
Christians who came to India. 

Krita-Yuga (8k.). The first of the four Yugas or Ages of the 
Brahmans ; also called Satya-Yuga, a period lasting 1,728,000 years. 

Krittika (8k.). The Pleiades. The seven nurses of Karttikiya, 
the god of war. 

Kriyasakti (Gr.). The power of thought; one of the seven forces 
of Nature. Creative potency of the Siddhis (powers) of the full Yogis. 

Kronos (Gr.). Saturn. The God of Boundless Time and of the 
Cycles. 

Krura-lochana (Sk.). The ''evil-eyed"; used of Sani, the Hindu 
Saturn, the planet. 

Kshanti (Sk.). Patience, one of the Paramttas of perfection. 
Kshatriya (8k.). The second of the four castes into which the 
Hindus were originally divided. 

Kshetrajna or Kshctrajneswara (8k.). Embodied spirit, the Con- 
scious Ego in its highest manifestations; the reincarnating Principle; 
the "Lord" in us. 

Kshetram (8k.). The "Great Deep" of the Bible and Kalala. 
Chaos, Yoni ; Prakriti, Space. 

Kshira Samudra (8k.). Ocean of milk, churned by the gods. 

Kuch-ha-guf (Heh.). The astral body of a man. In Franz Lam- 
bert it is written "Coach-ha-guf ". But the Hebrew word is Kuch, 
meaning vis, "force", motive origin of the earthy body, [w.w.w.] 

Kuklos Anagkes (Gr.). Lit, "The Unavoidable Cycle" or the 
"Circle of Necessity". Of the numerous catacombs in Egypt and Chal- 
dea the most renowned were the subterranean crypts of Thebes and 
Memphis. The former began on the Western side of the Nile extending 
toward the Libyan desert, and were known as the serpents' (Initiated 
Adepts) catacombs. It was there that the Sacred Mysteries of the Kuklos 
Anagkes were performed, and the candidates were acquainted with the 
inexorable laws traced for every disembodied soul from the beginning 
of time. These laws were that every reincarnating Entity, casting away 
its body should pass from this life on earth unto another life on a more 
subjective plane, a state of bliss, unless the sins of the personality brought 
on a complete separation of the higher from the lower "principles" ; that 
the "circle of necessity" or the unavoidable cycle should last a given 



GLOSSARY 16^ 

period (from one thousand to even three thousand years in a few 
cases), and that when closed the Entity should return to its mummy, i.e., 
to a new incarnation. The Egyptian and Chaldean teachings w^ere those 
of the ''Secret Doctrine" of the Tlieosophists. The Mexicans had the 
same. Their demi-god, Votan, is made to describe in Popol Vuh (see de 
Bourbourg's work) the ahugcro de coluhra which is identical with the 
"Serpent's Catacombs", or passage, adding that it ran underground 
and "terminated at the root of heaven", into which serpent's hole, Votan 
was admitted because he was himself "a son of the Serpents", or a 
Dragon of ^Yisdom, i.e., an Initiate. The world over, the priest-adepts, 
called themselves "Sons of the Dragon" and "Sons of the Serpent-dog". 

Kukkuta Padagiri (Sk.), called also Gurupadagiri, the "teach- 
er's mountain". It is situated about seven miles from Gaya, and is 
famous owing to a persistent report that Arhat Mahakasyapa even to 
this day dwells in its caves. 

Kumara (Sk.). A virgin boy, or young celibate. The first Kumaras 
are the seven sons of Brahma, born out of the limbs of the god, in the 
so-called ninth creation. It is stated that the name was given to them 
owing to their formal refusal to "procreate their species", and so they 
"remained Yogis", as the legend says. 

Kumarabudhi (Sk.). An epithet given to the human "Ego". 

Kumara guha (Sk.). Lit., "the mysterious virgin youth". A 
title given to Karttikeya owing to his strange origin. 

Kumbhaka (Sk.). Retention of breath, according to the regulations, 
of the Hatha Yoga system. 

Kumbhakarna (Sk.). The brother of King Ravana of Lanka, 
the ravisher of Rama's wdfe, Sita. As shown in the Bamayana, Kum- 
bhakarna under a curse of Brahma slept for six months, and then re- 
mained awake one day to fall asleep again, and so on, for many hun- 
dreds of years. He was awakened to take part in the war between Rama 
and Ravana, captured Hanuman, but was finally killed himself. 

Kundalini Sakti (Sk.). The power of life; one of the Forces 
of Nature ; that power that generates a certain light in those who sit for 
spiritual and clairvoyant development. It is a power known only to 
those who practise concentration and Yoga. 

Kunti (Sk.). The wife of Pandu and the mother of the Pandavas, 
the heroes and the foes of their cousins tlie Kauravas, in the Bhagavad- 
gita. It is an allegory of the Spirit-Soul or Buddhi. Some think that 
Draupadi, the wife in common of the five brothers, the Pandavas, is 
meant to represent Buddhi : but this is not so, for Draupadi stands for 
the terrestrial life of the Personality. As such, we see it made little of, 
allowed to be insulted and even taken into slavery by Yudhisthira, the 
elder of the Pandavas and her chief lord, who represents the Higher Ego 
with all its qualifications. 



170 THEOSOPHICAL 

Kurios (Gr.). The Lord, the Master. 

Kurus (Sk.), or Kauravas. The foes of the Pandavas in the Bha- 
gavad Gita, on the plain of Kurukshetra. This plain is but a few miles 
from Delhi. 

Kusa (8k.). A sacred grass used by the ascetics of India, called the 
grass of lucky augury. It is very occult. 

Kusadwipa (Sk.). One of the seven islands named Saptadwipa 
in the Purdnas. (See Secret Doctrine II., p. 404, Note). 

Kusala (Sk.). Merit, one of the two chief constituents of Karma. 
Kusinara (Sk.). The city near which Buddha died. It is near 
Delhi, though some Orientalists would locate it in Assam. 

Kuvera (Sk.). God of the Hades, and of wealth like Pluto. The 
king of the evil demons in the Hindu Pantheon. 

Kwan-shai-yin (Chin.). The male logos of tlie Northern Bud- 
dhists and those of China ; the ' ' manifested god ' '. 
Kwan-yin (Chin.). The female logos, the "Mother of Mercy". 

Kwan-3rin-tien (Chin.). The heaven where Kwan-yin and the other 
logoi dwell. 



GLOSSARY 171 



L. 



Li. — The twelfth letter of the English Alphabet, and also of the Hebrew,^ 
where Lamed signifies an Ox-goad, the sign of a form of the god Mars, 
the generative deity. The letter is an equivalent of number 30. The 
Hebrew divine name corresponding to L, is Limmud, or Doctus. 

Labarum (Lat\.). The standard borne before the old Roman Em- 
perors, having an eagle upon it as an emblem of sovereignty. It was 
a long lance with a cross staff at right angles. Constantine replaced the 
eagle by the christian monogram with the motto ev rovr oj I'lxa which was 
later interpreted into In hoc signo vinces. As to the monogram, it was a 
combination of the letter X, Chi, and P, Rho, the initial sjdlable of 
Christos. But the Laharum had been an emblem of Etruria ages before 
Constantine and the Christian era. It was the sign also of Osiris and of 
Horus who is often represented with the long Latin cross, while the 
Greek pectoral cross is purely Egyptian. In his "Decline and Fall" 
Gibbon has exposed the Constantine imposture. The emperor, if he ever 
had a vision at all, must have seen the Olympian Jupiter, in whose faith 
he died. 

Labro. A Roman saint, solemnly beatified a few years ago. His 
great holiness consisted in sitting at one of the gates of Rome night and 
day for forty years, and remaining unwashed through the whole of that 
time. He was eaten by vermin to his bones. 

Labyrinth (Gr.). Egypt had the "celestial labyrinth" whereinto 
the souls of the departed plunged, and also its type on earth, the famous 
Labyrinth, a subterranean series of halls and passages with the most 
extraordinary windings. Herodotus describes it as consisting of 3,000 
chambers, half below and half above ground. Even in his day strangers 
were not allowed into the subterranean portions of it as they contained 
the sepulchres of the kings who built it and other mysteries. The 
"Father of History" found the Labyrinth already almost in ruins, yet 
regarded it even in its state of dilapidation as far more marvellous than 
the pyramids. 

Lactantius. A Church Father, who declared the heliocentric 
system a heretical doctrine, and that of the antipodes as a "fallacy in- 
vented by the devil". 

Ladakh. The upper valley of the Indus, inhabited by Tibetans, 
but belonging to the Rajah of Cashmere. 

Ladder. There are many "ladders" in the mj^stic philosophies and 
schemes, all of which were, and some still are, used in the respective- 



]^72 THEOSOPHIOAL 

mysteries of various nations. The Brahmanical Ladder symbolises the 
Seven Worlds or Sapta Loka; the Kahalistical Ladder, the seven lower 
Sephiroth ; Jacob 's Ladder is spoken of in the Bible ; the Mithraic Ladder 
is also the "Mysterious Ladder". Then there are the Rosicrucian, the 
Scandinavian, the Borsippa Ladders, etc., etc., and finally the Theological 
Ladder which, according to Brother Kenneth Mackenzie, consists of the 
four cardinal and three theological virtues. 

Lady of the Sycamore. A title of the Egyptian goddess Nei'th, who 
is often represented as appearing in a tree and handing therefrom the 
fruit of the Tree of Life, as also the Water of Life, to her worshippers. 

Laena (Lai.). A robe worn by the Roman Augurs with which they 
covered their heads while sitting in contemplation on the flight of birds. 

Lahgash (Kab.). Secret speech; esoteric incantation; almost iden- 
tical with the mystical meaning of Vach. 

Lajja (Sh.). "Modesty"; a demi-goddess, daughter of Daksha. 

Lakh (Sk.). 100,000 of units, either in specie or anything else. 

Lakshana (Sk.). The thirty-two bodily signs of a Buddha, marks 
by which he is recognised. 

Lakshmi (8k.). "Prosperity", fortune; the Indian Venus, born of 
the churning of the ocean by the gods; goddess of beauty and wife of 
Vishnu. 

Lalita Vistara (Sk.). A celebrated biography of Sakya Muni, the 
Lord Buddha \)y Dharmarakcha, a.d. 308. 

Lama (Tib.). Written "Clama". The title, if correctly applied, 
belongs only to the priests of superior grades, those who can hold office 
as gurus in the monasteries. Unfortunately every common member of 
the ged'un (clergy) calls himself or allows himself to be called "Lama". 
A real Lama is an ordained and thrice ordained Gelong. Since the re- 
form produced by Tsong-ka-pa, many abuses have again crept into the 
theocracy of the land. There are "Lama-astrologers", the Chakhan, or 
common Tsikhan (from tsigan, "gypsy"), and Lama-soothsayers, even 
such as are allowed to marrj^ and do not belong to the clergy at all. 
They are very scarce, however, in Eastern Tibet, belonging principally 
to Western Tibet and to sects which have nought to do with the Gelukpas 
(yellow caps). Unfortunately, Orientalists knowing next to nothing of 
the true state of affairs in Tibet, confuse the Choichong, of the Gur- 
makhayas Lamasery (Lhassa) — the Initiated Esotericists, with the Char- 
latans and Dugpas (sorcerers) of the Bhon sects. No wonder if — as 
Schagintweit says in his Buddhism in Tibet — "though the images of 
King Choichong (the 'god of astrology') are met with in most monas- 
teries of Western Tibet and the Himalayas, my brothers never saw a 
Lama Choichong". This is but natural. Neither the Choichong, nor 
the Kubilkhan {q.v.) overrun the country. As to the "God" or "King 
Choichong", he is no more a "god of astrologj^" than any other "Plan- 
etary" Dhyan Chohan. 



GLOSSARY 173 

Lamrin (Tih.). A sacred volume of precepts and rules, written by 
Tson-kha-pa, "for the advancement of knowledge". 

Land of the Eternal Sun. Tradition places it beyond the Arctic 
regions at the North Pole. It is "the land of the gods where the sun 
never sets." 

Lang-Shu (Chin.). The title of the translation of Nagarjuna's work, 
the Ekasloka-Shastra. 

Lanka (Sk.). The ancient name of tlie island now called Ceylon. It 
is also the name of a mountain in the South East of Ceylon, where, as 
tradition says, was a town peopled with demons named Lankapuri. It 
is described in the epic of the Ramayana as of gigantic extent and 
magnificance, "with seven broad moats and seven stupendous walls of 
stone and metal". Its foundation is attributed to Visva-Karma, who 
built it for Kuvera, the king of the demons, from whom it was taken by 
Ravana, the ravisher of Sita. The Bhdgavat Purdna shows Lanka or 
Ceylon as primarily the summit of Mount IMeru, which was broken off 
by Vajm. god of the wind, and hurled into the ocean. It has since 
become the seat of the Southern Buddhist Church, the Siamese Sect 
(headed at present by the High Priest Sumangala), the representation of 
the purest exoteric Buddhism on this side of the Himalyas. 

Lanoo (Sk.). A disciple, the same as "chela". 

Lao-tze (Chin.). A great sage, saint and philosopher wiio preceded 
Confucius. 

Lapis philosophorum (Lett.). The "Philosopher's Stone"; a mystic 
term in alchemy, having quite a different meaning from that usually 
attributed to it. 

Lararium (Lat.). An apartment in the house of ancient Romans 
where tlie Lares or household gods were preserved, with other family 
relics. 

Lares (Lat.). These were of three kinds: Lares familiares, the 
guardians and invisible presidents of the family circle; Lares parvi, 
small idols used for divinations and augury : and Lares prcestites, which 
were supposed to maintain order among the others. The Lares are the 
manes or ghosts of disembodied people. Apuleius says that the tumulary 
inscription, To the gods manes who lived, meant that the Soul had been 
transformed in a Lemure; and adds that though "the human Soul is a 
demon that our languages may name genius", and "is an immortal god 
though in a certain sense she is hor)i at the same time as the man in whom 
she is, yet we may say that she dies in the same wmj that she is horn". 
Which means in plainer language that Lares and Lemures are simply the 
shells cast off by the Ego, the high spiritual and immortal Soul, whose 
shell, and also its astral reflection, the animal Soul, die, whereas the 
higher Soul prevails throughout eternity. 

Larva (Lat.). The animal Soul. Larvce are the shadows of men 
that have lived and died. 



174 THEOSOPHICAL 

Law of Retribution. (See "Karma"). 

Laya or Laijani (Sk.). From the root Li "to dissolve, to disin- 
tegrate" a point of equilibrium (zero-point) in physics and chemistry. 
In occultism, that point where substance becomes homogeneous and is 
unable to act or differentiate. 

Lebanon (Heh.). A range of mountains in Syria, with a few rem- 
nants of the gigantic cedar trees, a forest of which once crowned its 
summit. Tradition says that it is here, that the timber for King Solo- 
mon's temple was obtained. (See "Druzes"). 

Lemuria. A modern term first used by some naturalists, and now 
adopted by Theosophists, to indicate a continent that, according to the 
Secret Doctrine of the East, preceded Atlantis. Its Eastern name would 
not reveal much to European ears. 

Leon, Moses de. The name of a Jewish Rabbi in the Xlllth century, 
accused of having composed the Zohar which he gave out as the true 
work of Simeon Ben Jachai. His full name is given in Myer's Qahhalah 
as Rabbi Moses ben-Shem-Tob de Leon, of Spain, the same author prov- 
ing very cleverly that de Leon was not the author of the Zohar. Few 
will say he was, but every one must suspect Moses de Leon of perverting 
considerably the original Book of Splendour (Zohar). This sin, however, 
may be shared by him with the Mediseval ' ' Christian Kabalists ' ' and by 
Knorr von Rosenroth especially. Surely, neither Rabbi Simeon, con- 
demned to death by Titus, nor his son, Rabbi Eliezer, nor his secretary 
Rabbi Abba, can be charged with introducing into the Zohar purely 
Christian dogmas and doctrines invented by the Church Fathers several 
centuries after the death of the former Rabbis. This would be stretching 
alleged divine prophecy a little too far. 

Levi Eliphas. The real name of this learned Kabalist was Abbe 
Alphonse Louis Constant. Eliphas Levi Zahed was the author of several 
works on philosophical magic. Member of the Fratres Lucis (Brothers 
of Light), he was also once upon a time a priest, an ahhe of the Roman 
Catholic Church, which promptly proceeded to unfrock him, when he 
acquired fame as a Kabalist. He died some twenty years ago, leaving 
five famous works — Dog me et Rituel de la Haute Magie (1856) Histoire 
de la Magie (1860) ; La Clef des grands Mysteres (1861) ; Legendes et 
Symboles (1862) ; and La Science des Esprits (1865 ;) besides some other 
works of minor importance. His style is extremely light and fascinat- 
ing; but with rather too strong characteristic of mockery and paradox 
in it to be the ideal of a serious Kabalist. 

Leviathan. In biblical esotericism. Deity in its double manifesta- 
tion of good and evil. The meaning may be found in the Zohar (II. 34&.) 
"Rabbi Shimeon said: The work of the beginning (of 'creation') the 
companions (candidates) study and understand it; but the little ones 
(the full or perfect Initiates) are those who understand the illusion to the 



GLOSSARY 175 

work of the beginning hy the Mystery of the Serpent of the Great Sea 
(to wit) Thanncen, Leviathan." (See also Qahhalah, by I. Myer.) 

Levanah (He'd.). The moon, as a planet and an astrological in- 
fluence. 

Lha (Tib.). Spirits of tlie highest spheres, whence the name of 
Lhassa, the residence of the Dalai-Lama. The title of Lha is often given 
in Tibet to some Narjols (Saints and Yogi adepts) who have attained 
great oeenlt powers. 

Lhagpa (Tib.). Mercury, tlie planet. 

Lhakang (Tib.). A temple; a crypt, especially a subterranean temple 
for mystic ceremonies. 

Lhamayin (Tib.). Elemental sprites of the lower terrestrial plane. 
Popular fancy makes of them demons and devils. 

Lif (Scand.). Lif and Lifthresir, the only two human beings who 
were allowed to be present at the "Renewal of the World". Being "pure 
and innocent and free from sinful desires, they are permitted to enter 
the world where peace now reigns". The Edda shows them hidden in 
Hoddmimir's forest dreaming the dreams of childhood while the last 
conflict was taking place. These two creatures, and the allegorj^ in 
which they take part, are allusions to the few nations of the Fourth 
Root Race, who, surviving the great submersion of their continent and 
thfi majority of their Race, passed into the Fifth and continued their 
ethnical evolution in our present Human Race. 

Light, Brothers of. This is what the great authority on secret so- 
cieties, Brother Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie IX., says of this Brotherhood. 
"A mystic order, Fratres Lucis, established in Florence in 1498. Among 
the members of this order were Pasqualis, Cagliostro, Swedenborg, St. 
Martin, Eliphaz Levi, and many other eminent mystics. Its members 
were very much persecuted by the Inquisition. It is a small but com- 
pact body, the members being spread all over the world." 

Lila (Sk.). Sport, literally; or pastime. In the orthodox Hindu 
Scriptures it is explained that "the acts of the divinity are lila", or 
sport. 

Lilith (Heb.). By Jewish tradition a demon who was the first wife 
of Adam, before Eve was created : she is supposed to have a fatal in- 
fluence on mothers and newly-born infants. Lil is night, and Lilith is 
also the owl : and in mediseval works is a synonym of Lamia or female 
demon, [w.w.w.] 

Lil-in (Heb.). The children of Lilith. and theiri descendants. 
"Lilith is tlie Mother of the Shedini and the Muquishim (the ensnar- 
ers) ". Every class of the Lil-ins, therefore, are devils in the demonology 
of the Jews. (See Zo/iar ii. 268a). 

Limbus Major (Lat.). A term used by Paracelsus to denote pri- 
mordial (alchemical) matter; "Adam's earth". 



176 THEOSOPHICAL 

Linga or Lingam (Sk.). A sign or a symbol of abstract creation- 
Force becomes the organ of procreation only on this earth. In India 
there are 12 great Lingams of Siva, some of which are on mountains and 
rocks, and also in temples. Such is the Keddresa in the Himalaya, a 
huge and shapeless mass of rock. In its origin the Lingam had never 
the gross meaning connected with the phallus, an idea which is altogether 
of a later date. The symbol in India has the same meaning which it 
had in Egypt, which is simply that the creative or procreative Force is 
divine. It also denotes who was the dual Creator — male and female, 
Siva and his Sahti. The gross and immodest idea connected with the 
phallus is not Indian but Greek and pre-eminently Jewish. The Biblical 
Bethels were real priapic stones, the "Beth-el" (phallus) wherein God 
dwells. The same symbol was concealed within the ark of the Covenant, 
the "Holy of Holies". Therefore the "Lingam" even as a phallus is- 
not "a symbol of Siva" only, but that of every "Creator" or creative 
god in every nation, including the Israelities and their ' ' God of Abraham^ 
and Jacob". 

Linga Purana (Sk.). A scripture of the Saivas or worshippers of 
Siva. Therein Maheswara, "the great Lord", concealed in the Agni 
Linga explains the ethics of life — duty, virtue, self-sacrifice and finally 
liberation by and through ascetic life at the end of the Agni Kalpa (the 
Seventh Round). As Professor Wilson justly observed "the Spirit of 
the worship (phallic) is as little influenced by the character of the type 
as can well be imagined. There is nothing like the phallic orgies of an- 
tiquity; it is all mystical and spiritual. 

Linga Sharira (Sk.). The "body", i.e., the aerial symbol of the. 
body. This term designates the doppelganger or the "astral body" of 
man or animal. It is the eidolon of the Greeks, the vital and prototypal 
body ; the reflection of the men of flesh. It is born hefore and dies or 
fades out, with the disappearance of the last atom of the body. 

Lipi (Sk.). To write. See "Lipikas" in Vol. I. of the Secret Dor- 
trine. 

Lipikas (Sk.). The celestial recorders, the "Scribes", those who 
record every word and deed, said or done by man while on this earth. 
As Occultism teaches, they are the agents of Karma — the retributive 
LAW^ 

Lobha (Sk.). Covetousness : cupidity, a son sprung from Brahma, 
in an evil hour. 

Lodur (Scand.). The second personage in the trinity of gods in the 
Edda of the Norsemen; and the father of the twelve great gods. It is 
Lodur who endows the first man — made of the ash-tree {Ask), with blood 
and color. 

Logi (Scand.). Lit., "flame". This giant with his sons and kindred, 
made themselves finally known as the authors of every cataclysm and 
conflagration in heaven or on earth, by letting mortals perceive them., 



GLOSSARY 177 

in the midst of flames. These giant-fiends were all enemies of man try- 
ing to destroy his work wherever they found it. A symbol of the cosmic 
elements. 

Logia (Gr.). The secret discourses and teachings of Jesus contained 
in the Evangel of Matthew — in the original Hebrew, not the spurious 
Greek text we have — and preserved by the Ebionites and the Nazarenes 
in the library collected by Pamphilus, at Csesarea. This "Evangel" 
called by man.y writers "the genuine Gospel of Matthew", was used 
according to (St.) Jerome, by the Nazarenes and Ebionites of Beroea, 
Syria, in his own day (4th century). Like the Aporrheta or secret dis- 
courses, of the Mysteries, these Logia could only be understood with a 
key. Sent by the Bishops Chromatins and Heliodorus, Jerome, after 
having obtained permission, translated them, but found it "a difficult 
task" (truly so!) to reconcile the text of the "genuine" with that of the 
spurious Greek gospel he was acquainted with. (See Isis Unveiled II., 
180 etseq.). 

Logos (Gr.). The manifested deity with every nation and people; 
the outward expression, or the effect of the cause which is ever concealed. 
Thus, speech is the Logos of thought; hence it is aptly translated by 
the "Verbum" and "Word" in its metaphysical sense. 

Lohitanga (Sk.). The planet. Mars. 

Loka (Sk.). A region or circumscribed place. In metaphysics, a 

world or sphere or plane. The Puranas in India speak incessantly of 

seven and fourteen Lokas, above, and below our earth ; of heavens and 
hells. 

Loka Chakshub (Sk.). The "Eye of the World"; a title of the 
Sun, Surya. 

Loka Palas (Sk.). The supporters, rulers and guardians of the 
world. The deities (planetary gods) which preside over the eight car- 
dinal points, among which are the Tchatur (Four) Maharajahs. 

Loki (Scand.). The Scandinavian Evil Spirits exoterically. In 
esoteric philosophy "an opposing power" only because differentiating 
from primordial harmony. In the Edda, he is the father of the terrible 
Fenris Wolf, and of the Midgard Snake. By blood he is the brother of 
Odin, the good and valiant god ; but in nature he is his opposite. Loki- 
Odin is simply two in one. As Odin is, in one sense, vital heat, so is 
Loki the symbol of the passions produced by the intensity of the former. 

Loreley. The German copy of the Scandinavian "Lake Maiden". 
Undine is one of the names given to these maidens, who are known in 
exoteric Magic and Occultism as the Water-Elementals. 

Lost Word (Masonic). It ought to stand as "lost words" and lost 
secrets, in general, for that which is termed the lost "Word" is no word 
at all, as in the case of the Ineffable Name (q.v.) The Royal Arch 
Degree in Masonry, has been "in search of it" since it was founded. But 
the "dead" — especially those murdered — do not speak; and were even 



178 THEOSOPHICAL 

"the Widow's Son" to come back to life "materialized", he could 
]iardly reveal that which never existed in the form in which it is now 
taught. The Shemhamphorash (the separated name, through the 
power of which according to his detractors, Jeshu Ben Pandira is said 
to have wrought his miracles, after stealing it from the Temple) — 
whether derived from the "self existent substance" of Tetragrammaton, 
or not, can never be a substitute, for the lost Logos of divine magic. 

Lotus (Or.). A most occult plant, sacred in Egypt, India and else- 
where ; called ' ' the child of the Universe bearing the likeness of its 
mother in its bosom". There was a time "when the world was a golden 
lotus" (padma) says the allegory. A great variety of these plants, from 
the majestic Indian lotus, down to the marsh-lotus (bird's foot trefoil) 
and the Grecian "Dioscoridis", is eaten at Crete and other islands. It id 
a species of nymph^a, first introduced from India to Egypt to which it 
was not indigenous. See the text of Archaic Symbolism in the Appendix 
VIII. "The Lotus, as a Universal Symbol". 

Lotus, Lord of the. A title applied to the various creative gods, as 
also to the Lords of the Universe of whicli this plant is the symbol. (See 
"Lotus"). 

Love Feasts, Agapac (Gr.). These banquets of charity held by 
the earliest Christians were founded at Rome by Clemens, in the reign of 
Domitian. Professor A Kestner's The Agapce or the Secret World So- 
ciety (Wiltbund) of the Primitive Christians (published 1819 at Jena) 
speaks of these Love Feasts as "having hierarchical constitution, and 
a groundwork of Masonic symbolism and Mysteries ' ' ; and shows a direct 
connection between the old Agapte and the Table Lodges or Banquets 
of the Freemasons. Having, however, exiled from their suppers the 
"holy kiss" and women, the banquets of the latter are rather "drinking" 
than "love" feasts. The early Agapw were certainly the same as the 
Phallica, which "were once as pure as the Love Feasts of early Chris- 
tians" as Mr. Bonwick very justly remarks, "though like them rapidly 
degenerating into licentiousness". (Eg. Bel. and Mod. Thought, p. 
260). 

Lower Face or Lower Countenance (Kab.). A term applied to 
Microprosopus, as that of "Higher Face" is to Macroprosopus. The 
two are identical with Long Face and Short Face. 

Lubara (Chald.). The god of Pestilence and Disease. 

Lucifer (Lat.). The planet Venus, as the bright "Morning Star". 
Before Milton, Lucifer had never been a name of the Devil. Quite the 
reverse, since the Christian Saviour is made to say of himself in Revela- 
tions (xvi. 22). "I am . . . the bright morning star" or Lucifer. 
One of the early Popes of E-ome bore that name; and there was even a 
Christian sect in the fourth century which was called the Luciferians. 

LuUy, Raymond. An alchemist, adept and philosopher, born in 
the 13th century, on the island of Majorca. It is claimed for him that. 



GLOSSARY 



179 



iu a moment of need, he made for King Edward III. of England several 
millions of gold "rose nobles", and thus helped him to carry on war 
victoriously. He founded several colleges for the study of Oriental 
languages, and Cardinal Ximenes was one of his patrons and held 
him in great esteem, as also Pope John XXI. He died in 1314, at a 
good old age. Literature has preserved many wild stories about' Ray- 
mond Lully, wliieh would form a most extraordinary romance. He was 
the elder son of the Seneshal of Majorca and inherited great wealth 
from his father. 

Lunar Gods. Called in India the Fathers, "Pitris" or the lunar 
ancestors. They are subdivided, like the rest, into seven classes or Hier- 
archies. In Egypt although the moon received less worship than in 
Chaldea or India, still Isis stands as the representative of Luna-Lunus, 
"the celestial Hermaphrodite". Strange enough while the modern 
connect the moon only with lunacy and generation, the ancient nations, 
who knew better, have, individually and collectively, connected their 
"wisdom gods" with it. Thus in Egypt the lunar gods are Thoth- 
Hermes and Chons ; in India it is Budha, the Son of Soma, the moon ; 
in Chaldea Nebo is the lunar god of Secret Wisdom, etc., etc., The wife 
of Thoth, Sifix, the lunar goddess, holds a pole with fire rays or the 
five-pointed star, symbol of man, the Microcosm, in distinction from the 
Septenary Macrocosm. As in all theogonies a goddess precedes a god, 
on the principle most likely that the chick can hardly precede its egg, in 
Chaldea the moon was held as older and more venerable than the Sun, 
because, as they said, darkness precedes light at every periodical rebirth 
(or "creation") of the universe. Osiris although connected with the 
Sun and a Solar god is, nevertheless, born on Mount Sinai, because Sin 
is the Chaldeo-Assyrian word for the moon; so was Dio-Nysos, god of 
Nyssi or Nisi, which latter appelation was that of Sinai in Egypt, 
where it was called Mount Nissa. The crescent is not— as proven by 
many writers— an ensign of the Turks, but was adopted by Christians 
for their symbol before the Mahommedans. For ages the crescent was 
the emblem of the Chaldean Astarte, the Egyptian Isis, and the Greek 
Diana, all of them Queens of Heaven, and finally became the emblem of 
Mary the Virgin. "The Greek Christian Empire of Constantinople 
held It as their palladium. Upon the conquest by the Turks, the Sultan 
adopted it . . . and since that, the crescent has been made to oppose 
the idea of the cross". (Eg. Belief). 

Lupercalia (Lat.). Magnificant popular festivals celebrated in 
ancient Rome on February 15th, in honour of the God Pan, during wliich 
the Luperci, the most ancient and respectable among the sacerdotal 
functionaries, sacrificed two goats and a dog, and two of the most illus- 
trious youths were compelled to run about the city naked (except the 
loins) whipping all those whom they met. Pope Gelasius abolished the 
Lupercalia in 496, but substituted for them on the same day the pro- 
cession of lighted candles. 



IgO THEOSOPHIOAL 

Luxor (Occ). A compound word from lux (light) and aur (fire), 
thus meaning the "Light of (divine) Fire". 

Luxor, Brotherhood of. A certain Brotherhood of mystics. Its 
name had far better never been divulged, as it led to a great number 
of well-meaning people being deceived, and relieved of their money 
by a certain bogus Mystic Society of speculators, born in Europe, only 
to be exposed and fly to America. The name is derived from the ancient 
Lookshnr in Beloochistan, lying between Bela and Kedjee. The order is 
very ancient and the most secret of all. It is useless to repeat that its 
members disclaim all connection with the "H.B. of L.", and the iutti 
quanti of commercial mystics, whether from Glasgow or Boston. 

Lycanthropy (Gr.). Physiologically, a disease or mania, during 
which a person imagines he is a wolf, and acts as such. Occultly, it 
means the same as "were-w^olf ", the psychological faculty of certain 
sorcerers to appear as wolves. Voltaire states that in the district of 
Jura, in two years between 1598 and 1600, over 600 lycanthropes were 
put to death by a too Christian judge. This does not mean that Shep- 
herds accused of sorcery, and seen as wolves, had indeed the power of 
changing themselves physically into such ; but simply that they had the 
hypnotizing power of making people (or those they regarded as enemies), 
believe they saw a wolf when there was none in fact. The exercise of 
such power is truly sorcery. ' ' Demoniacal ' ' possession is true at bottom, 
minus the devils of Christian theology. But this is no place for a long 
disquisition upon occult mysteries and magic powers. 



GLOSSARY 181 



M. 



M. 



-The thirteenth letter of the Hebrew and of the English alphabets, 
and the twenty-fourth of the Arabic. As a Roman numeral, this letter 
stands for 1000, and with a dash on it(M) signifies one million. In the 
Hebrew alphabet Mem symbolized water, and as a numeral is equivalent 
to 40. The Sanskrit ma is equivalent to number 5, and is also con- 
nected with water through the sign of the Zodiac, called Makara (q.v.). 
Moreover, in the Hebrew and Latin numerals the m stands "as the 
definite numeral for an indeterminate nvimber" (Mackenzie's Mason. 
Cyc), and "the Hebrew sacred name of God applied to this letter is 
Mehorach, Benedictus". With the Esoterieists the 31 is the symbol of 
the Higher Ego — Manas, Mind. 

Ma (Sk.). Lit., "five". A name of Lakshmi. 

Ma, 3Iut (Eg.). The goddess of the lower world, another form of 
Isis, as she is nature, the eternal mother. She was the sovereign and 
Ruler of the North Wind, the precursor of the overflow of the Nile, and 
thus called "the opener of the nostrils of the living". She is repre- 
sented ofiPering the ai^kh, or cross, emblem of physical life to her wor- 
shippers, and is called the "Lady of Heaven". 

Machagistia. Magic, as once taught in Persia and Chaldea, and 
raised in its occult practices into a religio-magianism. Plato, speaking 
of Machagistia, or Magianism, remarks that it is the purest form of the 
worship of things divine. 

Macrocosm (Gr.). The "Great Universe" literally, or Kosmos. 

Macroprosopus (Gr.). A Kabballistic term, made of a compound 
Greek word : meaning the Vast or Great Countenance ( See ' ' Kabbalistie 
Faces") ; a title of Kether, the Crown, the highest Sephira. It is the 
name of the Universe, called Arikh-Anpin, the totality of that of which 
MicropTosopus or Zauir-Anpin, "the lesser countenance", is the part 
and antithesis. In its highest or abstract metaphysical sense, Micro- 
prosopus is Adam Kadmon, the vehicle of Ain-Suph, and the crown of 
the Sephirothal Tree, though since Sephira and Adam Kadmon are in 
fact one under two aspects, it comes to the same thing. Interpretations 
are many, and they differ. 

Madhasadana or Madhu-Sudana (Sk.). "Slayer of Madhu" 
(a demon), a title of Krishna from his killing the latter. 

Madhava (Sk.). (1) A name of Vishnu or Krishna; (2) The 
month of April; (3) A title of Lakshmi when written Madhavi. 

Madhya (Sk.). Ten thousand billions. 



;^82 THEOSOPHICAL 

Madhyama (8k.). Used of something- beginiiingless and endless. 
Thus Vach (Sound, the female Logos, or the female counterpart of 
Brahma), is said to exist in several states, one of which is that of Mad- 
hyama, which is equivalent to saying that Vach is eternal in one sense : 
"the Word (Vach) was with God, and in God", for the two are one. 

Madhyamlkas (Sk.). A sect mentioned in the Vishnu Purdna. 
Agreeably to the Orientalists, a "Buddhist" sect, which is an anachron- 
ism. It was probably at first a sect of Hindu atheists. A later school 
of that name, teaching a system of sophistic nihilism, that reduces every 
proposition into a thesis and its antithesis, and then denies both, has 
been started in Tibet and China. It adopts a few principles of Nagar- 
juna, who was one of the founders of the esoteric Mahayana systems, 
not their exoteric travesties. The allegory that regarded Nagarjuna's 
"Paramartha" as a gift from the Ndgas (Serpents) shows that he re- 
ceived his teachings from the secret school of adepts, and that the real 
tenets are therefore kept secret. 

Maga (8k.). The priests of the Sun, mentioned in the Vishnu 
Purdna. They are the later Magi of Chaldea and Iran, the forefathers 
of the modern Parsis. 

Magadha (8k.). An ancient country in India, under Buddhist 
Kings. 

Mage, or Magian. From Mag or Maha. The word is the root of the 
word magician. Maha-atma (the great Soul or Spirit) in India had 
its priests in the pre-Vedic times. The Magians were priests of the 
fire-god; we find them among the Assyrians and Babylonians, as well 
as among the Persian fire-worshippers. The three Magi, also denomi- 
nated kings, that are said to have made gifts of gold, incense and myrrh 
to the infant Jesus, were fire-worshippers like the rest, and astrologers ; 
for they saw his star. The high priest of the Parsis, at Sural, is called 
Moled. Others derived the name from jNIegh ; Meh-ab signifying some- 
thing grand and noble. Zoroaster's disciples were called Meghestom, 
according to Kleuker. 

Magi (Lat.). The name of the ancient hereditary priests and 
learned adepts in Persia and Media, a word derived from Mdha, great, 
Avhich became later mog or mag, a priest in Pehlevi. Porphyry de- 
scribes them {Abst. iv. 16) as "The learned men who are engaged among 
the Persians in the service of the Deity are called Magi", and Suidas 
informs us that ' ' among the Persians the lovers of wisdom (philalethai) 
are called Magi". The Zendavesta (ii. 171, 261) divides them into three 
degrees: (1) The Herheds or "Noviciates"; (2) Moheds or "Masters"; 
(3) Destur Moheds, or "Perfect Masters". The Chaldees had similar 
colleges, as also the Egyptians, Destur Moheds being identical with the 
Hierophants of the mysteries, as practised in Greece and Egypt. 

Magic. The great "Science". According to Deveria and other 
Orientalists, "magic was considered as a sacred science inseparable from 



GLOSSARY 183 

religion" by the oldest and most civilized and learned nations. The 
Egyptians, for instance, were one of the most sincerely religious nations, 
as were and still are the Hindus. "Magic consists of, and is acquired by 
the worship of the gods", said Plato. Could then a nation, which, ow- 
ing to the irrefragable evidence of inscriptions and papyri, is proved to 
have firmly belived in magic for thousands of years, have been deceived 
for so long a time. And it is likely that generations upon generations 
of a learned and pious hierarchy, many among whom led lives of self- 
matrydom, holiness and asceticism, would have gone on deceiving them- 
selves and the people (or even only the latter) for the pleasure of per- 
petuating belief in "miracles"? Fanatics, we are told, will do anything 
to enforce belief in their god or idols. To this we reply : in such case, 
Brahmans and Egyptian Rekhgct-amcns (q.v.) or Hierophaiits would 
not have popularized belief in the power of man hij magic practices to 
command the services of the gods : which gods, are in truth, but the 
occult powers or potencies of Nature, personified by the learned priests 
themselves, in which they reverenced only the attributes of the one un- 
knoA\Ti and nameless Principle. As Proclus the Platonist ably puts it: 
"Ancient priests, when they considered that there is a certain alliance 
and sympathy in natural things to each other, and of things manifest 
to occult powers, and discovered that all things subsist in all, fabricated 

a sacred science from this mutual sympathy and similarity 

and applied for occult purposes, both celestial and terrene natures, by 
means of which, through a certain similitude, they deduced divine virtues 
into this inferior abode". Magic is the science of communicating with 
and directing supernal, supramundane Potencies, as well as of com- 
manding those of the lower spheres ; a practical knowledge of the hidden 
mysteries of nature known to only the few, because they are so difficult 
to acquire, without falling into sins against nature. Ancient and me- 
diaeval mystics divided magic into three classes — Theurgia. Go'etia 
and natural Magic. "Theurgia has long since been appropriated 
as the peculiar sphere of the theosophists and metaphysi- 
cians", says Kenneth Mackenzie. Goetia is black magic, and "nat- 
ural (or white) magic has risen with healing in its wings to the proud 
position of an exact and progressive study". The comments added by 
our late learned Brother are remarkable. "The realistic desires of 
modern times have contributed to bring magic into disrepute and ridi- 
cule. . . Faith (in one's own self) is an essential element in magic, 
and existed long before other ideas which presume its pre-existence. It 
is said that it takes a wise man to make a fool ; and a man 's ideas must 
be exalted almost to madness, i.e., his brain susceptibilities must be in- 
creased far beyond the low, miserable status of modern civilization, be- 
fore he can become a true magician; (for) a pursuit of this science im- 
plies a certain amount of isolation and an abnegation of Self". A very 
great isolation, certainly, the achievement of which constitutes a won- 
derful phenomenon, a miracle in itself. Withal magic is not something 



184 



THEOiSOPHICAL 



supernatural. As explained by Jamblichus, "they through the sacer- 
dotal theurgy announce that they are able to ascend to more elevated and 
universal Essences, and to those that are established above fate, viz., to 
god and the demiurgus: neither employing matter, nor assuming any 
other things besides, except the observation of a sensible time". Already 
some are beginning to recognize the existence of subtle powers and in- 
fluences in nature of which they have hitherto known nought. But as 
Dr. Carter Blake truly remarks, "the nineteenth century is not that 
which has observed the genesis of new, nor the completion of old, methods 
of thought " ; to which Mr. Bonwick adds that ' ' if the ancients knew but 
little of our mode of investigations into the secrets of nature, we know 
still less of their mode of research". 

Magic, White, or "Beneficent Magic", so-called, is divine magic, 
devoid of selfishness, love of power, of ambition, or lucre, and bent only 
on doing good to the world in general, and one's neighbor in particular. 
The smallest attempt to use one's abnormal powers for the gratification 
of self, makes of these powers sorcery or black magic. 
Magic Black. (Vide Supra.). 

Magician. This term, once a title of renown and distinction, has 
come to be wholly perverted from its true meaning. Once the synonym 
of all that was honourable and reverent, of a possessor of learning and 
wisdom, it has become degraded into an epithet to designate one who is 
a pretender and a juggler; a charlatan, in short, or one who has "sold 
his soul to the Evil One", who misuses his knowledge, and employs it 
for low and dangerous uses, according to the teachings of the clergy, 
and a mass of superstitious fools who believe the magician a sorcerer and 
an "Enchanter". The word is derived from Magh, Mah, in Sanskrit 
Mdha — great ; a man well versed in esoteric knowledge. {Isis Unveiled). 
Magna Mater (Lat.). "Great Mother". A title given in days of 
old, to all the chief goddesses of the nations, such as Diana of Ephesus, 
Isis, Mauth, and many others. 

Magnes. An expression used by Paracelsus and the medieval The- 
osophists. It is the spirit of light, or AMsa. A word much used by the 
mediaeval Alchemists. 

Magnetic Masonry. Also called "latric" masonry. It is de- 
scribed as a Brotherhood of Healers (from iatrike a Greek word mean- 
ing "the art of healing"), and is greatly used by the "Brothers of 
Light" as Kenneth Mackenzie states in the Royal Masonic Cyclopedia. 
There appears to be a tradition in some secret Masonic works— so says 
Ragon at any rate, the great Masonic authority— to the effect that there 
was a Masonic degree called the Oracle of Cos, "instituted in the eigh- 
teenth century B.C., from the fact that Cos was the birthplace of Hip- 
pocrates". The iatrike was a distinct characteristic of the priests who 
took charge of the patients in the ancient Asclcpia, the temples where the 
god Asclepios (^sculapius) was said to heal the sick and the lame. 



GLOSSARY 185 

Magnetism. A Force in nature and in man. When it is the 
former, it is an agent which gives rise to the various phenomena of at- 
traction, of polarity, etc. When the latter, it becomes "animal" mag- 
netism, in contradistinction to cosmic, and terrestrial magnetism. 

Magnetism, Animal. AVhile official science calls it a "supposed" 
agent, and utterly rejects its actuality, the teeming millions of antiquity 
and of the now living Asiatic nations, Occultists, Theosophists, Spirit- 
ualists, and Mystics of every kind and description proclaim it as a well 
^established fact. Animal magnetism is a fluid, an emanation. Some 
people can emit it for curative purposes through their eyes and the tips 
of their fingers, while the rest of all creatures, mankind, animals and 
even every inanimate object, emanate it either as an aura, or a varying 
light, and that whether consciously or not. When acted upon by con- 
tact with a patient or by the will of a human operator, it is called "Mes- 
merism" (q.v.). 

Magnum Opus (Lot.). In Alchemy the final completion, the 
"Great Labour" or Grand QJuvre; the production of the "Philosopher's 
Stone" and "Elixir of Life" which, though not by far the myth some 
sceptics would have it, has yet to be accepted symbolically, and is 
full of mystic meaning. 

Magus (Lat.). In the New Testament it means a Sage, a wise man 
of the Chaldeans; it is in English often used for a Magician, any wonder- 
worker ; in the Rosicrucian Society it is the title of the highest members, 
the IXth grade ; the Supreme Magus is the Head of the Order in the 
"Outer"; the Magi of the "Inner" are unknown except to those of the 
Vlllth grade. [w\w.w.] 

Maha Buddhi (SkJ. Mahat. The Intelligent Soul of the World. 
The seven Prakritis or seven "natures" or planes, are counted from 
^Mahabuddhi downwards. 

Maha Chohan (Sk.). The chief of a spiritual Hierarchy, or of a school 
of Occultism : the head of the trans-Himalayan mj'stics. 

Maha Deva (Sk.). Lit., "great god"; a title of Siva. 

Maha Guru (Sk.). Lit., "great teacher". The Initiator. 

Mahajvi^ala (Sk.). A certain hell. 

Maha Kala (Sk.). "Great Time". A name of Siva as the "Des- 
troyer", and of Vishnu as the "Preserver". 

Maha Kalpa (Sk.). The "great age." 

Maha Manvantara (Sk.). Lit., the great interludes between the 
"Manus". The period of universal activity. Manvantara implying 
liere simply a period of activity, as opposed to Pralaya, or rest — with- 
out reference to the length of the cycle. 

Maha Maya (Sk.). The great illusion of manifestation. This 
universe, and all in it their mutual relation, is called the great Illusion 
or Mahdmdyd. It is also the usual title given to Gautama the Buddha's 



Igg THEOSOPHICAL 

Immaculate Mother — Mayadevi, or the "Great Mystery", as she is 
called by the Mystics. 

Maha Pralaya (Sk.). The opposite of Mahamanvantara, liter- 
ally "the great Dissolution", the "Night" following the "Day of 
Brahma". It is the great rest and sleep of all nature after a period of 
active manifestation; orthodox Christians would refer to it as the "De- 
struction of the World". 

Maha Parinibbana Sutta (Pali.). One of the most authoritative of 
the Buddhist sacred writings. 

Maha Purusha (Sk.). Supreme or Great Spirit. A title of Vishnu. 

Maha Rajikas (Sk.). A gana or class of gods 236 in number. 
Certain Forces in esoteric teachings. 

Maha Sunyata (Sk.). Space, or eternal law; the great void or chaos. 

Maha Vidya (Sk.). The great esoteric science. The highest Initiates 
alone are in possession of this science, which embraces almost universal 
knowledge. 

Maha Yogin (Sk.). The "great ascetic". A title of Siva. 

Maha Yuga (Sk.). The aggregate of four Yugas or ages, of 4,- 
320,000 solar years: a "Day of Brahma", in the Brahmanical system; 
lit., "the great age." 

Mahabharata (Sk.). Lit., the "great war"; the celebrated epic 
poem of India (probably the longest poem in the world) which includes 
both the Bamayana and the Bhagavad GUd "the Song Celestial". No 
two Orientalists agree as to its date. But it is undeniably extremely 
ancient. 

Mahabharatian period. According to the best Hindu Commentators 
and Swami Dayanand Saraswati, 5,000 years B.C. 

Mahabhashya (Sk.). The great commentary on Panini's gram- 
mar by Patanjali. 

Mahabhautic (Sk.). Belonging to the Macrocosmic principles. 

Mahabhutas (Sk.). Gross elementary principles of matter. 

Maharajahs, The Four (Sk.). The four great Karmic deities with the 
Northern Buddhists placed at the four cardinal points to watch mankind. 

Mahar Loka (Sk.). A region wherein dwell the Munis or 
' ' Saints ' ' during Pralaya ; according to the Puranic accounts. It is the 
usual abode of Bhriga, a Prajapati (Progenitor) and a Rishi, one of the 
seven who are said to be co-existent with Brahma. 

Mahasura (Sk.). The great Asura ; exoterically' — Satan, esot- 
erically — the great god. 

Mahat (Sk.). Lit., "The great one". The first principle of Uni- 
versal Intelligence and Consciousness. In the Puranic philosophy the 



GLOSSARY 137 

first product of root-nature or Pradhdna (the same as Mulaprakriti) ; 
the producer of Manas the thinking principle, and of Ahankdra, egotism 
or the feeling of "I am I" (in the lower Manas). 

Mahatma. Lit., "great soul". An adept of the highest order. 
Exalted beings who, having attained to the mastery over their lower 
principles are thus living unimpeded by the "man of flesh", and are 
in possession of knowledge and power commensurate with the stage they 
have reached in their spiritual evolution. Called in Pali Rahats and 
Arhats. 

Mahatmya (Sk.). "Magnanimity", a legend of a shrine, or any 
lioly place. 

Mahatowarat (Sk.). Used of Parabrahm; greater than the greatest 
spheres. 

Mahattattwa (Sk.). The first of the seven creations called re- 
spectively in the Piwdnas — Mahattattwa, Chuta, Indriya, Mukhya, Tir- 
>aksrotas, Urdhwasrotas and Arvaksrotas. 

Mahoraga (Sk.). MnJid uraga, "great serpent" — Sesha or any others. 

Mahavanso (Pali.). A Buddhist historical work written by Bhik- 
shu Mohanama, the uncle of King Dhatusma. An authority on the 
history of Buddhism and its spread in the island of Ceylon. 

Mahayana (Pal.). A school; lit., "the great vehicle". A mysti- 
cal system founded by Nagarjuna. Its books were written in the second 
century B.C. 

Maitreya Buddha (Sk.). The same as the Kalki Avatar of 
Vishnu (the "White Horse" Avatar), and of Sosiosh and other Messiahs. 
The only difference lies in the dates of their appearances. Thus, while 
Vishnu is expected to appear on his white horse at the end of the present 
Kali Yuga age "for the final destruction of the wicked, the renovation 
of creation and the restoration of purity", Maitreya is expected earlier. 
Exoteric or popular teaching making sliglit variations on the esoteric 
doctrine states that Sakyamuni (Gautama Buddha) visited him in 
Tusliita (a celestial abode) and commissioned him to issue thence on earth 
as his successor at the expiration of five thousand years after his 
(Buddha "s) death. This would be in less than 3,000 years hence. Esoteric 
philosophy teaclies that the next Buddha will appear during the seventh 
(sub) race of this Round. The fact is that Maitreya was a follower of 
Buddha, a well-known Arhat, though not liis direct disciple, and that he 
was tlie founder of an esoteric philosophical school. As shown by Eitel 
( Sa)iskrit-Chincsc Diet.), "statues were erected in his honour as earl^' as 
B.C. 350". 

Makara (Sk.). "The Crocodile." In Europe the same as Cap- 
ricorn; the tenth sign of the Zodiac. Esoterically, a mystic class of 
devas. With the Hindus, the vehicle of Varuna, the water-god. 



Igg THEOSOPHICAL 

Makara Ketu (Sk.). A name of Kama, the Hindu god of love and 
desire. 

Makaram or Panchakaram (Sk.). In occidt symbology a penta- 
gon, the five-pointed star, the five limbs, or extremities, of man. Very 
mystical. 

Makaras (Sk.). The five M's of the Tantrikas. (See "Tantra"). 

Malachim (Heh.). The messengers or angels. 

Malkuth (Heh.). The kingdom, the tenth Sephira, corresponding 
to the final H (he) of the Tetragrammaton or IHVH. It is the Inferior 
Mother, the Bride of the Microprosopus (q.v.) ; also called the "Queen''. 
It is, in one sense, the Shekinah. [w.w.w.] 

Mamitu (Chald.). The goddess of Fate. A kind of Nemesis. 

Manas (8k.). Lit., "the mind", the mental faculty which makes of 
man an intelligent and moral being, and distinguishes him from the mere 
animal; a synonym of Mahat\. EsotericaUy, however, it means, when 
unqualified, the Higher Ego, or tlie . sentient reincarnating Principle in 
man. When qualified it is called by Theosophists Buddhi- Manas or the 
Spiritual Soul in contradistinction to its liuman reflection — Kama- 
Manas. 

Manas, Kama (Sk.). Lit., "the mind of desire". With the Bud- 
dhists it is the sixth of the Chadayatana (q.v.), or the six organs of 
knowledge, hence the highest of these, synthesized by the seventh called 
Klichta, the spiritual perception of that which defiles this (lower) Manas, 
or the "Human-animal Soul", as the Occultists term it. While the 
Higher Manas or the Ego is directly related to Vijndna (the 10th of the 
12 Nidanas) — which is the perfect knowledge of all forms of knowledge, 
whether relating to object or subject in the nidanic concatenation of 
causes and efi^ects ; tlie lower, the Kama Manas is but one of the Indriya 
or organs (roots) of Sense. Very little can be said of the dual Manas 
here, as the doctrine that treats of it, is correctly stated only in esoteric 
works. Its mention can thus be only very superficial. 

Manas Sanyama (Sk.). Perfect concentration of tlic mind, and 
control over it, during Yoga practices. 

Manas Taijasi (Sk.). Lit., the "radiant" Manas; a state of the 
Higher Ego, which only high metaphysicians are able to realize and 
comprehend. 

Manasa or Manaswin (Sk.). "The efflux of the divine mind", and 
explained as meaning that this efflux signifies the manasa or divine sons 
of Brahma- Viraj. Nilakantha who is the authority for this statement, 
further explains the term "manasa" by manomatrasarira. These Man- 
asa are the Arupa or incorporeal sons of the Prajapati Viraj, in another 
version. But as Arjuna Misra identifies Viraj with Brahma, and as 
Brahma is Mahat, the universal mind, the exoteric blind becomes plain. 
The Pitris are identical with the Kumara, the Vairaja, the Manasa- 
Putra (mind sons), and are finally identified with the liuman "Egos". 



GLOSSARY 189 

Manasa Dhyanis (Sk.). The higrhest Pitris in the Purdnas; the 
Agnishwatthas, or Solar Ancestors of Man, those who made of Man a 
rational being, by incarnating in the senseless forms of semi-ethereal 
flesh of the men of the third race. (See Vol. II. of Secret Doctrine). 

Manasas (Sk.). Those who endowed humanity with manas or in- 
telligence, the immortal EGOS in men. (See "Manas"). 

Manasasarovara (Sk.). Phonetically pronounced Mansoravara. 
A sacred lake in Tibet, in the Himalayas, also called Anavatapta. 
Manasasarovara is the name of the tutelary deity of that lake and, ac- 
cording to popular folk-lore, is said to be a naga, a "serpent". This, 
translated esoterically, means a great adept, a sage. The lake is a great 
place of yearly pilgrimage for the Hindus, as the Vedas are claimed to 
have been written on its shores. 

Manava (Sk.). A land of ancient India; a Kalpa or Cycle. The 
name of a weapon used by Rama; meaning "of Manu", as — 

Manava Dharma Shastra — is the ancient code of law of, or by 
Mauu. 

Mandala (Sk.) A circle ; also the ten divisions of the Vedas. 

Mandara (Sk.). The mountain used by the gods as a stick to churn 
the ocean of milk in the Purdnas. 

Mandakini (Sk.). The heavenly Ganga or Ganges. 

Mandragora (Gr.). A plant whose root has the human form. In 
Occultism it is used by Mack magicians for various illicit objects, and 
some of the "left-hand" Occultists make homunculi with it. It is com- 
monly called mandrake, and is supposed to cry out when pulled out of 
the ground. 

Manes or Maniis (Lat.). Benevolent "gods", i.e., "spooks" of the 
lower world {Kdmaloka) ; the deified shades of the dead — of the ancient 
profane, and tlie "materialized" ghosts of the modern Spiritualists, be- 
lieved to be the souls of the departed, whereas, in truth, they are only 
their empty shells, or images. 

Manichaeans Lat J. A sect of the third century which believed 
in tivo eternal principles of good and evil ; the former furnishing man- 
kind with souls, and the latter with bodies. This sect was founded by a 
certain half-Christian Mani, who gave himself out as the expected "Com- 
forter", the Messiah and Christ. Many centuries later, after the sect 
was dead, a Brotherhood arose, calling itself the "Manichees", of a 
masonic character with several degrees of initiation. Their ideas were 
Kabbalistic, but were misunderstood. 

Mano (Gnost.). The Lord of Light. Rex Lucis, in the Codex Naz- 
arcEus. He is the Second "Life" of the second or manifested trinity 
"the heavenly life and light, and older than the architect of heaven and 
earth" {Cod. Naz., Vol. I. p. 145). These trinities are as follows: The 
Supreme Lord of splendour and of light, luminous and refulgent, before 



190 THEOSOPHICAL 

which no other existed, is called Corona (the crown) ; Lord Ferho, the 
unrevealed life which existed in the former from eternity; and Lord 
Jordan — the spirit, the living water of grace {Ihid. IL, pp. 45-61). He 
is the one through whom alone we can be saved. These three constitute 
the trinity in abscoridito. The second trinity is composed of the three 
lives. The first is the similitude of Lord Ferho, through whom he has 
proceeded forth; and the second Ferho is the King of Light — Mano. 
The second life is Ish Anion (Pleroma), the vase of election, containing 
the visible thought of the Jordanus Maxinms — the ttype (or its intelligi- 
ble reflection), the prototype of the living water, who is the "spiritual 
Jordan". {Ihid. II. , p. 211). The third life, which is produced by the 
other two, is Abatur (Ah, the Parent or Father). This is the mysterious 
and decrepit "Aged of the Aged", the Ancient "Se^iem sui ohtegentem 
et grandcBvum mundi'\ This latter third Life is the Father of the De- 
miurge Fetahil, the Creator of the world, whom the Ophites call Ilda- 
Baoth (g.t'.), though Fetahil is the only -he gotten one, the reflection of 
the Father, Abatur, who begets him by looking into the "dark water". 
Sophia Achamoth also begets her Son Ilda-Baoth the Demiurge, by 
looking into the chaos of matter. But the Lord Mano, "the Lord of 
loftiness, the Lord of all genii", is higher than the Father, in this ka- 
balistic Codex — one is purely spiritual, the other material. So, for in- 
stance, while Abatur 's "only-begotten" one is the genius Fetahil, the 
Creator of the physical world, Lord Mano, the "Lord of Celsitude", 
who is the son of Him, who is "the Father of all who preach the Gospel", 
produces also an "only-begotten" one, the Lord Lehdaio, "a just Lord". 
He is the Christos, the anointed, who pours out the "grace" of the In- 
visible Jordan, the Spirit of the Highest Crown. (See for further in- 
formation Isis Unveiled. Vol. IL, pp. 227, et. seq.). 

Manodhatu (Sk.). Lit., the "World of the mind", meaning not 
only all our mental faculties, but also one of the divisions of the plane of 
mind. Each human being has his Manodhatu or plane of thought pro- 
portionate with the degree of his intellect and his mental faculties, be- 
yond which he can go only by studying and developing his higher spirit- 
ual factulties in one of the higher spheres of thought. 

Manomaya Kosha (Sk.). A Vedautic term, meaning the Sheath 
(Kosha) of the Manomaya, an equivalent for fourth and fifth "princi- 
ples" in man. In esoteric philosophy this "Kosha" corresponds to the 
dual Manas. 

Manticism, or Mantic Frenzy. During this state was developed 
the gift of prophecy. The two words are nearly synonymous. One was 
as honoured as the other. Pythagoras and Plato held it in high esteem, 
and Socrates advised his disciples to study Manticism. (The Church 
Fathers, who condemned so severely the mantic frenzy in Pagan priests 
and Pythige, were not above applying it to their own uses). The Mon- 
tanists, who took their name from Montanus, a bishop of Phrygia, who 
was considered divinely inspired, contended with the ^dvTsig (manteis) 



GLOSSARY 191 

or prophets. "Tertullian. Augustine, and the martyrs of Carthage, 
were of the number", says the author of Prophecy, Ancient and Modern. 
"The Montanists seem to have resembled the Bacchantes in the wild 
enthusiasm that characterized their orgies", he adds. There is a diversity 
of opinion as to the origin of the word Manticism. There was the famous 
Mantis the Seer, in the days of Melampus and Proetus, King of Argos ; 
and there was Manto, the daughter of the prophet of Thebes, herself a 
prophetess. Cicero describes prophecy and mantic frenzy, by saying, 
that "in the inner recesses of the mind is divine prophecy hidden and 
confined, a divine impulse, which when it burns more vividly is called 
furor", frenzy. (I sis Unveiled). 

Mantra Period (Sk.). One of the four periods into whicli Vedic 
literature has been divided. 

Mantra Shastra (Sk.). Brahmanical writings on the occult 
science of incantations. 

Mantra Tantra Shastras (Sk.). Works on incantations, but speciallx" 
on magic. 

Mantras (Sk.). Verses from the Vedic works, used as incantations 
and charms. By Mantras are meant all those portionsi of the Vedas 
which are distinct from the Brahmanas, or their interpretation. 

Mantrika Sakti (Sk.). The power, or the occult potency of mystic 
words, sounds, numbers or letters in these Mantras. 

Manjusri (Tih.). The God of Wisdom. In Esoteric . philosophy a 
certain Dyhan Chohan. 

Manu (Sk.). The great Indian legislator. The name comes from 
the Sanskrit root man "to think"— mankind really, but stands for 
Swayambhuva, the first of the Manus, who started from Sivdyamhhu, 
"the self-existent" hence the Logos, and the progenitor of mankind. 
Manu is the first Legislator, almost a Divine Being. 

Manu Swayambhuva (Sk.). The heavenly man. Adam-Kadmon, 
the synthesis of the fourteen Manus. 

Manus (Sk.). The fourteen Manus are the patrons or guardians of 
the race cycles in a Manvantara, or Day of Brahma. The primeval 
Manus are seven, they become fourteen in the Purdnas. 

Manushi or Manvshi Buddhas (Sk.). Human Buddhas, Bodhi- 
sattvas, or incarnated Dyhan Chohans. 

Manvantara (Sk.). A period of manifestation, as opposed to 
Pralaya (dissolution, or rest), applied to various cycles, especially to a 
Day of Brahma, 4,320,000,000 Solar years— and to the reign of one Manu 
—308,448,000. (See Vol. II. of the Secret Doctrine, p. 68 et. seq.) Lit., 
Manuantara — between Manus. 

Maquom (Chald.). "A secret place" in the phraseology of the 
Zohar, a concealed spot, whether referring to a sacred shrine in a temple, 
to the "Womb of the World", or the human womb. A Kabbalistic term. 



192 THEOSOPHICAL 

Mara (Sk.). The god of Temptation, the Seducer who tried to turn 
away Buddha from hig Path. He is called the "Destroyer" and 
^' Death" (of the Soul). One of the names of Kama, God of love. 

Marabut. A Mahometan pilgrim who has been to Mekka, a saint. 
After his death his body is placed in an open sepulchre built above 
ground, like other buildings, but in the middle of the streets and public 
places of populated cities. Placed inside the small and only room of the 
tomb (and several such public sarcophagi of brick and mortar may be 
seen to this day in the streets and squares of Cairo), the devotion of the 
wayfarers keeps a lamp ever burning at his head. The tombs of some of 
these marabuts are very famous for the miracles they are alleged to 
perform. 

Marcionites. An ancient Gnostic Sect founded by Marcion who 
was a devout Christian as long as no dogma of human creation came to 
mar the purely transcendental, and metaphysical concepts, and the 
original belief si of the early Christians. Such primitive beliefs were 
those of Marcion. He denied the historical facts (as now found in the 
Gospels) of Christ's birth, incarnation and passion, and also the resur- 
rection of the body of Jesus, maintaining that such statements were sim- 
ply the carnalization of metaphysical allegories and symbolism, and a 
degradation of the true spiritual idea. Along with all the other Gnostics, 
Marcion accused the "Church Fathers", as.Irenaeus himself complains, 
of "framing their (Christian) doctrine according to the capacity of 
their hearers, fabling blind things for the blind, according to their blind- 
ness ; for the dull, according to their dullness : for those in error, accord- 
ing to their errors". 

Marga (Sk.). The "Path", The Ashthanga mdrga, the "holy" or 
sacred path is the one that leads to Nirvana. The eight-fold path has 
grown out of the seven-fold path, by the addition of the (now) first of 
the eight Marga; i.e., "the possession of orthodox views"; with which a 
real Yogdcharya would have nothing to do. 

Marichi (Sk.). One of the "mind-born" sons of Brahma, in the 
Purdnas. Brahmans make of him the personified light, the parent of 
Surya, the Sun and the direct ancestor of Mahakasyapa. The Northern 
Buddhists! of the Yogacharya School, see in Marichi Deva, a Bodhis- 
attva, while Chinese Buddhists (especially the Tauists), have made of 
this conception the Queen of Heaven, the goddess of light, ruler of the 
sun and moon. With the pious but illiterate Buddhists, her magic 
formula "Om Marichi svaha" is very powerful. Speaking of Marichi, 
Eitel mentions ' ' Georgi, who explainsi the name as a ' Chinese transcrip- 
tion of the name of the holy Virgin Mary' "(!!). As Marichi is the 
chief of the Maruts and one of the seven primitive Rishis, the sup- 
posed derivation does seem a little far fetched. 

Marisha (Sk.). The daughter of the Sage Kanda and Pramlocha, 
the Apsara-demon from Indra's heaven. She was the mother of Daksha. 



GLOSSARY 193 

An allegory referring to the Mystery of the Second and Third human 
Races. 

Martinists. A Society in France, founded by a great mystic 
called the Marquis de St. Martin, disciple of Martinez Pasqualis. It was 
first established at Lyons as a kind of occult Masonic Society, its mem- 
t)ers believing in the possibility of communicating with Planetar.y Spirits 
and minor Gods and genii of the ultramundane Spheres). Louis Claude 
de St. Martin, born in 1743, had commenced life as a brilliant officer in 
the army, but left it to devote himself to study and the belles lettres, 
ending his career by becoming an ardent Theosophist and a disciple of 
Jacob Boehmen. He tried to bring back Masonry to its primeval char- 
acter of Occultism and Theurgy, but failed. He first made his "Recti- 
fied Rite ' ' to consist of ten degrees, but these were brought down owing 
to the study of the original Masonic orders — to seven. Masons complain 
that he introduced certain ideas and adopted rites "at variance with 
the archaeological history of Masonry"; but so did Cagliostro and St. 
Germain before him, as all those who knew well the origin of Free- 
masonry, 

Marttanda (Sk.). The Vedic name of the Sun. 

Marut Jivas (Sk.). The monads of Adepts who have attained the 
final liberation, but prefer to re-incarnate on earth for the sake of Hu- 
manity. Not to be confused, however, with the Nirmdnakayas, who are 
far higher. 

Maruts (8k.). AVith tlie Orientalists Storm-Gods, but in the Veda 
something very mystical. In the esoteric teachings as they incarnate in 
every round, they are simply identical with some of the Agnishwatta 
Pitris, the Human intelligent Egos. Hence the allegory of Siva trans- 
forming the lumps of flesh into hoys, and calling them Maruts, to show 
senseless men transformed by becoming the Vehicles of the Pitris or 
Fire Maruts, and thus rational beings. 

Masben .'. (Chald.). A Masonic term meaning "the Sun in putre- 
faction." Has a direct reference — perhaps forgotten by the Masons — to 
their "Word at Low Breath". 

Mash-Mak. By tradition an Atlantean word of the fourth Race, to 
denote a mysterious Cosmic fire, or rather Force, which was said to be 
able to pulverize in a second whole cities and disintegrate the world. 

Masorah (Hcb.). The name is especially applied to a collection of 
notes, explanatory, grammatical and critical, which are found on the 
margin of ancient Hebrew MSS., or scrolls of the Old Testament. The 
]\rasoretes were also called Melchites. 

Masoretic Points, or Vowels (Heh.). Or, as tlie system is now 
called, Masora from Massorrh or Massoreth, "tradition", and Mdsar, to 
"hand down". The Rabbins who busied themselves with the Masorali, 
lience called Masorites, were also the inventors of the Masioretic points, 
wliich are supposed to give the vowelless words of tlie Scriptures their 



194 THEOSOPHICAL 

true pronunciation, by the addition of points representing vowels to 
the consonants. This was the invention of the learned and cunning 
Kabbins of the School of Tiberias (in the ninth century of our era), who, 
by doing so, have put an entirely new construction on the chief words 
and names in the Books of Moses, and made thereby confusion still more 
confounded. The truth is, that this scheme has only added additional 
blinds to those already existing in the Pentateuch and other works. 

Mastaba (Eg.). Tlie upper portion of an Egyptian tomb, which 
slay the Egyptologists, consisted always of three parts: namely (1) the 
MastaJja or memorial chapel above ground, (2) a Fit from twenty to 
ninety feet in depth, which led by a passage, to (3) the Burial Chaniher, 
where stood the Sarcophagus, containing the mummy sleeping its sleep 
of long ages. Once the latter interred, the pit was filled up and the 
entrance to it concealed. Thus say the Orientalists, who divide the last 
resting place of the mummy on almost the siame principles as theologians 
do man — into body, soul, and spirit or mind. The fact is, that these 
tombs of the ancients were symbolical like the rest of their sacred 
edifices, and that this symbology points directly to the septenary division 
of man. But in death the order is reversed ; and while the Mastaha witli 
its scenes of daily life painted on the walls, its taUe of offerings, to the 
Larva, the ghost, or "Linga Sarira", was a memorial raised to the two 
Principles and Life which had quitted that which was a lower trio on 
earth ; the Pit, the Passage, the Burial Chambers and the mummy in the 
Sarcophagus, were the objective symbols raised to the two perishable 
"principles", the personal mind and Kama, and the three imperishable, 
the higher Triad, now merged into one. This ''One" was the Spirit of 
the Blessed now resting in the Happy Circle of Aanroo. 

Matari Svan (Sk.). An aerial being shown in Rig- Veda bringing 
down agni or fire to the Bhrigus; who are called "The Consumers", and 
are described by the Orientalists as "a class of mythical beings who be- 
longed to the middle or aerial class of gods". In' Occultism the Bhrigus 
are simply the "Salamanders" of the Rosicrucians and Kabalists. 

Materializations. In Spiritualism the word signifies the objective^ 
appearance of the so-called "Spirits" of the dead, who reclothc 
themselves occasionally in matter; i.e., they form for themselves out of 
the materials at hand, which are found in the atmosphere and the ema- 
nations of those present, a temporary body bearing the human likeness 
of the defunct as he appeared, when alive. Theosophists accept the 
phenomenon of "materialization"; but they reject the theory that it is 
produced by "Spirits", i.e., the immortal principles of the disembodied 
persons. Theosophists hold that when the phnomenon is genuine — and it 
is a fact of rarer occurence than is generally believed — it is produced by 
the larvcE, the eidola or Kamalokic "ghosts" of the dead personalities. 
(See "Kamadhatu", "Kamaloka" and "Kamarupa"). As Kamaloka is 
on the earth plane and differs from its degree of materiality only in the 



GLOSSARY 195 

degree of its plane of consciousness, for which reason it is concealed 
from our normal sight, the occasional apparition of such shells is as 
natural as that of electric balls and other atmospheric phenomena. 
Electricity as a fluid, or atomic matter (for Theosophists hold with 
Maxwell that it is atomic), though invisible, is ever present in the air, 
and manifests under various sliapes, but only when certain conditions 
are there to "materialize" the fluid, when it passes from its own on to 
our plane and makes itself objective. Similarly with the cidola of the 
dead. They are present, around us, but being on another plane do not 
see us any more than we see them. But whenever the strong desires of 
living men and the conditions furnished by the abnormal constitutions 
of mediums are combined together, these eidola are drawn — nay, pulled 
down from their plane on to ours and made objective. This is necro- 
mancy; it does no good to the dead, and great harm to the living, in 
addition to the fact that it interferes with a law of nature. The oc- 
casional materialization of the ''astral bodies" or doubles of living per- 
sons is quite another matter. These "astrals" are often mistaken for the 
apparitions of the dead, since, chameleon-like, our own "Elementaries", 
along with those of the disembodied and cosmic Elementals, Avill often 
assume the appearance of those images which are strongest in our 
thoughts. In short, at the so-called "materialization" seances it is those 
present and the medium, who create the peculiar likeness of the appari- 
tions. Independent "apparitions" belong to another kind of psychic 
phenomena. Materializations are also called "form-manifestations" 
and "portrait statues". To call them materialized spirits is inadmissi- 
ble, for they are not spirits but animated portrait-statues, indeed. 

Mathadhipatis (Sk.). Heads of various religious Brotherhoods 
in India, High Priests in Monasteries. 

Matra (Sk.). The shortest period of time as ajiplied to tlie duration 
of sounds, equal to the twinkling of the eye. 

Matra ,(Sk.). The quantity of a Sanskrit Syllable. 

Matripadma (Sk.). Tlie mother-lotus; the womb of Nature. 

Matris (Sk.). "Mothers", the divine mothers. Their number is 
seven. They are the female aspects and powers of the gods. 

Matronethah (Hrh. Kah.). Identical with Malcuth, the tenth 
Sephira. Lit., Matrona is the "inferior mother". 

Matsya (Sk.). "A fish". Matstja avatar Avas one of tlie earliest 
incarnations of Vishnu. 

Matsya Purana (Sk.). The Scripture or Purana which treats of 
that incarnation. 

Maya (Sk.). Illusion; the cosmic power which renders phenomenal 
existence and the perceptions thereof possible. In Hindu philosophy 
that alone whicli is changeless and eternal is called reality; all that 



196 THEOSOPHICAL 

which is subject to change through decay and differentiation and which 
has therefore a beginning and an end is regarded as mdyd — illusion. 

Maya Moha (8k.). An illusive form assumed by Vishnu in order 
to deceive ascetic Daityas who were becoming too holy through austerities 
and hence too dangerous in power, as says the Vishnu Purdna. 

Mayavi Rupa (Sk.). "Illusive form"; the "double" in esoteric 
philosophy ; ddppelganger or perisprit, in German and French. 

Mayavic Upadhi (Sk.). The covering of illusion, phenomenal 
appearance. 

Mazdeans. From (Ahura) Mazda. (See Spiegel's Yasna, xl). 
They were the ancient Persian nobles who worshipped Ormazd, and, re- 
jecting images, inspired the Jews with the same horror for every con- 
crete representation of the Deity. They seem in Herodotus' time to have 
been superseded by the Magian religionists. The Parsis and Gebers, 
(geherim, mighty men, of Genesis vi. and x. 8) appear to be Magian 
religionists. 

Mazdiasnian. Zoroastrian, lit., "worshipping god". 

M'bul (Heh.). The "waters of the flood". Esoterically, the period- 
ical outpourings of astral impurities on the earth ; periods of psychic 
crimes and iniquities, or of regular moral cataclysms. 

Medini (Sk.). The earth; so-called from the marrow (meclas) of 
two demons. These monsters springing from the ear of the sleeping 
Vishnu, were preparing to kill Brahma who was lying on the lotus which 
grows from Vishnu's navel, when the god of Preservation awoke and 
killed them. Their bodies being thrown into the sea produced such a 
quantity of fat and marrow that Narayana used it to form the earth 
with. 

Megacosm (Gr.). The world of the Astral light, or as explained 
by a puzzled Mason "a great world, not identical with Macrocosm, the 
Universe, but something between it and Microcosm, the little world" or 
man. 

Mehen (Eg.). In popular myths, the great serpent which repre- 
sents the lower atmosphere. In Occultism, the world of the Astral light, 
called symbolically the Cosmic Dragon and the Serpent. (See the 
works of Eliphaz Levi, who called this light le Serpent du Mai, and by 
other names, attributing to it all the evil inflences on the earth). 

Melekh (Heh.). Lit., "a King". A title of the Sephira Tiphereth, 
the V, or van in the tetragrammaton — the son or Microprosopus (the 
Lesser Face). 

Melhas (Sk.). A class of fire-gods or Salamanders. 

Memrab (Heh.). In the Kabala, "the voice of the will" i.e., the 
collective forces of nature in activity, called the "Word", or Logos, by 
the Jewish Kabbalists. 



> > 



GLOSSARY 197 

Mendaeans (Gr.). Also called Sahians, and St. John Christians. 
The latter is absurd, since, according to all accounts, and even their own, 
they have nothing at all to do with Christianity, which they abominate. 
The modern sect of the Mendaeans is widely scattered over Asia Minor 
and elsewhere, and is rightly believed by several Orientalists to be a 
direct surviving relic of the Gnostics. For as explained in the Diction 
voire dcs Apocrijphcs by the Abbe Migne (art. "Le Code Nazarean 
vulgairement appele "Livrc d'Adam"), the Mendseans (written in 
French Manddites, which name they pronounce as Mandai) "properly 
signifies science, knowledge or Gnosis. Thus it is the equivalent of 
Gnostics" {loc. cit. note p. 3). As the above cited work shows, although 
many travellers have spoken of a sect whose followers are variously 
named Sabians, St. John's Christians and Mendaeans, and who are 
scattered around Schat-Etarah at the junction of the Tigris and Euph- 
rates (principally at Bassorah, Hove'iza, Korna, etc.), it was Norberg 
who was the first to point out a tribe belonging to the same sect estab- 
lished in Syria. And they are the most interesting of all. This tribe, 
some 14,000 or 15,000 in number, lives at a day's march east of Mount 
Lebanon, principally at Elmerkah, (Lata-Kieh). They call themselves 
indifferently Nazarenes and Galileans, as they originally come to Syria 
from Galilee. They claim that their religion is the same as that of St. 
John the Baptist, and that it has not changed one bit since his day. On 
festival dayg they clothe themselves in camel's skins, sleep on camel's 
skins, and eat locusts and honey as did their "Father, St. John the 
Baptist". Yet they call Jesus Christ an impostor, a false Messiah, and 
Nebso (or the planet Mercury in its evil side), and siliow him as a pro- 
duction of the Spirit of the "seven badly-disposed stellars" (or planets). 
See Codex Nazarceus, which is their Scripture. 

Mendes (Gr.). The name of the demon-goat, alleged by the Church 
of Kome to have been ivorshipped by the Templars and other Masons. 
But this goat was/ a myth created b,y the evil fancy of the odium theol- 
ogicum. There never was such a creature, nor was its worship known 
amoung Templars or their predecessors, tlie Gnostics. The god of Mendes, 
or the Greek Mendesius, a name given to Lower Egypt in pre-Christian 
days, was the ram-headed god Ammon, the living and holy spirit of Ba, 
the life-giving sun ; and this led certain Greek authors into the error of 
affirming that the Egyptians called the "goat" (or the ram-headed god) 
himself Mendes. Amnion M'-as for ages the chief deity of Egypt, the 
supreme god; Amoun-Ra the "hidden god", or Amen (the concealed) 
the Self-engendered who is "his own father and his own son". Esoteri- 
cally, he was Pan, the god of nature or nature personified, and probably 
the cloven foot of Pan the goat-footed, helped to produce the error of 
this god being a goat. As Amnion's shrine was at Pa-hi-neh-tat, "the 
dwelling of Tat or Spirit, Lord of Tat" {Bindedi in the Assyrian in- 
scriptions), the Greeks first corrupted the name into Bendes and then 



198 THEOSOPHICAL 

into Mendes from "Mendesius". The "error" served ecclesiastical pur- 
poses too well to be made away with, even when recognized. 

Mensambulism (Lat.). A word coined by some French Kabbalists 
to denote the phenomenon of "table turning" from the Latin mcnsa, 
a table. 

Meracha phath (Hch.). Used of the "breathing" of the divine 
Spirit when in the act of hovering over the waters of space before crea- 
tion, (See Siphra Dzeniutha). 

Mercavah or Mercabah (Heh.). A chariot: the Kabalists say 
that the Supreme after he had established the Ten Sephiroth used them 
asi a chariot or throne of glory on which to descend upon the souls of 
men. 

Merodach (CJiald.) God of Babylon, the Bel of later times. He 
is the son of Davkina, goddess of the lower regions, or the earth, and of 
Hea, God of the Seas and Hades with the Orientalists; but esoterically 
and with the Akkadians, the Great God of Wisdom, "he who resurrects 
the dead". Hea, Ea, Dragon or Cannes and Merodach are one. 

Meru (Sk.). The name of an alleged mountain in the center (or 
"naval") of the earth where Swarga, the Olympus of the Indians is 
placed. It contains the "cities" of the greatest gods and the abodes 
of various Devas. Geographically accepted, it is an unknown mountain 
north of the Himalayas. In tradition, Meru was the "Land of Bliss" 
of the earliest Vedic times. It is also referred to as Hemddri ' ' the golden 
mountain", Ratnasdnu, "jewel peak", Karnikdchala, "lotus mountain", 
and Amarddri and Deva-parvata, "the mountain of the gods". The 
Occult teachings place it in the very center of the North Pole, pointing 
it out as the site of the first continent on our earth, after the solidification 
of the globe. 

Meshla and Meshiane (Zend). The Adam and Eve of the Zoroas- 
trians, in the early Persian sysitem ; the first human couple. 

Mesmer, Friedrich Anton. The famous physician who rediscovered 
and applied practically that magnetic fluid in man which was called 
animal magnetism and since then Mesmerism. He was born in Schwaben, 
in 1734, and died in 1815. He was an initiated member of the Brother- 
hoods of the Fratres Lucis and of Lukshoor (or Luxor), or the Egyptian 
Branch of the latter. It wasi the Council of "Luxor" which selected 
him — according to the orders of the "Great Brotherhood" — to act in 
the XVIIIth century as their usual pioneer, sent in the last quarter of 
every century to enlighten a small portion of the Western nations in 
occult lore. It was St. Germain who supervised the development of 
events in this case ; and later Cagliostro was commissioned to help, but 
having made a series of mistakes, more or less fatal, he was reccdled. Of 
these three men who were at first regarded as quacks, Mesmer is already 
vindicated. The justification of the two others will follow in the next 
century. Mesmer founded the "Order of Universal Harmony" in 1783, 



GLOSSARY 199 

in which presumably only animal magnetism was taught, but which in 
reality expounded the tenets of Hippocrates, the methods of the ancient 
Asclepieia, the Temples of Healing, and many other occult sciences. 

Metatron (Hch.). The Kabbalistic "Prince of Faces", the In- 
telligence of the First Sephira, and the reputed ruler of Moses. His 
numeration is 314, the same as the deity title "Shaddai", Almighty. He 
is also the Angel of the world of Briah, and he who conducted the Israel- 
ites through the Wilderness, hence, the same as "the Lord God" Jeho- 
vah. The name resembles the Greek words metathronon or "beside the 
Throne", [w.w.w.] 

Metempsychosis. The progress of the soul from one stage of ex- 
istence to another. Symbolized as and vulgarly believed to be rebirths 
in animal bodies. A term generally misunderstood by every class of 
European and American society, including many scientists. Metem- 
psijchosis should apply to animals alone. The kabalistic axiom, "A 
stone becomes a plaut,"^ a plant an animal, an animal a man, a man a 
spirit, and a spirit a god", receives an explanation in Manu's Mdnava- 
Dharma-Shastra and other Brahmanical books. 

Metis (Gr.). AYisdom. The Greek theology associated Metis 
Divine AVisdom, with Eros — Divine Love. The word is also said to 
form part of the Templars' deity or idol Baphomet, which some authori- 
ties derive from Baphe, baptism, and Metis, wisdom; while others say 
that the idol represented the two teachers whom the Templars equally 
denied, viz., Papa or the Pope, and Mahomet, [w.w.w.] 

Midgard (Scand.). The great snake in the Eddas which gnaws the 
roots of the Yggdrasil—t\ie Tree of Life and the Universe in the legend 
of the Norsiemen. IMidgard is the jMundane Snake of Evil. 

Midrashim (H(h.). "Ancient"— the same as Purdna; the ancient 
writings of the Jews as the Purdnas are called the "Ancient" (Scrip- 
tures) of India. 
Migmar (Tih.). The planet Mars. 

Mimansa (Sk.). A scliool of philosophy; one of the six in India. 
There are two Mimansa, the older and the younger. The first, the 
"Purva-Mimansa", was founded by Jamini, and the latter or "Uttara- 
Mimansa", by a Vyasa — and is now called the Vedanta school. Sanka- 
racharya was the most prominent apostle of the latter. The Vedanta 
school is the oldest of all the six Darshana {lit., "demonstrations"), but 
even to the Purva-Mimansa no higher antiquity is allowed than 500 B.C. 
Orientalists in favor of the absiirb idea that all these schools are "due 
to Greek intluence", in order to have them fit their theory would make 
them of still later date. The Shad-darshana (or Six Demonstrations) 
have all a starting point in common, and maintain that ex nihilo nihil 
fit. 

Mimir (Scand.). A wise giant in the Eddas. One of the Jotuns or 
Titans. He had a well which he watched over (Mimir's well), which 



200 THEOSOPHICAL 

contained the waters of Primeval Wisdom, by drinking of which Odin 
acquired the knowledge of all past, present, and future events. 

Minas (Sk.). The same as Meenam, the Zodiacal sign Pisces or 

Fishes. 

Minos (Gr.). The great Judge in Hades. An ancient King of Crete. 

Miolner (Scand.). The storm-hammer of Thor (See "Svastica") 
made for him by the Dwarfs; with it the God conquered men and gods 
alike. The same kind of magic weapon as the Hindu Agneyastra, the 
fire-weapon. 

Mirror. The Luminous Mirror, Aspaqularia nera, a Kabbalistic 
term, means the power of foresight and farsight, prophecy such as Moses 
had. Ordinary mortals have only the Aspaqularia delta nera or Non 
Luminous! Mirror, they see only in a glass darkly : a parallel symbolism 
is that of the conception of the Tree of Life, and that only of the Tree 
of Knowledge, [w.w.w.] 

Mishnah (Hch.). The older portion of the Jewish Talmud, or oral 
law, consisting of supplementary regulations for the guidance of the 
Jews with an ample commentary. The contents are arranged in six 
sections, treating of Seeds, Feasts, Women, Damages, Sacred Things and 
Purification. Rabbi Judah Huanasee codified the Mishnah about a.d. 
140. [w.w.w.] 

Mistletoe. This curious plant, which grows only as a parasite 
upon other trees, such as the apple and the oak, was a mystic plant in 
several ancient religions, notably that of the Celtic Druids: their priests 
cut the Mistletoe with much ceremony at certain seasons, and then only 
with a specially consecrated golden knife. Hislop suggests as a religious 
explanation that the Mistletoe being a Branch growing out of a Mother 
tree was worshipped as a Divine Branch out of an Earthly Tree, the 
union of deity and humanity. The name in German means "all heal". 
Compare the Golden Branch in Virgil 's ^neid, vi. 126 : and Pliny, Hist. 
Nat., xvii. 44. " Sacerdos Candida vesta cidtus arl)orem scandit, falce 
aurea demetit". [w.w.w.] 

Mitra or Mithra. (Pers.). An ancient Iranian deity, a sun-god, as 
evidenced by his being lion-headed. The name exists also in India and 
means a form of the sun. The Persian Mithra, he who drove out of 
heaven Ahriman, is a kind of Messiah who is expected to return as the 
judge of men, and is a sin-hearing god who atones for the iniquities of 
mankind. As such, however, he is directly connected with the highest 
Occultism, the tenets of which were expounded during the Mithraic 
Mysteries which thus bore his name. 

Mitre. The head-dress of a religious dignitary, as of a Roman Cath- 
olic Bishop: a cap ending upwards in two lips, like a fish's head with 
open mouth — os tincce — associated with Dagon, the Babylonian deity, 
the word dag meaning fish. Curiously enough the os uteri has been 
so called in the human female and the fish is related to the goddess 



GLOSS AEY 201 

Aphrodite who sprang from the sea. It is curious also that the ancient 
Chaldee legends speak of a religious teacher coming to them springing 
out of the sea, named Oannes and Annedotus, half fish, half man. 
[w.w.w.] 

Mizraim (Eg.). The name of Egypt in very ancient times. This- 
name is now connected with Freemasonry. See the rite of Mizraim and 
the rite of Memphis in Masonic Cyclopaedias. 

Mlechchhas (Sk.). Outcasts. The name given to all foreigners,, 
and those who are non-Aryas. 

Mnevis (Eg.). The bull Mnevis, the Son of Ptah, and the symbol 
of the Sun-god Ea, as Apis was supposed to be Osiris in the sacred bull- 
form. His abode was at Heliopolis, the City of the Sun. He was black 
and carried on his horns the sacred uraeus and disk. 

Mobeds (Zend). Parsi, or Zoroastrian priests. 

Moira (Gr.). The same as the Latin Fatum — fate, destiny, the 
power which rules over the actions, sutferings, the life and struggles of 
men. But this is not Karma; it is only one of its agent-forces. 

Moksha (Sk.). ''Liberation". The same as Nirvana; a post-mortem 
state of rest and bliss of the "Soul-Pilgrim". 

Monad (Gr.). The Unity, the one; but in Occultism it often means 
the unified triad, Atma-Buddhi-Manas, or the duad, Atma-Buddhi, that 
immortal part of man which reincarnates in the lower kingdoms, and 
gradually progresses through them to Man and then to the final goal — 
Nirvana. 

Monas (Gr.). The same as the term Monad; "Alone", a unit. Li 
the Pythagorean system the duad emanates from the higher and solitary 
Monas, which is thus the "First Cause". 

Monogenes (Gr.). Lit., "the only-begotten"; a name of Proser- 
pine and other gods and goddesses. 

Moon. The earth's satellite has figured very largely as an emblem in 
the religions of antiquity ; and most commonly has been represented as 
Female, but tliis is not universal, for in the myths of the Teutons and 
Arabs, as well as in the conception of the Rajpoots of India (see Tod, 
Hist.), and in Tartary the moon was male. Latin authors speak of 
Luna, and also of Lunus, but with extreme rarity. The Greek name is 
Selene, the Hebrew Lebanah and also Yarcah. In Egypt the moon was 
associated with Isis, in Phenicia with Astarte and in Babylon with 
Ishtar. From certain points of view the ancients regarded the moon 
also as Androgyne. The astrologers allot an influence to the moon over 
the several parts of a man, according to the several Zodiacal signs she 
traverses ; as well as a special influence produced by the house she occu- 
pies in a figure. 

The division of the Zodiac into 28 mansions of the moon appears- 
to be older than that into 12 signs: the Copts, Egyptians, Arabs, Per- 



202 THEOSOPHICAJL 

sians and Hindoos used the division into 28 parts centuries ago, and the 
Chinese use it still. 

The Hermetists said the moon gave man an astral form, while Theos- 
ophy teaches that the Lunar Pitris were the creators of our human 
bodies and lower principles. (See Secret Doctrine I. 386). [w.w.w.] 

Moriah, Mount. The site of King Solomon's first temple at Jerusa- 
lem according to tradition. It is to that mount that Abraham journeyed 
to offer Isaac in sacrifice. 

Morya (Sk.). One of the royal Buddhist houses of Magadha ; to 
which belonged Chandragupta and Asoka his grandson; also the name 
of a Rajpoot tribe. 

Mot (Plia-n.). The same as ilus, mud, primordial chaos; a word used 
in the Tyrrhenian Cosmogony (See "Suidas"). 

Mout or Mooth (Eg.). The mother goddess; primordial goddesses, 
for ' ' all the gods are born from Mooth ' ', it is said. Astronomically, the 
moon. 

Mu (Seiizar). The mystic word (or rather a portion of it) in 
Northern Buddhism. It means the "destruction of temptation" during 
the course of Yoga practice. 

Mudra (Sk.). Called the mystic seal. A system of occult signs 
made with the fingers. These signs imitate ancient Sanskrit characters 
of magic efficacy. First used in the Northern Buddhist Yogacharya 
School, they were adopted later by the Hindu Tantrikas, but often mis- 
used by them for hlack magic purposes. 

Mukta and Mukti (Sk.). Liberation from sentient life; one beati- 
fied or liberated ; a candidate for Moksha, freedom from flesh and matter, 
or life on this earth, 

Mulaprakriti (Sk.). The Parabrahmic root, the abstract deific 
feminine principle — undifferentiated substance. Akasa. Literally, "the 
root of Nature" (Prakriti) or Matter. 

Mulil (Chald.). A name of the Chaldean Bel. 

Muluk-Taoos (Arab.). From Maluh, "Ruler", a later form of 
Moloch, Melek, ]\Ialayak and Malachim, "messengers", angels. It is the 
Deity worshipped by the Yczidis, a sect in Persia, kindly called by 
Christian theology "devil worshippers", under the form of a peacock. 
The Lord "Peacock" is not Satan, nor is it the devil; for it is simply 
the symbol of the lumdred eyed Wisdom; the bird of Saraswati, goddess 
of Wisdom; of Karttikeya the Kumdra, the Virgin celebate of the Mys- 
teries of Juno, and all the gods and goddesses connected with the secret 
learning. 

Mummy. The name for human bodies embalmed and preserved 
according to the ancient Egyptian method. The process of mummifica- 
tion is a rite of extreme antiquity in the land of the Pharaohs, and was 
considered as one of the most sacred ceremonies. It was, moreover, a 



GLOSSARY 203 

process sliowingf considerable learning in chemistry and surgery. 
Mummies 5,000 years old and more, reappear among us as preserved 
and fresh as when they first came from the hands of the Parashistes. 

Mumukshatwa (8k.). Desire for liberation (from reincarnation 
and thraldom of matter). 

Mundakya Upanishad (Sl\). Lit., the "Mundaka esoteric doctrine", 
a work of high antiquity. It has been translated by Raja Rammohun 
Roy. 

Mundane Egg or Tree, or any other such symbolical object in the 
world Mythologies. Meru is a "Mundane Mountain"; the Bodhi Tree, 
or Ficus religiosa, is the Mundane Tree of the Buddhists; just as the 
Yggdrasil is the ^^Mundeine Tree" of the Scandinavians or Norsemen. 

Munis (Sk.). Saints, or Sages. 

Murari (8k.). An epithet of Krishna or Vishnu; lit., the enemy of 
Mura — an Asura. 

Murti (Sk.). A form, or a sign, or again a face, e.g., "Trimurti", 
the "three Faces" or Images. 

Murttimat (Sk.). Something inherent or incarnate in something^ 
else and inseparable from it; like icetness in water, which is coexistent 
and coeval with it. Used of some attributes of Brahma and other gods. 

Muspel (Scancl.). A giant in the Edda, the Fire-god, and the 
father of the Flames. It was these evil sons of the good Muspel who 
after threatening evil in Glowheim (Muspelheim) finally gathered into 
a formidable army, and fought the "Last Battle" on the field of Wigred. 
Muspel is rendered as "World (or Mundane) Fire". The conception 
Dark Surtur (black smoke) out of which flash tongues of flame, connects 
Muspel with the Hindu Agni. 

Mutham or Mattam. (Sk.). Temples in India with cloisters and 
monasteries for regular ascetics and scholars. 

Myalba (Tib.). In the Esoteric philosophy of Northern Buddhism, 
the name of our Earth, called Hell for those who reincarnate in it for 
punishment. Exoterically, Myalba is translated a Hell. 

Mystagogy (Gr.). The doctrines or interpretations of the sacred 

mysteries. 

Mysterium Magnum (Lot.). "The gi-eat Mystery", a term used in 
Alchemy in connection with the fabrication of the "Philosopher's Stone" 
and the" "Elixir of Life". 

Mysteries. Greek telctai, or finishings, celebrations of initiation 
or the Mysteries. They were observances, generally kept secret from the 
profane and uninitiated, in which were taught by dramatic representa- 
tion and other methods, the origin of things, the nature of the human 
spirits, its relation to the body, and the method of its purification and 
restoration to higher life. Physical science, medicine, the laws of music, 
divination, were all taught in the same manner. The Hippocratic oath 



204 THEOSOPHICAL ' 

was but a mystic obligation. Hippocrates was a priest of Asklepois, 
some of whose writings chanced to become public. But the Asklepiades 
were initiates of the J^sculapian serpent-worship, as the Bacchantes were 
of the Dionysia; and both rites were eventually incorporated with the 
Eleusinia. The Sacred Mysteries were enacted in the ancient Temples 
by the initiated Hierophants for the benefit and instruction of the 
candidates. The most solemn and occult Mysteries were certainly those 
which were performed in Egypt by "the band of secret-keepers", as 
Mr. Bonwick calls the Hierophants. Maurice describes their nature 
very graphically in a few lines. Speaking of the Mysteries performed 
in Philffi (the Nile-island), he says that "it was in these gloomy caverns 
that the grand and mystic arcana of the goddess (Isis) were unfolded to 
the adoring aspirant, while the solemn hymn of initiation resounded 
through the long extent of these stony recesses". The word "mysteries" 
is derived from the Greek mud, "to close the mouth", and every symbol 
connected with them had a hidden meaning. As Plato and many other 
sages of antiquity affirm, the Mysteries were highly religious, moral 
and beneficent as a school of ethics. The Grecian mysteries, those of 
Ceres and Bacchus, were only imitations of the Egyptian; and the 
author of Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought, informs us that our own 
"word chapel or capella is said to be the Caph-El or college of El, the 
Solar divinity". The well-known Kabiri are associated with the 
Mysteries. In short, the Mysteries Avere in every country a series of 
dramatic performances, in which the mysteries of cosmogony and nature, 
in general, were personified by the priests and neophytes, who enacted 
the part of various gods and goddesses, repeating supposed scenes 
(allegories) from their respective lives. These were explained in their 
hidden meaning to the candidates for initiation, and incorporated into 
philosophical doctrines. 

Mystery Language. The sacerdotal secret jargon employed by the 
initiated priests, and used only when discussing sacred things. Every 
nation had its own "mystery" tongue, unknown save to those admitted 
to the Mysteries. 

Mystes (Gr.). In antiquity, the name of the Initiates; now that 
of Roman Cardinals, who having borrowed all their other rites and 
dogmas from Aryan, Egyptian and Hellenic "heathen", have helped 
themselves also to the (.wale, of the neophytes. They have to keep their 
eyes and mouth shut on their consecration, and are, therefore, called 
MystcB. 

Mystica Vannus lacchi. Commonly translated the mystic Fan; 
but in an ancient terra-cotta in the British I\Iuseum the fan is a 
Basket such as the Ancients' Mysteries displayed with mystic contents: 
Inman says with emblematic testes, [w.w.w.] 



GLOSSARY 



205 



N. 

■i^' — Tile 14th letter in both the English and the Hebrew alphabets. 
In the latter tongue the N is called Nun, and signifies a fish. It is the 
symbol of the female principle or the womb. Its numerical value is 50 
in the Kabalistic system, but the Peripatetics made it equivalent to 900, 
and with a stroke over it (900) 9,000. With the Hebrews, however, the 
final Nun was 700. 

Naaseni. The Christian Gnostic sect, called Naasenians, or serpent 
worshippers, who considered the constellation of the Dragon as the 
symbol of their Logos or Christ. 

Nabatheans. A sect almost identical in their beliefs with the 
Nazarenes and Sabeans, who had more reverence for John the 
Baptist than for Jesus. Maimonides identifies them with the astrolaters. 
. . . "Respecting the beliefs of the Sabeans' \ he says, "the most 
famous is the book. The agriculture of the Nabatheans". And we know 
that the Ebionites, the first of whom were the friends and relatives of 
Jesus, according to tradition, in other words, the earliest and first 
Christians, "were the direct followers and disciples of the Nazarene 
sect", according to Epiphanius and Theodoret (See the Contra Ebionites 
of Epiphanius, and-also "Galileans" and "Nazarenes"). 

Nabhi (Sk.). The father of Bharata, who gave his name to Bhdrata 
Varsha (land) or India. 

Nabia (Ilcb.). Seership, soothsaying. This oldest and most 
respected of mystic phenomena is the name given to prophecy in the 
Bible, and is correctly included among the spiritual powers, such as 
divination, clairvoyant visions, trance-conditions, and oracles. But while 
enchanters, diviners, and even astrologers are strictly condemned in the 
Mosaic books, prophecy, seership, and nabia appear as the special gifts 
of hea;en. In early ages they were all termed Epoptai (Seers), the 
Greek word for Initiates; they were also designated Nebim, "the plural 
of Nebo, the Babylonian god of wisdom." The Kabalist distinguishes 
between the seer and the magician; one is passive, the other active; 
Nebirah, is one who looks into futurity and a clairvoyant; Nebi-poel, he 
who possesses magic poivcrs. We notice that Elijah and Apollonius 
resorted to the same means to isolate themselves from the disturbing 
influences of the outer world, viz., wrapping their heads entirely in a 
woollen mantle, from its being an electric non-conductor we must 
suppose. 

Nabu (Chalcl.). Nebu or Nebo, generally; the Chaldean god of 



206 THEOSOPHICAL / 

Secret Wisdom, from which name the Biblical, Hebrew term Nabiim 
(prophets) was derived. This son of Ann and Ishtar was worshipped 
chiefly at Borsippa; but he had also his temple at Babylon, above that 
of Bel, devoted to the seven planets. (See "Nazarenes" and "Nebo".) 

Naga (Sk.). Literally "Serpent". The name in the Indian Pan- 
theon of the Serpent or Dragon Spirits, and of the inhabitants of Patala, 
hell. But as Patala means the antipodes, and was the name given to 
America by the ancients, who knew and visited that continent before 
Europe had ever heard of it, the term is probably akin to the Mexican 
N a gals the (now) sorcerers and medicine men. The Nagas are the 
Burmese Nats, serpent-gods, or "dragon demons". In Esotericism. 
however, and as already stated, this is a nick-name for the "wise men"' 
or adepts. In China and Tibet, the "Dragons" are regarded as the 
titulary deities of the world and of various spots on the earth, and the 
word is explained as meaning adepts, yogis, and narjols. Tlie term has 
simply reference to their great knowledge and wisdom. This is also 
proven in the ancient Sutras and Buddha's biographies. The Ndga is. 
ever a wise man, endowed with extraordinary magic powers, in South 
and Central America as in India, in Chaldea as also in ancient Egypt. 
In China the "worship" of the Nagas was widespread, and it has become 
still more pronounced since Nagarjuna (the "great Naga", the "great 
adept" literally), the fourteenth Buddhist patriarch, visited China. The 
"Nagas" are regarded by the Celestials as "the tutelary Spirits or 
gods of the five regions or the four points of the compass and the centre, 
as the guardians of the five.lakes and four oceans" (Eitel). This, traced 
to its origin and translated esoterically, means that the five continents- 
and their five root-races had always been under the guardianship of 
"terrestrial deities", i.e., Wise Adepts. The tradition that Nagas 
washed Gautama Buddha at his birth, protected him and guarded the 
relics of his body when dead, points again to the Nagas being only wise 
men, Arhats, and no monsters or Dragons. This is also corroborated 
by the innumerable stories of the conversion of Nagas to Buddhism. 
The Naga of a lake in a forest near Rajagriha and many other 
* ' Dragons ' ' were thus converted by Buddha to the good Law. 

Nagadwipa (Sk.). Lit., "the island of the Dragons"; one of the 
Seven Divisions of Bharatavarsha, or modern India, according to the- 
Purdnas. No proofs remain as to who were the Nagas (a historical 
people however), the favourite theory being that they were a Scythie 
race. But there is no proof of this. When the Brahmans invaded 
India they "found a race of wise men, half-gods, half-demons", says the 
legend, men who were the teachers of other races and became likewise 
the instructors of the Hindus and the Brahmans themselves. Nagpur is 
justly believed to be the surviving relic of Nagadwipa. Now Nagpur is- 
virtually in Eajputana, near Oodeypore, Ajmere, etc. And is it not well 
known that there was a time when Brahmans went to learn Secret Wis- 



GLOSSARY 207 

dom from the Rajputs ? Moreover a tradition states that Apollonius of 
Tyana was instructed in magic by the Ndgas of Kashmere. 

Nagal. The title of the chief Sorcerer or "medicine man" of some 
tribes of Mexican Indians. These keep always a daimon or god, in the 
shape of a serpent — and sometimes some other sacred animal — who is 
said to inspire them. 

Nagarajas (Sk.). Tlie usual name given to all the supposed 
"guardian Spirits" of lakes and rivers, meaning literally "Dragon 
Kings." All of these are shown in the Buddhist chronicles as having 
been converted to the Buddhist monastic life : i.e., as becoming Arhats 
from the Yogis that they were before. 

Nagarjuna (Sk.). An Arhat, a hermit (a native of Western 
India) converted to Buddhism by Kapimala and the fourteenth 
Patriarch, and now regarded as a Bodhisattva-Nirmanakaya. He was 
famous for his dialectical subtlety in metaphysical arguments ; and was 
the first teacher of the Amitabla doctrine and a representative of the 
Mahayana School. Viewed as the greatest philosopher of the Buddhists, 
he was referred to as "one of the four suns which illumine the world". 
He was born 223 B.C., and going to China after his conversion converted 
in his turn the whole country to Buddhism. 

Nagkon Wat (Siam.). Imposing ruins in the province of 
Siamrap (Eastern Siam), if ruins they may be called. An abandoned 
edifice of most gigantic dimensions, which, together with the great temple 
of Angkortham, are the best preserved relics of the past in all Asia. 
After the Pyramids this is the most occult edifice in the whole world. 
Of an oblong form, it is 796 feet in length and 588 in width, entirely 
built of stone, the roof included, but wiflwiit cement like the pyramids 
of Ghizeh, the stones fitting so closely that the joints are even now 
liardly discernible. It has a central pagoda 250 feet in height from the 
first floor, and. four smaller pagodas at the four corners, about 175 feet 
each. In the words of a traveller, {The Land of the White Elephant, 
Prank Vincent, p. 209) : "in style and beauty of architecture, solidity 
of construction, and magnificent and elaborate carving and sculpture, 
the great Nagkon Wat has no superior, certainly no rival, standing at 
the present day." (See Isis Unv., Vol. 1. pp. 561-566.) 

Nahash (Hch.). "The Deprived"; the P^vil one or the Serpent, 
according to the Western Kabbalists. 

Nahbkoon (Eg.). The god who unites the "doubles," a mystical 
term referring to the human disembodied "principles". 

Naimittika (Sk.). Occasional, or incidental; used of one of the 
four kinds of Pralayas (See "Pralaya"). 

Nain (Scand.). The "Dwarf of Death". 

Najo (Hind.). Witch; a sorceress. 

Nakshatra (8k.). Lunar asterisms. 



208 THEOSOPHICAL 

Namah (Sk.). In Pali Namo. The first word of a daily invocation 
among Buddhists, meaning "I humbly trust, or adore, or acknowledge" 
the Lord; as: "Namo tasso Bhagavato Arahato" etc., addressed to 
Lord Buddha. The priests are called "Masters of Namah" — both 
Buddhist and Taoist, because this word is used in liturgy and prayers,, 
in the invocation of the Triratna (q.v.), and with a slignt change in the 
occult incantations to the Bodhisvattvas and Nirmdnakdyas. 

Nanda (Sk.). One of the Kings of Magadha (whose dynasty was. 
overthrown by Chandragupta q.v.). 

Nandi (Sk.). The sacred white bull of Siva and his Vdhan (Vehicle). 

Nanna (Scand.). The beautiful bride of Baldur, who fought with 
the blind Hodur ("he who rules over darkness") and received his death 
from the latter by magic art. Baldur is the personification of Day, 
Hodur of Night, and the lovely Nanna of Dawn. 

Nannak (Chald.), also Nanar and Sin. A name of the moon; said 
to be the son of Mulil, the older Bel and the Sun, in the later mythology. 
In the earliest, the Moon is far older than the Sun. 

Nara (Sk.). "Man", the original, eternal man. 

Nara (Sk.). The waters of Space, or the Great Deep, whence the 
name of Narayana or Vishnu. 

Nara Sinha (Sk.). Lit., "Man-lion"; an Avatar of Vishnu. 

Narada (Sk.). One of the Seven great Rishis, a Son of Brahma. 
This "Progenitor" is one of the most mysterious personages in the 
Brahmanical sacred symbology. Esoterically Narada is the Ruler of 
events during various Karmic cycles, and the personification, in a certain 
sense, of the great human cycle ; a Dhyan Chohan. He plays a great 
part in Brahmanism, which ascribes to him some of the most occult 
hymns in the Rig Veda, in which sacred work he is described as "of 
the Kanwa family". He is called Deva-Brahma, but as such has a 
distinct character from the one he assumes on earth — or Patala. Daksha 
cursed him for his interference with his 5,000 and 10,000 sons, whom 
he persuaded to remain Yogins and celibates, to be reborn time after 
time on this earth {Mahdhhdrata). But this is an allegory. He was 
the inventor of the Vina, a kind of lute, and a great "lawgiver". The 
story is too long to be given here. 

Naraka (Sk.). In the popular conception, a hell, a "prison under 
earth". The hot and cold hells, each eight in number, are simply 
emblems of the globes of our septenary chain, with the addition of the 
"eighth sphere" supposed to be located in the moon. This is a trans- 
parent blind, as these "hells" are called vivifying hells because, as 
explained, any being dying in one is immediately born in the second, 
then in the third, and so on; life lasting in each 500 years (a blind on 
the number of cycles and reincarnations). As these hells constitute one 
of the six gdti (conditions of sentient existence), and as people are said 



GLOSSARY 209 

to be reborn in one or the other according to their Karmie merits or 
demerits, tiie hlind becomes self-evident. Moreover, these Narakas are 
rather purgatories than hells, since release from each is possible through 
the prayers and intercessions of priests for a consideration, just as in the 
Roman Catholic Church, which seems to have copied the Chinese ritual- 
ism in this pretty closely. As said before, esoteric philosophy traces 
every hell to life on earth, in one or another form of sentient existence. 
Narayana (Sk.). The "mover on the Waters" of space: a title of 
Vishnu, in his aspect of the Holy Spirit, moving on the Waters of 
Creation. (See Manii, Book II.) In esoteric symbology it stands for 
the primeval manifestation of the life-principle, spreading in infinite 
Space. 

Nargal (Chald.). The Chaldean and Assyrian chiefs of the Magi 
{Ralj Mag). 

Narjol (Tib.). A Saint; a glorified Adept. 

Naros or Neros (Heb.). A cycle, which the Orientalists describe as 
consisting of 600 years. But what years? There were three kinds of 
Neros: the greater, the middle and the less. It is the latter cycle only 
which was of 600 years. (See "Neros".) 

Nastika (Sk.). Atheist, or rather he who does not worship or 
recognize the gods and idols. 

Nath (Sk.). A Lord: used of gods and men; a title added to the 
first name of men and things as Badrinath (lord of mountains), a 
famous place of pilgrimage; Gopinath (lord of the shepherdesses), used 
of Krishna. 

Nava Nidhi (Sk.). Lit., "the nine Jewels"; a consummation of 
spiritual development, in mysticism. 

Nazar (Heb.). One "set apart"; a temporary monastic class of 
celibates spoken of in the Old Testament, who married not, nor did they 
use wine during the time of their vow, and who wore their hair long, 
cutting it only at their initiation. Paul must have belonged to this class 
of Initiates, for he himself tells the Galatians (i. 15) that he was 
separated or "set apart" from the moment of his birth; and that he had 
his hair cut at Cenchrea, because "he had a vow" {Acts xviii. 18), i.e., 
had been initiated as a Nazar; after which he became a "master-builder" 
(1 Corinth, iii. 10). Joseph is styled a Nazar {Gen. vlix. 26). Samson 
and Samuel were also Nazars, and many more. 

Nazarenes (Heb.). The same as the St. John Christians; called 
the Mend^ans, or Sabeans. Those Nazarenes who left Galilee several 
hundred years ago and settled in Syria, east of Mount Lebanon, call 
themselves also Galileans; though they designate Christ "a false 
Messiah" and recognize only St. John the Baptist, whom they call the 
"Great Nazar". The Nabatheans with very little difference adhered 
to the same belief as the Nazarenes or the Sabeans. More than this — the 



210 THEOSOPHICAL 

Ebionites, whom Reiian shows as numbering among their sect all the 
surviving relatives of Jesus, seem to have been followers of the same 
sect if we have to believe St. Jerome, who writes : " I received permission 
from the Nazarteans who at Bergea of Syria used this (Gospel of Matthew 
written in Hebrew) to translate it. . . . The Evangel which the 
Nazarenes and Ebionites use which recently I translated from Hebrew 
into Greek.'' (Hieronymus' Comment, to Matthew, Book II., chapter 
xii., and Hieronymus' De Viris Illust. cap 3.) Now this supposed 
Evangel of Matthew, by whomsoever written, "exhibited matter", as 
Jerome complains {loc. cit.), "not for edification but for destruction" 
(of Christianity). But the fact that the Ebionites, the genuine primi- 
tive Christians, "rejecting the rest of the apostolic writings, made use 
only, of this (Matthew's Hebrew) Gospel" {Adv. Hcer., i. 26) is very 
suggestive. For, as Epiphanius declares, the Ebionites firmly believed, 
with the Nazarenes, that Jesus was but a man "of the seed of a man" 
(Epiph. Contra Ebionites). Moreover we know from the Codex of the 
Nazarenes, of which the "Evangel according to Matthew" formed a 
portion, that these Gnostics, whether Galilean, Nazarene or Gentile, call 
Jesus, in their hatred of astrolatry, in their Codex Naboo-Meschiha or 
"Mercury". (See "Mendaans"). This does not shew much orthodox 
Christianity either in the Nazarenes or the Ebionites ; but seems to prove 
on the contrary that the Christianity of the early centuries and modern 
Christian theology are two entirely opposite things. 

Nebban or Neibban (Chin.). The same as Nirvana, Nippang in 
Tibet. 

Nebo (Chald.). The same as the Hindu Budha, son of Soma the 
Moon, and Mercury the planet. (See "Nabu".) 

Necromancy (Gr.). The rising of the images of the dead, con- 
sidered in antiquity and by modern Occultists as a practice of black 
magic. lamblichus, Porphyry and other Theurgists have deprecated the 
practice, no less than did Moses, who condemned the "witches" of his 
day to death, the said witches being onW Necromancers — as in the case 
of the Witch of Endor and Samuel. 

Nehaschim (Kah.). "The serpent's works". It is a name given 
to the Astral Light, "the great deceiving serpent" (Maya), during 
certain practical works of magic. (See Sec. Doc. II. 409.) 

Neilos (Gr.). The river Nile; also a god. 

Neith (Eg.). Neithes. The Queen of Heaven; the moon-goddess 
in Egypt. She is variously called Nout, Nepte, Nur. (For symbolism, 
see "Nout".) 

Neocoros (Gr.). With the Greeks the guardian of a Temple. 

Neophyte (Gr.). A novice; a postulant or candidate for the 
Mysteries. The methods of initiation varied. Neophytes had to pass in 
their trials through all the four elements, emerging in the fifth as glori- 



GLOSSARY 211 

fied Initiates. Thus having passed through Fire (Deity), Water 
(Divine Spirit), Air (the Breath of God), and the Earth (Matter), 
they received a sacred mark, a tat and a tau, or a -|- and a T. The 
latter was the monogram of the Cycle called the Naros, or Neros. As 
shown by Dr. E. V. Kenealy, in his Apocalypse, the cross in symbolical 
language (one of the seven meanings) "-j- exhibits at the same time 
three primitive letters, of which the word LVX or Light is compounded. 
. . . The Initiates were marked with this sign, when they were 
admitted into the perfect mysteries. We constantly see the Tau and 
the Resh united thus -f . Those two letters in the old Samaritan, as 
found on coins, stand, the first for 400, the second for 200 =^ 600. This 
is the staff of Osiris." Just so, but this does not prove that the Naros 
was a cycle of 600 j^ears; but simply that one more pagan symbol had 
been appropriated by the Church. (See ''Naros" and "Neros" and 
also "I. H. S.") 

Neo-platonism. Lit., "The new Platonism" or Platonic School. 
An eclectic pantheistic school of philosophy founded in Alexandria by 
Ammonius Saccas, of which his disciple Plotinus was the head (a.d. 
189-270). It sought to reconcile Platonic teachings and the Aristotelean 
system with oriental Theosophy. Its chief occupation was pure spiritual 
philosophy, metaphysics and mysticism. Theurgy was introduced 
towards its later years. It was the ultimate effort of high intelligences 
to check the ever-increasing ignorant superstition and hlind faith of the 
times; the last product of Greek philosophy, which was finally crushed 
and put to death by brute force. 

Nephesh Chia (Kah.). Animal or living Soul. 

Nephesh (Ileh.). Breath of life. Anima, Mens, Vita, Appetites. 
This term is used very loosely in the Bible. It generally means Prana 
"life"; in the Kabbalah it is the animal passions and the animal Soul, 
[w.w.w.] Therefore, as maintained in theosophical teacnings, Nephesh 
is the synonym of the Prana-Kamic Principle, or the vital animal Soul 
in man. [h. p. b.] 

Nephilim (Ileh.). Giants, Titans, the Fallen Ones. 

Nephtys (Eg.). The sister of Isis, philosophically only one of her 
aspects. As Osiris and Typhon are one under two aspects, so Isis and 
Nephtys are one and the same symbol of nature under its dual aspect. 
Thus, while Isis is the wife of Osiris, Nephtys is the wife of Tj-phon, the 
foe of Osiris and his slayer, although she weeps for him. She is often 
represented at the bier of the great Sun-god, having on her head a disk 
between the two horns of a crescent. She is the genius of the lower 
world, and Aiuibis, the Egyptian Pluto, is called her son. Plutarch has 
given a fair esoteric explanation of the two sisters. Thus he writes: 
"Nephtys designs that which is under the earth, and which one sees 
not {i.e., its disintegrating and reproducing power), and Isis that which 
is above earth, and which is visible (or physical nature). . . . The 



212 THEOSOPHICAL 

circle of the horizon which divides these two hemispheres and which is 
common to both, is Anii^bis. ' ' The identity of the two goddesses is shown 
in that Isis is also called the mother of Anubis. Thus the two are the 
Alpha and Omega of Nature. 

Nergal (Chald.). On the Assyrian tablets he is described as the 
"giant king of war, lord of the city of Cutha." It is also the Hebrew 
name for the planet Mars, associated invariably with ill-luck and danger. 
Nergal-Mars is the "shedder of blood." In occult astrology it is less 
malefic than Saturn, but is more active in its associations with men and 
its influence on them. 

Neros (Heh.). As shown by the late E. V. Kenealy this "Naronic 
Cycle" was a mystery, a true "secret of god", to disclose which during 
the prevalence of the religious mysteries and the authority of the priests, 
meant death. The learned author seemed to take it for granted that 
the Neros was of 600 years duration, but he was mistaken. (See 
"Naros".) Nor were the establishment of the Mysteries and the rites of 
Initiation due merely to the necessity of perpetuating the knowledge of 
the true meaning of the Naros and keeping this cycle secret from the 
profane ; for the Mysteries are as old as the present human race, and 
there were far more important secrets to veil than the figures of any 
cycle. ( See " Neophyte " and " I. H. S. ", also ' ' Naros ". ) The mystery 
of 666, "the number of the great heart" so called, is far better repre- 
sented by the Tau and the Besh than 600. 

Nerthus (Old Sax.). The goddess of the earth, of love and beauty 
with the old Germans ; the same as the Scandinavian Freya or Frigga. 
Tacitus mentions the great honours paid to Nerthus when her idol was 
carried on a car in triumph through several districts. 

Neshamah (Hcb.). Soul, anima, afflatus. In the Kabbalah, as 
taught in the Rosicrucian order, one of the three highest essences of the 
Human Soul, corresponding to the Sephira Binah. [w.w.w.] 

Nesku or Ntiskic (Chald.). Is described in the Assyrian tablets as 
the "holder of the golden sceptre, the lofty god". 

Netzach (Hch.). "Victory". The seventh of tlie Ten Sephiroth, 
a masculine active potency, [w.w^w.] 

Nidana (Sk.). The 12 causes of existence, or a chain of causation, 
"a concatenation of cause and effect in the whole range of existence 
through 12 links". This is the fundamental dogma of Buddhist thought, 
"the understanding of which solves the riddle of life, revealing the 
insanity of existence and preparing the mind for Nirvana". (Eitel's 
Sans. Chin. Diet.) The 12 links stand thus in their enumeration. (1) 
Jdti, or birth, according to one of the four modes of entering the stream 
of life and reincarnation — or Chatur Yoni (q.v.), each mode placing the 
being born in one of the six Gati (q.v.) (2) Jardmarana, or decrepi- 
tude and death, following the maturity of the Skandhas (q.v.). (3) 
Bhava, the Karmic agent which leads every new sentient being to be 



GLOSSARY 213 

born in this or another mode of existence in the Trailokya and Gdti. 
(4) Updddnci, the creative cause of Bhava which thus becomes the 
cause of Jdti which is the effect; and this creative cause is the clinging 
to life. (5) Trishnd, love, whether pure or impure. (6) Veddna, or 
sensation; perception by the senses, it is the 5th Skandha. (7) Sparsa, 
the sense of touch. (8) Chaddyatana, the organs of sensation. (9) 
Ndmarvpa, personality, i.e., a form with a name to it, the symbol of 
the unreality of material phenomenal appearances. (10) Vijndna, the 
perfect knowledge of every perceptible thing and of all objects in their 
concatenation and unity. (11) Samskdra, action on the plane of illusion. 
(12) Avidyd, lack of true perception, or ignorance. The Nidanas be- 
longing to the most subtle and abstruse doctrines of the Eastern meta- 
physical system, it is impossible to go into the subject at any greater 
length. 

Nidhi (Sk.). A treasure. Nine treasures belonging to the god 
Kuvera — the Vedic Satan — each treasure being under the guardianship 
of a demon ; these are personified, and are the objects of worship of the 
Tantrikas. 

Nidhogg" (Scand.). The "Mundane" Serpent. 

Nidra (Sk.). Sleep. Also the female form of Brahma. 

Niflheim (Scand.). The cold Hell, in the Edda. A place of 
eternal non-consciousness and inactivity. (See Secret Doctrine, Vol. 
II., p. 245). 

Night of Brahma. The period between the dissolution and the 
active life of the Universe which is called in contrast the "Day of 
Brahma". 

Nilakantha (Sk.). A name of Siva meaning "blue throated". 
This is said to have been the result of some poison administered to the 
god. 

Nile-God (Eg.). Eepresented by a wooden image of the river god 
receiving honours in gi'atitude for the bounties its waters afford the 
country. There was a "celestial" Nile, called in the Ritual Ncn-naou 
or "primordial waters"; and a terrestrial Nile, worshipped at Nilopolis 
and Ilapimoo. The latter was represented as an androgynous being with 
a beard and breasts, and a fat blue face; green limbs and reddish body. 
At the approach of the yearly inundation, the image was carried from 
one place to another in solemn procession. 

Nimbus (Lat.). The aureole around the heads of tlie Christ and 
Saints in Greek and Romish Churches is of Eastern origin. As every 
Orientalist knows, Buddha is described as having his head surrounded 
with shining glory six cubits in width ; and, as shown by Hard.y {Eastern 
Monachism), "his principal disciples are represented by the native 
painters as having a similar mark of eminence". In China, Tibet and 
Japan, the heads of the saints are always surrounded with a nimbus. 



214 THEOSOPHICAL 

Nimitta (Sk.). 1. An interior illumination developed by the 
practice of meditation. 2. The efficient spiritual cause, as contrasted 
with Upaddna, the material cause, in Vedanta philosophy. See also 
Pradhdna in Sankhya philosophy. 

Nine. The "Kabbalah of the Nine Chambers" is a form of secret 
writing in cipher, which originated with the Hebrew Rabbis, and has 
been used by several societies for purposes of concealment : notably some 
grades of the Freemasons have adopted it. A figure is drawn of two 
horizontal parallel lines and two vertical parallel lines across them, this 
process forms nine chambers, the centre one a simple square, the others 
being either two or three sided figures, these are allotted to the several 
letters in any order that is agreed upon. There is also a Kabbalistic 
atttribution of the ten Sephiroth to these nine chambers, but this is not 
published, [w.w.w^.] 

Nirguna (Sk.). Negative attribute; unbound, or without Gunas 
(attributes), i.e., that which is devoid of all qualities, the opposite of 
Saguna, that which has attributes (Secret Doctrine, 11. 95), e.g., Para- 
brahmam is Nirguna; Brahma, Saguna. Nirguna is a term which 
shows the impersonality of the thing spoken of. 

Nirmanakaya (Sk.). Something entirely different in esoteric 
philosophy from the popular meaning attached to it, and from the 
fancies of the Orientalists. Some call the Nirmdnakdya body "Nirvana 
with remains'' (Schlagintweit, etc.) on the supposition, probably, that it 
is a kind of Nirvanie condition during which consciousness and form are 
retained. Others say that it is one of the Trikdya (three bodies), with 
the "power of assuming any form of appearance in order to propagate 
Buddhism" (Eitel's idea) ; again, that "it is the incarnate avatara 
of a deity" {ibid.), and so on. Occultism, on the other hand, says: 
that Nirmanakaya, although meaning literally a transformed "body", 
is a state. The form is that of the adept or yogi who enters, or chooses, 
that post mortem condition in preference to the Dharmakaya or absolute 
Nirvanie state. He does this because the latter kdya separates him for 
ever from the world of form, conferring upon him a state of selfish bliss, 
in which no other living being can participate, the adept being thus 
precluded from the possibility of helping humanity, or even devas. As a 
Nirmanakaya, however, the man leaves behind him only his physical 
body, and retains every other "principle" save the Kamic — for he has 
crushed this out for ever from his nature, during life, and it can never 
resurrect in his post mortem state. Thus, instead of going into selfish 
bliss, he chooses a life of self-sacrifice, an existence which ends only with 
the life-cycle, in order to be enabled to help mankind in an invisible 
yet most effective manner. (See The Voice of the Silence, third treatise, 
"The Seven Portals".) Thus a Nirmanakaya is not, as popularly 
believed, the body "in which a Buddha or a Bodhisattva appears on 
earth", but verily one who whether a Chutuktu or a Khuhilkhan, an 



GLOSSARY 215 

adept or a yogi during life, has since become a member of that invisible 
Host which ever protects and watches over Humanity within Karmic 
limits. Mistaken often for a "Spirit", a Deva, God himself, &c., a 
Nirmanakaya is ever a protecting, compassionate, verily a guardian 
angel, to him who becomes worthy of his help. Whatever objection may 
be brouglit forward against this doctrine ; however much it- is denied, 
because, forsooth, it has never been hitherto made public in Europe and 
therefore since it is unknown to Orientalists, it must needs be "a myth 
of modern invention" — no one will be bold enough to say that this idea 
of helping suffering mankind at tlie price of one 's own almost intermin- 
able self-sacrifice, is not one of the grandest and noblest that was ever 
evolved from human brain. 

Nirmathya (Sk.). The sacred fire produced by the friction of 
two pieces of wood — the "fire" called Pavamdna in the Purduas. The 
allegory contained therein is an occult teaching. 

Nirriti (Sk.). A goddess of Death and Decay. 

Nirukta (Sk.). An anga or limb, a division of the Vcdas; a 
glossarial comment. 

Nirupadhi (Sk.). Attributeless ; the negation of attributes. 

Nirvana (Sk.). According to the Orientalists, the entire "blowing 
out", like the flame of a candle, the utter extinction of existence. But 
in the esoteric explanations it is the state of absolute existence and abso- 
lute consciousness, into which the Ego of a man who has reached the 
highest degree of perfection and holiness during life goes, after the body 
dies, and occasionally, as in the case of Gautama Buddha and others, 
during life. (See "Nirvani".) 

Nirvani (Sk.). One who lias attained Nirvana — an emancipated 
soul. That Nirvana means nothing of the kind asserted by Orientalists 
every scholar who has visited China, India and Japan is well aware. It 
is ''escape from misery" but only from that of matter, freedom from 
Klesha, or Kdma, and the complete extinction of animal desires. If we 
are told that Ahidharma defines Nirvana "as a state of absolute annihila- 
tion", we concur, adding to the last word the qualification "of every- 
thing connected with matter or the physical world", and this simply 
because the latter (as also all in it) is illusion, mdijd. Sakyamuiii 
Buddha said in the last moments of his life that "the spiritual body 
is immortal" (See Sans. Chin. Diet.). As Mr. Eitel, the scholarly 
Sinologist, explains it : " The popular exoteric systems agree in defining 
Nirvana negatively as a state of absolute exemption from the circle of 
transmigration ; as a state of entire freedom from all forms of existence ; 
to begin with, freedom from all passion and exertion ; a state of indiffer- 
ence to all sensibility" — and he might have added "death of all 
compassion for the world of suffering". And this is why the 
Bodhisattvas Avho prefer the Nirmanakaya to the Dharmakaya vesture, 
stand higlier in the popular estimation than the Nirvanis. But the same 



216 



THEOSOPHICAL 



scholar adds that: " Festively (and esoterically) they define Nirvana as 
the highest state of spiritual bliss, as absolute immortality through 
absorption of the soul {spirit rather) into itself, but preserving individ- 
tiality so that, e.g., Buddhas, after entering Nirvana, may reappear on 
earth" — i.e., in the future Manvantara. 

Nishada (Sk.). (1) One of the seven qualities of sound— the one 
and sole attribute of Akasa ; (2) the seventh note of the Hindu musical 
scale; (3) an outcast offspring of a Brahman and a Sudra mother; 
(4) a range of mountains south of Meru— north of the Himalayas. 
Nissi (CJiald.). One of the seven Chaldean gods. 
Niti (Sk.). Lit., Prudence, ethics. 
Nitya Parivrita (Sk.). Lit., continuous extinction. 
Nitya Pralaya (Sk.). Lit., "perpetual" Pralaya or dissolution. 
It is the constant and imperceptible changes undergone by the atoms 
which last as long as a Mahamanvantara, a whole age of Brahma, which 
takes fifteen figures to sum up. A stage of chronic change and dissolu- 
tion, the stages of growth and decay. It is the duration of "Seven 
Eternities". (See Secret Doctrine I. 371, 11. 69, 310.) There are four 
kinds of Pralayas, or states of changelessness. The Naimittika, when 
Brahma slumbers ; the Prakritika, a partial Pralaya of anything during 
Manvantara ; Atyantika, when man has identified himself wdth the One 
Absolute— a synonym of Nirvana; and Nitya, for physical things 
especially, as a state of profound and dreamless sleep. 

Nitya Sarga ^S'^.;. The state of constant creation or evolution, 
as opposed to Nitya Pralaya— the state of perpetual incessant dissolu- 
tion (or cliange of atoms) disintegration of molecules, hence change of 
forms. 

Nizir (Chald.). The "Deluge Mountain"; the Ararat of the Baby- 
lonians with "Xisuthrus" as Noah. 
Nixies. The water-sprites ; Undines. 
Niyashes (Mazd.). Parsi prayers. 

Nofir-hotpoo (Eg.). The same as the god Khonsoo, the lunar 
god of Thebes. Lit., "he who is in absolute rest". Nofir-hotpoo is one 
of the three persons of the Egyptian trinity, composed of Ammon, 
Mooth, and their son Khonsoo or Nofir-hotpoo. 

Nogah (Chald.). Venus, the planet; glittering splendour. 
Noo (Eg.). Primordial waters of space called "Father-Mother"; 
the ' ' face of the deep ' ' of the Bible ; for above Noo hovers the Breath of 
. Kneph, who is represented with the Mundane Egg in his mouth. 

Noom (Eg). A celestial sculptor, in the Egyptian legends, who 
creates a beautiful girl whom he sends like another Pandora to Batoo (or 
"man"), whose happiness is thereafter destroyed. The "sculptor" or 
artist is the same as Jehovah, the arcliitect of the world, and the girl is 
"Eve". 



GLOSSARY 



217 



Noon (Eg.). The celestial river which flows in Noot, the cosmic 
abyss or Noo. As all the gods have been generated in the river (the 
Onostic Pleroma), it is called "the Father-Mother of the gods". 

Noor Ilahee (Arab.). "The light of the Elohim", literally. This 
light is believed by some Mussulmen to be transmitted to ' mortals 
"through a liiindred prophet-leaders". Divine knowledge; the Light of 
the Secret Wisdom. 

Noot (Eg.). The heavenly abyss in the Ritual or the Book of the 
Dead. It is infinite space personified in the Vedas by Aditi, the god- 
dess who, like Noon (q.v.) is the "mother of all the gods". 

Norns (Scancl.). The three sister goddesses in the Edda, who make 
known to men the degrees of Orlog or Fate. They are shown as coming 
out of the unknown distances enveloped in a dark veil to the Ash Yggd- 
rasil (q.v.), and "sprinkle it daily with water from the Fountain of Urd, 
that it may not wither but remain green and fresh and strong" {Asgard 
and the Gods). Their names are "Urd", the Past; "Werdandi", the 
Present; and "Skuld", the Future, "which is either rich in hope or dark 
with tears". Thus they reveal the degrees of Fate "for out of the past 
and present the events and actions of the future are born" (loc. cit.). 

Notaricon (Kah.). A division of the practical Kabbalah; treats 
of the formation of words from the initials or finals of the words in 
every sentence ; or conversely it forms a sentence of words whose initials 
or finals are those of some word, [w.w.w.] 

Noumenon (Gr.). The true essential nature of being as distin- 
guished from the illusive objects of sense. 

Nous. (Gr.).. A Platonic term for the Higher Mind or Soul. It 
means Spirit as distinct from animal Soul — psyche; divine consciousness 
or mind in man: Nous was the designation given to the Supreme deity 
(third logos) by Anaxagoras. Taken from Egypt where it was called 
Nout, it was adopted by the Gnostics for their first conscious ^on 
which, with the Occultists, is the third logos, cosmically, and the third 
"l)rinciple" (from above) or manas, in man. (See "Nout"). 

Nout. (Gr.). In the Pantheon of the Egyptians it meant the "One- 
only-One", because they did not proceed in their popular or exoteric 
religion higher than the third manifestation which radiates from the 
Unknown and the TJnknowaUc, the first unmanifested and the second 
logoi in the esoteric philosophy of every nation. The Nous of Anaxa- 
goras was the Mahat of the Hindu Brahma, the first manifested Deity 
—"the Mind or Spirit self-potent"; this creative Principle being of 
course the primum mobile of everything in the Universe — its Soul and 
Ideation. (See "Seven Principles" in man). 

Number Nip. An Elf, the mighty King of the Kiesengebirge, the 
most ])owerful of the genii in Scandinavian and German folk-lore. 

Nuns. Tliere were nuns in ancient Egypt as well as in Peru and old 



218 



THEOSOPHICAL 



Pagan Rome. They were the "virgin brides" of their respective (So'lar) 
gods. Says Herodotus, "The brides of Ammon are excluded from all 
intercourse with men", they are "the brides of Heaven"; and virtually 
they become dead to the world, just as they are now. In Peru they were 
"Pure Virgins of the Sun", and the Pallakists of Ammon-Ra are re- 
ferred to in some inscriptions as the "divine spouses". "The sister of 
Ounnefer, the chief prophet of Osiris, during the reign oi Rameses IT.," 
is described as "Taia, Lady Abbess of Nuns" ((Mariette Bey). 

Nuntis (Lat.). The "Sun-Wolf", a name of the planet Mercury. 
He is the Sun's attendant, Solaris luminis particeps. (See Secret Doct. 
II. 28). 

Nyaya (Sk.). One of the six DarsJianas or schools of Philosophy in 
India ; a system of Hindu logic founded by the Rishi Gautama. 

Nyima (Tib.). The Sun — astrologically. 

Nyingpo (Tih.). The same as Alaya, "the AYorld Soul"; also 
called Tsang. 



GLOSSARY 219 



o. 

Vy. — The fifteenth letter and fourth vowel in the English alphabet. It 
has no equivalent in Hebrew, whose alphabet with one exception is 
vowel less. As a numeral, it signified with the ancients 11 ; and with a 
dash on it 11,000. With other ancient people also, it was a very sacred 
letter. In the Devanagari, or the characters of the gods, its significance 
is varied, but there is no space to give instances. 

Oak, sacred. With the Druids the oak was a most holy tree, and so 
also with the ancient Greeks, if we can believe Pherecydes and his cos- 
mogony, who tells us of the sacred oak "in whose luxuriant branches 
a serpent {i.e., wisdom) dwelleth, and cannot be dislodged". Every 
nation had its own sacred trees, pre-eminently the Hindus. 

Cannes. (Gr.). Musarus Cannes, the Annedotus, known in the 
Chaldean "legends", transmitted through Berosus and other ancient 
writers, as Dag or Dagon the "man-fish". Cannes came to the early 
Babylonians as a reformer and an instructor. Appearing from the 
Erythraean Sea, he brought to them civilization, letters and sciences, 
law, astronomy and religion, teaching them agriculture, geometry and the 
arts in general. There were Annedoti who came after him, five in number 
(our race being the fifth)< — "all like Cannes in form and teaching 
the same ' ' ; but Musarus Cannes was the first to appear, and this he 
did during the reign of Ammenon, the third of the ten antediluvian 
Kings whose dynasty ended with Xisuthrus, the Chaldean Noah (See 
"Xisuthrus"). Cannes was "an animal endowed with reason . . . 
whose body was that of a fish, but who had a human head under the 
fish's with feet also helow, similar to those of a man, subjoined to the 
fish's tail, and whose voice and language too were articidatc and human" 
(Polyhistor and Apollodorus). This gives the key to the allegory. It 
points out Cannes, as a man and a "priest", an Initiate. Layard showed 
long ago (See Nineveh) that the "fish's head'' was simply a head gear, 
the ynitrc worn by priests and gods, made in the form of a fish's head, 
and which in a very little modified form is what we see even now on the 
heads of high Lamas and Romanish Bishops. Csiris had such a mitre. 
The fish's tail is simply the train of a long, stiff mantle as depicted on 
some AssjTian tablets, the form being seen reproduced in the sacerdotal 
gold cloth garment worn during service by the modern Greek priests. 
This allegor^v of Cannes, the Annedotus, reminds us of the "Dragon" 
and "Snake-Kings"; the Ndgas who in Buddhist legends instruct peo- 
ple in wisdom on lakes and rivers, and end by becoming converts to the 
good Law and Arhats. The meaning is evident. The "fish" is an old 



220 



THEOSOPHICAL 



and verj^ suggestive symbol in the Mystery -language, as is also "water". 
Ea or Hea was the god of the sea and Wisdom, and the sea serpent was 
one of his emblems, his priests being "serpents" or Initiates. Thus 
one sees why Occultism places Oanues and the other Annedoti in the 
group of those ancient "adepts" who were called "marine" or "water 
dragons"— iVa(/fls. Water typified their human origin (as it is a symbol 
of earth and matter and also of purification), in distinction to the "fire 
Nagas" or the immaterial, Spiritual Beings, whether celestial Bodhisatt- 
vas or Planetary Dhyanis, also regarded as the instructors of mankind. 
The hidden meaning becomes clear to the Occultist, once he is told that 
"this being (Oannes) was accustomed to pass the day among men. 
teaching ; and when the Sun had set, he retired again into the sea, pass- 
ing the night in the deep, "for he was amphihious", i.e., he belonged 
to two planes: the spiritual and the physical. For the Greek word 
amphihios means simply "life on two planes", from amphi, "on both 
sides", and lios, "life". The word was often applied in antiquity to 
those men who, though still wearing a human form, had made them- 
selves almost divine through knowledge, and lived as much in the spirit- 
ual supersensuous regions as on earth. Oannes is dimly reflected in 
Jonah, and even in John, the Precursor, botli connected with Fish and 
Water. 

Ob (Hch.). The astral light— or rather, its pernicious evil currents 
—was personified by the Jews as a Spirit, the Spirit of Ob. With them, 
any one who dealt with spirits and necromancy was said to Ije possessed 
by the Spirit of 06. 

Obeah. Sorcerers and sorceresses of Africa and the West Indies. A 
sect of black magicians, snake-charmers, enchanters, etc. 

Occult Sciences. The science of the secrets of nature— physical 
and psychic, mental and spiritual ; called Hermetic and Esoteric Sciences. 
In the West, the Kabbalah may be named ; in the East, mysticism, magic, 
and Yoga philosophy, which latter is often referred to by the Chelas in 
India as the seventh "Darshana" (school of philosophy), there being 
only six Darshanas in India known to the world of the profane. These 
sciences are, and have been for ages, hidden from the vulgar for the 
very good reason that they would never l)e appreciated by the selfish 
educated classes, nor understood by the uneducated; whilst the former 
might misuse them for their own profit, and thus turn the divine science 
into black magic. It is often brought forward as an accusation against 
the Esoteric philosophy and the Kabbalah, that their literature is full of 
"a barbarous and meaningless jargon" unintelliglible to the ordinary 
mind. But do not exact Sciences— medicine, physiology, chemistry, and 
the rest— do the same ? Do not official Scientists equally veil their facts 
and discoveries with a newly coined and most barbarous Grteco-Latin 
terminology ? As justly remarked by our late brother, Kenneth Mac- 
kenzie—' ' To juggle thus with words, when the facts are so simple is the 



GLOSSARY 221 

art of tlu' Scientists of the present time, in striking contrast to those of 
the XVlIth century, who called spades spades and not 'agricultural 
implements' ''. Moreover, whilst their facts would be as simple and as 
comprehensible if rendered in ordinary language, the facts of Occult 
Science are of so abstruse a nature, that in most cases no words exist in 
European languages to express them; in addition to which our "jargon" 
is a double necessity— (a) for the purpose of describing clearly these 
facts to him who is versed in the Occult terminology; and (&) to con- 
ceal tlicm from the profane. 

Occultist. One who studies the various branches of occult science. 
The term is used by the French Kabbalists (See Eliphas Levi's works). 
Occultism embraces the whole range of psychological, physiological, cos- 
mical, physical, and spiritual phenomena. From the word occultus 
hidden or secret. It therefore applies to the study of the Kabbalah, as- 
trology, alchemy-, and all arcane sciences. 

Od (Gr.). From odos, "passage", or passing of that force which is 
developed by various minor forces or agencies such as magnets, chemical 
or vital action, heat, light, etc. It is also called "odic" and "odylic 
force", and was regarded by Reichenbach and his followers as an inde- 
pendent entitative force — which it certainly is — stored in man as it is 
in Nature. 

Odacon. The fifth Annedotus, or Dag on (See "Oannes") who 
appeared during the reign of Euedoreschus from Pentebiblon, also 
"from the Er^^thrsean Sea like the former, having the same complicated 
form between a fish and a man" {Apollodorus, Cory p, 30). 

Odem or Adm (Hob.). A stone (the cornelian) on the breast -plate of 
the Jewish High Priest. It is of red colour and possesses a great medici- 
nal power. 

Odin (Scand.). The god of battles, the old German iSabbaoth, the 
same as the Scandinavian Wodan. He is the great hero in the Edda and 
one of the creators of man. Roman antiquity regarded him as one with 
Hermes or Mercury (Budlia), and modern Orientalism (Sir "W. Jones) 
accordingly confused him with Buddha. In the Pantheon of the Norse- 
men, he is the "father of the gods" and divine wisdom, and as such he 
is of course Hermes or the creative wisdom. Odin or Wodan in creating 
the first man from trees — the Ask (ash) and Embla (the alder) — en- 
dowed them witli life and soul, Honir with intellect, and Lodur with 
form and color. 

Odur (Scand.). The human husband of the goddess Freya, a scion 
of divine ancestry in the Northern mythology. 

Oeaihu, or Oeaihwu. The manner of pronounciation depends on the 
accent. This is an esoteric term for the six in one or the mystic seven. 
The occult name for the "seven vowelled" ever-present manifestation of 
the Universal Principle. 



222 



THEOSOPHICAL 



Ogdoad (Gr.). The tetrad or "quartenary" reflecting itself pro- 
duced the ogdoad, the "eight", according to the Marcosian Gnostics. 
The eight great gods were called the "sacred Ogdoad". 

Ogham (Celtic). A mystery language belonging to the early Celtic 
races, and used by the Druids. One form of this language consisted in 
the association of the leaves of certain trees with the letters, this was 
called Beth-luis-nion Ogham, and to form words and sentences the leaves 
were strung on a cord in the proper order. Godfrey Higgins suggests 
that to complete the mystification certain other leaves which meant 
nothing were interspersed, [w.w.w.] 

Ogir or Hler (Scand.). A chief of the giants in the Edda and the 
ally of the gods. The highest of the Water-gods, and the same as the 
Greek Okeanos. 

Ogmius. The god of wisdom and eloquence of the Druids, hence 
Hermes in a sense. 

Ogygia (Gr.). An ancient submerged island known as the isle of 
Calypso, and identified by some with Atlantis. This is in a certain sense 
correct. But then what portion of Atlantis, since the latter was a con- 
tinent rather than an "enormous" island! 

Oitzoe (Pers.). The invisible goddess whose voice spoke through 
the rocks, and whom, according to Pliny, the Magi had to consult for the 
election of their kings. 

Okhal (Aral.). The "High" priest of the Druzes, an Initiator into 
their mysteries. 

Okhema (Gr.). A Platonic term meaning "vehicle" or body. 
Okuthor (Scand.). The same as Thor, the "thunder god". 
Olympus (Gr.). A mount in Greece, the abode of the gods accord- 
ing to Homer and Hesiod. 

Om or Aum. (Sk.). A mystic syllable, the most solemn of all words in 
India. It is "an invocation, a benediction, an affirmation and a 
promise ' ' ; and it is so sacred, as to be indeed the word at low hreath of 
occult, primitive masonry. No one must be near when the syllable is 
pronounced for a purpose. This word is usually placed at the begin- 
ning of sacred Scriptures, and is prefixed to prayers. It is a compound 
of three letters a, u, m, which, in the popular belief, are typical of the 
three Vedas, also of the three gods— A (Agni) V (Varuna) and M 
(Maruts) or Fire, Water and Air. In esoteric philosophy these are the 
three sacred fires, or the "triple fire" in the Universe and Man, besides 
many other things. Occultly, this "triple fire" represents the highest 
Tetraktys also, as it is typified by the Agni named Abhimanin and his 
transformation into his three sons, Pavana, Pavamana and Suchi, "who 
drinks up water", i.e., destroys material desires. This monosyllable is 
called Udgitta, and is sacred with both Brahmins and Buddhists. 
Omito-Fo (Chin.). The name of Amita-Buddha, in China. 



GLOSSARY 223 

Omkara (Sk.). The same as Aiun or Oni. It is also the name of 
oiiv' of the twelve lingums, that was represented hy a secret and most 
sacred shrine at Ujjain — no longer existing, since the time of Buddhism. 

Omoroka (Chald.). The "sea" and the woman who personifies it 
according to Berosus, or rather of Apollodorus. As the divine water, 
however, Omoroka is the reflection of Wisdom from on high. 

Onech (Heh.). The Phoenix, so named after Enoch or Phenoch. For 
Enoch (also Klienoch) means literally the initiator and instructor, hence 
the Hierophant who reveals the last mystery. The bird Phoenix is al- 
ways associated with a tree, the mystical Ahahel of the Koran, the Tree 
of Initiation or of knowledge. 

Onnofre or Oun-nofre (Eg.). Tlie King of the land of the Dead, 
the Underworld, and in this capacity the same as Osiris, "who resides in 
Amenti at Onn-nefer, king of eternity, great god manifested in the 
celestial abyss". (A hymn of the XlXtli dynasty). (See also "Osiris"). 

Ophanim (Heh.). ]\Iore coiTectly written Auphanira. The "wheels" 
seen by Ezekiel and by John in the Revelation — world -spheres (Secret 
Doctrine I., 92). The symbol of the Cherubs or Karoubs (the Assyrian 
Sphinxes). As these beings are represented in the Zodiac by Taurus, 
Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius, or the Bull, the Lion, the Eagle and ]\Ian. 
the occult meaning of these creatures being placed in company of the 
four Evangelists .becomes evident. In the Kahhalah they are a group 
of beings allotted to the Sephira Chakmah, Wisdom. 

Ophis (Gr.). The same as Chnuphis or Kneph, the Logos; the good 
serpent or Agathodaemon. 

Ophiomorphos (Gr.). The same, ])ut in its material aspect, as the 
Ophis-Christos. With the Gnostics the Serpent represented "Wisdom 
'\n Eternity". 

Ophis-Christos (Gr.). TJie serpent Christ of the Gnostics. 

Ophiozenes (Gr.). The name of the Cypriote charmers of veno- 
mous serpents and other reptiles and animals. 

Ophites (Gr.). A Gnostic Fraternity in Egypt, and one of the 
earliest sects of Gnosticism, or Gnosis (Wisdom, Knowledge), known as 
the "Brotherhood of the Serpent". It . flourished early in the second 
century, and while holding some of the principles of Valentinus had 
its own occult rites and symbology. A living serpent, representing the 
C/im^os-principle {i.e., the divine reincarnating Monad, not Jesus the 
man), was displayed in their mysteries and reverenced as a sj^mbol of 
wisdom, Sopliia, the type of the all-good and all-wise. The Gnostics were 
not a Christian sect, in the common acceptation of this term, as the 
Christos of pre-Christian thought and the Gnosis was not the "god-man" 
Christ, but tlie divine Ego, made one with Buddhi. Their Christos was 
the "Eternal Initiate", the Pilgrim, typified by hundreds of Ophidian 
symbols for several thousands of years before the "Christian" era, so- 



224 THEOSOPHICAL 

called. One can see it on the "Belzoni tomb" from Egypt, as a winged 
serpent with three heads (Atma-Buddhi-Manas), and four human legs, 
typifying its androgynous character; on the walls of the descent to the 
sepulchral chambers of Rameses V., it is found as a snake with vulture's 
wings — the vulture and hawk being solar symbols. "The heavens are 
scribbled over with interminable snakes"; writes Herschel of the Egypt- 
ian chart of stars. "The Meissi (Messiah?) meaning the Sacred Word, 
was a good serpent", writes Bonwick in his Egyptian Belief. "This ser- 
pent of goodness, with its head crowned, was mounted upon a cross and 
formed a sacred standard of Egypt". The Jews harrowed it in their 
"brazen serpent of Moses". It is to this "Healer" and "Saviour", 
therefore, that the Ophites referred, and not to Jesus or his words, "As 
Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert, so it behoves the Son of Man 
to be lifted up" — when explaining the meaning of their ophis. Tertul- 
lian, whether wittingly or unwittingly, mixed up the two. The four- 
winged serpent is the god Chnuphis. The good serpent bore the cross 
of life around its neck, or suspended from its mouth. The winged ser- 
pents become the Seraphim (Seraph, Saraph) of the Jews. In the 87th 
chapter of the Ritual (the Book of the Dead) the human soul trans- 
formed into Bata, the omniscient serpent, says: — "I am the serpent 
Ba-ta, of long years. Soul of the Soul, laid out and born daily ; I am the 
Soul that descends on the earth", i.e., the Ego. 

Oral (Gr.). The name of the angel-ruler of Venus, according to the 
Egyptian Gnostics. 

Orcus (Gr.). The bottomless pit in the Codex of the Nazarenes. 

Orgelmir (Scand.). Lit., "seething clay". The same as Ymir, 
the giant, the unruly, turbulent, erratic being, the type of primordial 
matter, out of whose body, after killing him, the sons of Bor created a 
new earth. He is also the cause of the Deluge in the Scandinavian Lays, 
for he flung his body into Ginnungagap, the yawning abyss ; the latter 
being filled with it, the blood flowed over and produced a great flood in 
which all the Hrimthurses, the frost giants, were drowned ; one of them 
only the cunning Bergelmir saves himself and wife in a boat and became 
the father of a new race of giants. "And there were giants on the 
earth in those days". 

Orion (Gr.). The same as Atlas, who supports the world on his 
shoulders. 

Orlog (Scand.). Fate, destiny, whose agents were the three Norns, 
the Norse ParccB. 

Ormazd or Ahura Mazda (Zend). The god of the Zoroastrians or 
the modern Parsis. He is symbolized by the sun, as being the Light of 
Lights. Esoterically, he is the synthesis of his six Amshaspends or 
Elohim, and the creative Logos. In the Mazdean exoteric system, Ahura 
Mazda is the supreme god, and one with the supreme god of the Vedic 
age — Varuna, if we read the Vedas literally. 



GLOSSARY 225 

Orpheus (Gr.). Lit., the "tawny one". Mytholojry makes him 
the son of ^li^ager and tlie muse Calliope. Esoteric tradition identities 
him with Arjuna, the son of Indra and the disciple of Krishna. He went 
round the world teaching the nations wisdom and sciences, and es- 
tablishing mysteries. The very story of his losing his Eurydice and 
finding her in the underworld or Hades, is another point of resemblance 
with the story of Arjuna, who goes to Patala {Hades or hell, but in 
reality the Antipodes or America) and finds there and marries Ulupi, the 
daughter of the Naga king. This is as suggestive as the fact that he 
was considered dark in complexion even by the Greeks, who were never 
very fair-skinned themselves. 

Orphic Mysteries or Orphica (Gr.). These followed, but dif- 
fered greatly from, the mysteries of Bacchus. The system of Orpheus 
is one of the purest morality and of severe asceticism. The theology 
taught by him is again purely Indian. With him the divine Essence is 
inseparable from whatever is in the infinite universe, all forms being 
concealed from all eternity in It. At determined periods these forms are 
manifested from the divine Essence or manifest themselves. Thus 
through this law of emanation (or evolution) all things participate in 
this Essence, and are parts and members instinct with divine nature, 
which is omnipresent. All things having proceeded from, must neces- 
sarily return into it ; and therefore, innumerable transmigrations or re- 
incarnations and purifications are needed before this final consummation 
can take place. This is pure Vedanta philosophy. Again, the Orphic 
Brotherhood ate no animal food and wore white linen garments, and had 
many ceremonies like those of the Brahmans. 

Oshadi Prastha (SJc). Lit., "the place of medicinal herbs". A 
mysterious city in the Himalayas mentioned even from the Vedic period. 
Tradition shows it as once inhabited by sages, great adepts in the healing 
art, who used only herbs and plants, as did the ancient Chaldees. The 
city is mentioned in the Kunidra Samhhava of Kalidasa. 

Osiris. (Eg.). The greatest God of Egypt, the Son of Seb (Saturn), 
celestial fire, and of Neith, primordial matter and infinite space. This 
shows him as the self-existent and self-created god, the first manifesting 
deity (our third Logos), identical with Ahura Mazda and other "First 
Causes". For as Ahura ]\Iazda is one with, or the synthesis of, the 
Amshaspends, so Osiris, the collective unit, when differentiated and per- 
sonified, becomes Typhon, his brother, Isis and Nephtys his sisters, 
Horus his son and his other aspects. He was born at Mount Sinai, the 
Nyssa of the 0. T. (See Exodus xvii. 15), and buried at Abydos, after 
being killed by Typhon at the early age of twenty-eight, according to the 
<dlegory. According to Euripides he is the same as Zeus and Dionysos 
or Dio-Nysos "the god of Nysa", for Osiris is said by him to have been 
brought up in Nysa, in Arabia "the Happy". Query: how much did 
the latter tradition influence, or have anytliing in common with, the 



226 



THEOSOPHICAL 



statement in the Bible, that "Moses built an altar and called the name 
Jehovah Nissi", or Kabbalistieally— " Dio-Iao-Nyssi " ? (See Isis Un- 
veiled Vol. II. p. 165). The four chief aspects of Osiris were — Osiris- 
Phtah (Light), the spiritual aspect; Osiris-Horus (Mind), the intel- 
lectual manask aspect; Osiris-Lunus, the "Lunar" or psychic, astral 
aspect; Osiris-Typhon, Daimonic, or physical, material, therefore 
passional turbulent aspect. In these four aspects he symbolizes the dual 
Ego— the divine cind the human, the cosmico-spiritual and the ter- 
restrial. 

Of the many supreme gods, this Egyptian conception is the most sug- 
gestive and the grandest, as it embraces the whole range of physical and 
metaphysical thought. As a solar deity he had twelve minor gods under 
him — the twelve signs of the Zodiac. Though his name is the "Inef- 
fable", liis forty-two attributes bore each one of his names, and his seven 
dual aspects completed the forty-nine, or 7X7; the former symbolized 
by the fourteen members of his body, or twice seven. Thus the god is 
blended in man, and the man is deified into a god. He was addressed 
as Osiris-Eloh. Mr. Dunbar T. Heath speaks of a Phoenician inscription 
which, when read, yielded the following turaular inscription in honour of 
the mummy : ' ' Blessed be Ta-Bai, daughter of Ta-Hapi, priest of Osiris- 
Eloh. She did nothing against any one in anger. She spoke no false- 
hood against any one. Justified before Osiris, blessed be thou from be- 
fore Osiris! Peace be to thee". And then he adds the following re- 
marks : ' ' The author of this inscription ought, I suppose, to be called a 
heathen, as justification before Osiris is the object of his religious aspira- 
tions. We find, however, that he gives to Osiris the appellation Eloh. 
Eloh is the name used by the Ten Tribes of Israel for the Elohim of 
Two Tribes, Jehovah-Eloh (Gen. iii. 21), in the version used by Ephraim 
corresponds to Jehovah Elohim in that used by Judah and ourselves. 
This being so, the question is sure to be asked, and ought to be humbly 
answered — What was the meaning meant to be conveyed by tlie two 
phrases respectively, Osiris-Eloh and Jchovah-Eloh? For my part I 
can imagine but one answer, viz., that Osiris was the national God of 
Egypt, Jehovah that of Israel, and that Eloh is equivalent to Deus, Gott 
or Dieu". As to his human development, he is, as the author of the 
Egyptian Belief has it . . . "One of the Saviours or Deliverers of 
Humanity .... As such he is born in the world. He came as a 
benefactor, to relieve man of trouble .... In his efforts to do 
good he encounters evil . . . and he is temporarily overcome. He 
is killed . . Osiris is buried. His tomb was the object of 
pilgrimage for thousands of years. But he did not rest in his grave. 
At the end of three days, or forty, he rose again and ascended to Heaven. 
This is the story of his Humanity" {Egypt. Belief). And Mariette Bey, 
speaking of the Sixth Dynasty, tells us that "the name of Osiris . . . 
commences to be more used. The formula of Justified is met with" : and 
adds that "it proves that this name (of the Justified or Makheru) was 



GLOSSARY 227 

not given to the dead only". But it also proves that the legend of 
Christ was found ready in almost all its details thousands of years before 
the Christian era, and that the Church fathers had no greater difficulty 
than to simply apply it to a new personage. 

Ossa. (Gr.). A mount, the tomb of the giants (allegorically). 

Otz-Chiim. (Hch.). The Tree of Life, or rather of Lives, a name 
given to the Ten Sephiroth when arranged in a diagram of three columns. 
[w.w.w.] 

Oulam, or Oulom (Heh.). This word does not mean "eternity" or 
infinite duration, as translated in the texts, but simply an extended 
time, neither the beginning nor the end of which can be known. 

Ouranos (Gr.). The whole expanse of Heaven called the "Waters 
of Space", the Celestial Ocean, etc. The name very likely comes from 
the Vedic Varuna, personified as the water god and regarded as the 
chief Aditya among the seven planetary deities. In Hesiod's Theogony, 
Ouranos (or Uranus) is the same as Coslus (Heavenly) the oldest of all 
the gods and the father of the divine Titans. 



228 THEOSOPHICAL 



P. 



r . — Tlie 16th letter in both the Greek and the English alphabets, and 
the 17th in the Hebrew, where it is called jjS or pay, and is symbolized 
by the mouth, corresponding also, as in the Greek alphabet, to number 
80. The Pythagoreans also made it equivalent to 100, and with a dash — 
thus (P), it stood for 400,000. The Kabbalists associated with it the 
sacred name of Phodch (Redeemer), though no valid reason is given 
for it. 

P and Cross, called generally the Labarum of Constantme. It was, 
however, one of tlie oldest emblems in Etruria before the Roman Empire. 
It was also the sign of Osiris. Both the long Latin and the Greek pec- 
toral crosses are Egyptian, the former being very often seen in the hand 
of Horus. "The cross and Calvary so common in Europe, occurs on the 
breasts of mummies" (Bonwick). 

Pachacamac (Peruv.). The name given by the Peruvians to the 
Creator of the Universe, represented as a host of creators. On his altar 
only the first-fruits and flowers were laid by the pious. 

Pads Bull. The divine Bull of Hermonthes, sacred to Amoun- 
Horus, the Bull Netos of Heliopolis being sacred to Amoun-Ra. 

Padarthas (Sk.). Predicates of existing things; so-called in the 
Vaiseshika or "atomic" system of philosophy founded by Kanada. This 
school is one of the six Darshanas. 

Padma (Sk.). The Lotus; a name of Lakshmi the Hindu Venus, 
who is the ivife, or the female aspect, of Vishnu. 

Padma Asana (Sk.). A posture prescribed to and practised by 
some Yogis for developing concentration. 

Padma Kalpa (Sk.). The name of the last Kalpa or the preceding 
Manvantara, which was a year of Brahma. 

Padma Yoni (Sk.). A title of Brahma (also called Ahjayoni), or 
the "lotus-born". 

Paean (Gr.). A hymn of rejoicing and praise in honour of the sun- 
god Apollo or Helios. 

Pagan (Lat.). Meaning at first no worse than a dweller in the 
country or the woods ; one far removed from the city-temples, and there- 
fore unacquainted with the state religion and ceremonies. The word 
"heathen" has a similar significance, meaning one who lives on the 
heaths and in the country. Now, however, both come to mean idolaters. 

Pagan Gods. The term is erroneously understood to mean idols. 



GLOSSARY 229 

The philosophical idea attached to them was never that of something 
objective or anthropomorphic, but in each case an abstract potency, a 
virtue, or quality in nature. There are gods who are divine planetary 
spirits (Dhyan Chohans) or Devas, among which are also our Egos. 
With this exception, and especially whenever represented by an idol or 
in anthropomorphic form, the gods represent symbolically in the Hindu, 
Egyptian, or Chaldean Pantheons— formless spiritual Potencies of the 
''Unseen Kosmos". 

Pahans (Prakrit). Village priest. 

Paksham (Sk.). An astronomical calculation; one half of the lunar 
month or 14 days; two paksham (or paccham) making a month of mor- 
tals, but only a day of the Pitar devata or the "father-gods". 

Palaeolithic. A newly-coined term meaning in geology "anoient 
stone" age, as a contrast to the term neolithic, the "newer" or later 



stone age 



Palasa Tree (Sk.). Called also Kanaka (hutea frondosa) a tree 
with red flowers of very occult properties. 

Pali. The ancient language of Magadha, one that preceded the more 
refined Sanskrit. The Buddhist Scriptures are all written in this lan- 
guage. 

Palingenesis (Or.). Transformation; or new birth. 

Pan (Gr.). The nature-god, whence Pantheism; the god of shep- 
herds, huntsmen, peasants, and dwellers on the land. Homer makes him 
the son of Hermes and Dryope. His name means All. He was the 
inventor of the Pandiean pipes; and no nymph who heard their sound 
could resist the fascination of the great Pan, his grotesque figure not- 
withstanding. Pan is related to the Mendesian goat, only so far as the 
latter represents, as a talisman of great occult potency, nature's creative 
force. The whole of the Hermetic philosophy is based on nature's 
hidden secrets, and as Baphomet was undeniably a Kabbalistic talisman, 
so was the name of Pan of great magic efficiency in what Eliphas Levi 
would call the "Conjuration of the Elementals". There is a well-known 
pious legend wliich has been current in the Christian world ever since 
the day of Tiberias, to the effect that the "great Pan is dead". But 
people* are greatly mistaken in this; neither nature nor any of her 
Forces can ever die. A few of these may be left unused, and being 
forgotten lie dormant for long centuries. But no sooner are the proper 
conditions furnished than they awake, to act again with tenfold power. 

Panaenus (Or.). A Platonic ])]iilosopher in the Alexandrian school 
of Philalcthcans. 

Pancha Kosha fSk.). The five "sheaths". According to Vedan- 
tin philosophy, Vijnanamaya Kosha, the fourth sheath, is composed of 
Buddhi, or is Buddhi. The five sheaths are said to belong to the two 
higher principles — Jivdtnia and Sakshi, which represent the Upahita and 



230 THEOSOPHICAL, 

An-upahita, divine spirit respectively. The division in the esoteric 
teaching differs from this, as it divides man's physical-metaphysical 
aspect into seven principles. 

Pancha Krishtaya (Sk.). Tire five races. 

Panchakama (Sk.). Five methods of sensuousness and sensuality. 
Panchakritam (Sk.). An element combined with small portions 
of tlie other four elements. 

Panchama (Sk.). One of the five qualities of musical sound, the 
fifth, Nishada and Daivata completing the seven ; G of the diatonic 
scale. 

Panchanana (Sk.). "Five-faced", a title of Sive; an illusion to 
the five races (since the beginning of the first) which he represents, as 
the even reincarnating Kumara throughout the Manvantara. In the 
sixth root-race he will be called the ''six-faced". 

Panchasikha (Sk.). One of the seven Kumaras who went to pay 
worship to Vishnu on the island of Swetadwipa in the allegory. 

Panchen Rimboche (Tih.). Lit., "the great Ocean, or Teacher 
of Wisdom". The title of the Teshu Lama at Tchigadze ; an incarna- 
tion of Amitabha the celestial "father" of Chenresi, which means to say 
that he is an Avatar of Tson-kha-pa (See "Sonkhapa"). De jure the 
Teshu Lama is second after the Delai Lama ; de facto, he is higher, since 
it is Dharma Richen, the successor of Tson-kha-pa at the golden monas- 
tery founded by the latter Reformer and established by the Gelukpa sect 
(yellow caps), who created the Dalai Lamas at Llhassa, and was the first 
of the dynasty of the "Panchen Rimboche". While the former (Dalai 
Lamas) are addressed as "Jewel of Majesty", the latter enjoy a far 
higher title, namely "Jewel of Wisdom", as they are high Initiates. 

Panda varani (Sk.). Lit., the "Pandava Queen"; Kunti, the 
mother of the Pandavas. (All these are highly important personified 
symbols in esoteric philosophy). 

Pandavas (Sk.). The descendants of Pandu. 

Pandora (Gr.). A beautiful woman created by the gods under the 
orders of Zeus to be sent to Epimetheus, brother of Prometheus ; she 
had charge of a casket in which all the evils, passions and plagues which 
torment humanity were locked up. This casket Pandora, led by curi- 
osity, opened, and thus set free all the ills which prey on mankind. 

Pandu (Sk.). "The Pale", literally; the father of the Pandavas 
Princes, the foes of the Kurava in the Mahdhhdrata. 

Panini (Sk.). A celebrated grammarian, author of the famous 
work called Pdniniyama; a Rishi, supposed to have received his work 
from the god Siva. Ignorant of the epoch at which he lived, the Orien- 
talists place his date between 600 b.c and 300 a.d. 

Pantacle (Gr.). The same as Pcntalpha; the triple triangle of 
Pythagoras or the five-pointed star. It was given the name because it 



GLOSSAKV 231 

reproduces tlie letter A (alpha) on the five sides of it or in five different 
positions — its number, moreover, being composed of the first odd (3) 
and the first even (2) numbers. It is very occult. In Occultism and the 
Kabala it stands for man or the Microcosm, the "Heavenly Man", and 
as such it was a j^owerful talisman for keeping at bay evil spirits or the 
Elementals. In Christian theology it refers to the five wounds of Christ ; 
its interpreters failing, however, to add that these "five wounds" were 
themselves symbolical of the Microcosm, or the "Little Universe", or 
again, Humanity, this symbol pointing out the fall of pure Spirit 
(Christos) into matter {lassous, "life", or man). In esoteric philosophy 
the Pentalpha, or five-pointed star, is the symbol of the Ego or the 
Higher Manas. Masons use it, referring to it as the five-pointed star, 
and connecting it with their own fanciful interpretation. (See the 
word "Pentacle" for its difference in meaning from "Pantacle"). 

Pantheist. One who identifies God with Nature and vice versa. 
Pantheism is often objected to by people and regarded as reprehensible. 
But how can a philosopher regard Deity as infinite, omnipresent and 
eternal unless Nature is an aspect of IT, and IT informs every atom in 
Nature ? 

Panther (Hvh.). According to the Sephcr Toldosh Jeshu, one of 
the so-called Apocryphal Jewish Gospels, Jesus was the son of Joseph 
Panther and Mary, hence Ben Panther. Tradition makes of Panther a 
Roman soldier, [w.w.w.] 

Papa-purusha (Sk.). Lit., "Man of Sin": the personification in 
a human form of every wickedness and sin, Esoterically, one who is re- 
born, or reincarnated from the state of Avitchi — hence, "Soulless". 

Para (Sk.). "Infinite" and "supreme" in philosophy — the final 
limit. Param is the end and goal of existence; Pardpara is the boundary 
of boundaries. 

Parabrahm (Sk.). "Beyond Brahma", literally. The Supreme 
Infinite Brahma, "Absolute" — the attributeless, the secondless reality. 
The impersonal and nameless universal Principle. 

Paracelsus. The symbolical name adopted by the greatest Oc- 
cultist of the middle ages — Philip Bombastes Aureolus Theophrastus 
von Hohenheim — born in the canton of Zurich in 1493. He was the 
cleverest physician of his age, and the most renowned for curing almost 
any illness by the power of talismans prepared by himself. He never 
had a friend, but was surrounded by enemies, the most bitter of whom 
were the Churchmen and their party. That he was accused of being in 
league with the devil stands to reason, nor is it to be wondered at that 
finall}- he was murdered by some unknown foe, at the early age of forty- 
eight. He died at Salzburg, leaving a number of works behind him, 
which are to this day greatly valued by the Kabbalists and Occultists. 
Many of his utterances have proved prophetic. He was a clairvoyant of 
great powers, one of the most learned and erudite philosophers and 



232 THEOSOPHICAL 

mystics, and a distinguished Alchemist. Physics is indebted to him for 
the discovery of nitrogen gas, or Azote. 

Paradha (Sk.). The period of one-half the Age of Brahma. 
Parama (Sk.). The "one Supreme". 

Paramapadatmava (Sk.). Beyond the condition of Spirit, "supremer" 
than Spirit, bordering on the Absolute. 

Paramapadha (Sk.). The place where — according to Visishtad- 
waita Vedantins — bliss is enjoyed by those who reach Moksha (Bliss). 
This "place" is not material but made, says the Catechism of that sect, 
"of Suddhasatwa, the essence of which the body of Iswara", the lord, 
"is made". 

Paramapaha (Sk.). A state which is already a conditional existence. 

Paramartha (Sk.). Absolute existence. 

Paramarthika (Sk.). The one true state of existence according 
to Vedanta. 

Paramarshis (Sk.). Composed of two words: parama, "supreme", 
and Rishis, or supreme Rishis — Saints. 

Paramatman (Sk.). The Supreme Soul of the Universe. 

Paranellatons. In ancient Astronomy the name was applied to cer- 
tain stars and constellations which are extra Zodiacal, lying above 
and below the constellations of the Zodiac ; they were 36 in number : 
allotted to the Decans, or one-third parts of each sign. The paranella- 
tons ascend or descend with the Decans alternately, thus when Scorpio 
rises, Orion in its paranellaton sets, also Auriga ; this gave rise to the 
fable that the horses of Phaeton, the Sun, were frightened by a Scorpion, 
and the Charioteer fell into the River Po ; that is the constellation of the 
Eridanus which lies below Auriga the star, [w.w.w.] 

Paranirvana (Sk.). Absolute Non-Being, which is equivalent 
to absolute Being or "Be-ness", the state reached by the human Monad 
at the end of the great cycle (See Secret Doctrine I. 135). The same as 
Paranishpanna. 

Parasakti (Sk.). "The great Force" — one of the six Forces of 
Nature ; that of light and heat. 

Parasara (Sk.). A Vedic Rishi, the narrator of Vishnu Purdna. 

Paratantra (Sk.). That which has no existence of, or by itself, 
but only through a dependent or causal connection. 

Paroksha (Sk.). Intellectual apprehension of a truth. 

Parsees. Written also Parsis. The followers of Zoroaster. This is 
the name given to the remnant of the once-powerful Iranian nation, 
which remained true to the religion of its forefathers — the fire-worship. 
This remnant now dwells in India, some 50,000 strong, mostly in Bom- 
bay and Guzerat. 



GLOSSARY 233: 

Pasa (SJi.). The crncifixion noose of Siva, the noose held in his 
right hand in some of his representations. 

Paschalis, Martinez. A very learned man, a mystic and occultist. 
Born about 1700, in Portugal. He travelled extensively, acquiring 
knowledge wherever he could in the East, in Turkey, Palestine, Arabia, 
and Central Asia. He was a great Kabbalist. He was the tc-acher of 
the Initiator of the Marquis de St. Martin, who founded the mystical 
Martinistic School and Lodges. Paschalis is reported to have died in 
St. Domingo about 1779, leaving several excellent works behind him. 

Pasht (Eg.). The cat-headed goddess, the Moon, called also Sekhet. 
Her statues and representations are seen in great numbers at the British 
Museum. She is the wife or female aspect of Ptah (the son of Kneph), 
the creative principle, or the Egyptian Demiurgus. She is also called 
Beset or Buhastis, being then both the re-uniting and the separating 
principle. Her motto is: "punish the guilty and remove defilement", 
and one of her emblems is the cat. According to Viscount Rouge, her 
worship is extremely ancient (b.c. 3000), and she is the mother of the 
Asiatic race, the race that settled in Northern Egypt. As such she is 
called Ouato. 

Pashut (Heh.). "Literal interpretation." One of the four modes 
of interpreting the Bible used by the Jews. 

Pashyanti (Sk.). The second of the four degrees (Para, 
Pashyanti, Madhyama and Vaikhari), in which sound is divided accord- 
ing to its differentiation. 

Pass not, The Ring. The circle within which are confined all those 
who still labovir under the delusion of separateness. 

Passing of the River (Kab.). This phrase may be met with 
in works referring to media?val magic : it is the name given to a cypher 
alphabet used by Kabbalistic Rabbis at an early date ; the river alluded 
to is tlie Chebar — the name will also be found in Latin authors as Literse 
Transitus. [w.w.w.] 

Pastophori (Gr.). A certain class of candidates for initiation, 
those who bore in public processions (and also in the temples) the sacred 
coffin or funeral couch of the Sun-gods — killed and resurrected, of 
Osiris, Tammuz (or Adonis), of Atys and others. The Christians 
adopted their coffin from the pagans of antiquity. 

Patala (^k.). The nether world, the antipodes; hence in popular 
superstition the infernal regions, and philosophically the two Americas, 
which are antipodal to India. Also, the South Pole as standing opposite 
to Meru, the North Pole. 

Pataliputra (Sk.). The ancient capital of Magadlia, a kingdom 
of Eastern India, now identified with Patna. 

Patanjala (Sk.). The Yoga philosophy; one of the six Darshanas- 
or Schools of India. 



234 THEOSOPHICAL 

Patanjali (i^yk.). The founder of the Yoga philosophy. The date 
assigned to him by the Orientalists is 200 B.C.; and by the Occultists 
nearer to 700 tlian 600 b. c. At any rate he was a contemporary of 
Panini. 

Pavaka (Sk.). One of the three personified fires — the eldest sons 
of Abhimanim or Agni, who had forty-five sons ; these with the original 
son of Brahma, their father Agni, and his three descendants, constitute 
the mystic 49 tires. Pavaka is the electric fire. 

Pavamana (Sk.). Another of the tliree fires (vide supra) — the fire 
produced by friction. 

Pavana (8k.). God of the wind; the alleged father of the monkey- 
god Hanuman (See "Ramayana"). 

Peling (Tib.). The name given to all foreigners in Tibet, to 
Europeans especially. 

Pentacle (Gr.). Any geometrical figure, especially that known 
as the double equilateral triangle, the six-pointed star (like the 
theosophical j^entacle) ; called also Solomon's seal, and still earlier "the 
sign of Vishnu ' ' ; used by all the mystics, astrologers, etc. 

Pentagon (Gr.), from pejite "five", .and gonia "angle"; in geometry 
a plane figure with five angles. ' 

Per-M-Rhu (Eg.). This name is the recognized pronunciation of 
the ancient title of the collection of mystical lectures, called in English 
The Book of the Dead. Several almost complete papyri have been found, 
and there are numberless extant copies of portions of the work, [w.w.w.] 

Personality. In Occultism — which divides man into seven principles, 
considering him under the three aspects of the divine, the 
thinking or the rational, and the animal man — the lower quaternary or 
the purely astrophysical being; while by Individuality is meant the 
Higher Triad, considered as a Unit}'. Thus the Personality embraces 
all the characteristics and memories of one physical life, while the 
Individuality is the imperishable Ego which re-incarnates and clothes 
itself in one personality after another. 

Pesh-Hun (Tih.). From the Sanskrit pesuna "spy"; an epithet 
given to Narada, the meddlesome and troublesome Rishi. 

Phala (Sk.). Retribution; the fruit or result of causes. 

Phalguna (Sk.). A name of Arjuna; also of a month. 

Phallic (Gr.). Anything belonging to sexual worship; or of a 
sexual character externally, such as the Hindu lingham and yoni — the 
emblems of the male and female generative power — which have none of 
the unclean significance attributed to it by the Western mind. 

Phanes (Gr.). One of the Orphic triad — Phanes, Chaos and Chronos. 

It was also the trinity of the Western people in tlie pre-Christian 
period. 



GLOSSARY 235 

Phenomenon (Gr.). In reality "an appearance", something 
previously unseen, and puzzling when the cause of it is unknown. 
Leaving aside various kinds of phenomena, such as cosmic, electrical, 
chemical, etc., and holding merely to the phenomena of spiritism, let it 
be remembered that theosophically and esoterically every "miracle" — 
from the biblical to the theumaturgic— is simply a phenomenon, but that 
no phenomenon is ever a miracle, i.e., something supernatural or outside 
of the laws of nature, as all such are impossibilities in nature. 

Philaletheans (Gr.). Lit., "the lovers of truth"; the name is 
given to tlie Alexandrian Neo-Platonists, also called Analogeticists and 
Theosophists. (See Key to Thcosophy, p. 1, et seq.) The school was 
founded by Ammonius Saccas early in the third century, and lasted until 
the fifth. The greatest philosophers and sages of the day belonged 
to it. 

Philalethes, Eugenius. The Rosicrucian name assumed by one 
Thomas Vaughan, a mediaeval English Occultist and Fire Philosopher. 
He was a great Alchemist, [w.w.w.] 

Philse (Gr.). An island in Upper Egypt where a famous temple 
of that name was situated, the ruins of which may be seen to this day 
by travellers. 

Philo Judaeus. A Hellenized Jew of Alexandria, and a very 
famous historian and writer; born about 30 B.C., died about 45 a.d. He 
ought thus to have been well acquainted with the greatest event of the 
1st century of our era, and the facts about Jesus, his life, and the 
drama of the Crucifixion. And yet he is absolutely silent upon the 
subject, both in his careful enumeration of the then existing Sects and 
Brotherhoods in Palestine and in his accounts of the Jerusalem of his 
day. He was a great mystic and his works abound with metaphysics 
and noble ideas, while in esoteric knowledge he had no rival for several 
ages among the best writers. [See under "Philo Judaeus" in the 
Glossary of the Key to Theosophy.] 

Philosopher's Stone. Called also the "Powder of Projection". 
It is the Magnum Opus of the Alchemists, an object to be attained 
by them at all costs, a substance possessing the power of trans- 
muting the baser metals into pure gold. Mystically, however, the Phil- 
osopher's Stone symbolises the transmutation of the lower animal nature 
of man into the highest and divine. 

Philostratus (Gr.). A biographer of Apollonius of Tyana, who 
described the life, travels and adventures of this sage and philosopher. 

Phla (Gr.). A small island in the lake Tritonia, in the days of 
Herodotus. 

Phleg-ise (Gr.). A submerged ancient island in prehistoric days 
and identified by some writers witli Atlantis ; also a people in Thessaly.. 

Pho (Chin.). The animal Soul. 



236 THEOSOPHICAL 

Phoebe (Gr.). A name given to Diana, or the moon. 

Phoebus -Apollo (Gr.). Apollo as the Sun, "the light of life and 
of the world". 

Phoreg (Gr.). The name of the seventh Titan not mentioned in 
the cosmogony of Hesiod. The "mystery" Titan. 

Phorminx (Gr.). The seven-stringed lyre of Orpheus. 
Phoronede (Gr.). A poem of which Phoroneus is the liero ; this 
work is no longer extant. 

Phoroneus (Gr.). A Titan; an ancestor and generator of man- 
kind. According to a legend of Argolis, like Prometheus he was 
credited with bringing fire to this earth (Pausanias). The god of a river 
in Peloponnesus. 

Phren (Gr.). A Pythagorean term denoting what we call the 
Kama-Manas still overshadowed by the Buddhi-Manas. 

Phtah (Eg.). The God of death; similar to Siva, the destroyer. 
In later Egyptian mythology a sun-god. It is the seat or locality of 
the Sun and its occult Genius or Regent in esoteric philosophy. 

Phta-Ra (Eg.). One of the 49 mystic (occult) Fires. 

Picus, John, Count of Mirandola. A celebrated Kabbalist and 
Alchemist, author of a treatise "on gold" and other Kabbalistic works. 
He defied Rome and Europe in his attempt to prove divine Christian 
truth in the Zohar. Born in 1463, died 1494. 

Pillaloo Codi (Tamil.). A nickname in popular astronomy 
given to the Pleiades, meaning "hen and chickens". The French also, 
curiously enough call this constellation, "Poussiniere". 

Pillars, The Ttvo. Jachin and Boaz were placed at the entrance 
to the Temple of Solomon, the first on the right, the second on the left. 
Their symbolism is developed in the rituals of the Freemasons. 

Pillars, The Three. When the ten Sephiroth are arranged in the 
Tree of Life, two vertical lines separate them into 3 Pillars, namely 
the Pillar of Severity, the Pillar of Mercy, and the central Pillar of 
Mildness. Binah, Geburah, and Hod form the first, that of Severity; 
Kether, Tiphereth, Jesod and Malkuth the central pillar; Chokmah, 
Chesed and Netzach the Pillar of Mercy, [w.w.w.] 

Pillars of Hermes. Like the "pillars of Seth" (with which 
'they are identified) they served for commemorating occult events, and 
various esoteric secrets symbolically engraved on them. It was a uni- 
versal practice. Enoch is also said to have constructed pillars. 

Pingala (^k.). The great Vedic authority on the Prosody and 
chhandas of the Vedas. Lived several centuries B.C. 

Pippala (Sk.). The tree of knowledge: the mystic fruit of that 
tree "upon which came Spirits who love Science". This is allegorical 
and occult. 



GLOSSARY 



237 



Pippalada (Sk.). A magic school wherein Atharva Veda is explained 
founded by an Adept of that name. 

Pisachas (Sk.). In the Furdnas, goblins or demons created by 
Brahma. In the southern Indian folk-lore, ghosts demons, larvse, and 
vampires— generally female— who haunt men. Fading remnants of 
human beings in Kamaloka, as shells and Elementaries. 

Pistis Sophia (8k.). "Knowledge-Wisdom." A sacred book of 
the early Gnostics or the primitive Christians. 

Pitar Devata (Sk.). The "Father-Gods", the lunar ancestors of 
mankind. 

Pitaras (Sk.). Fathers, Ancestors. The fathers of the human races. 

Pitris (Sk.). The ancestors, or creators of mankind. They are of 
seven classes, three of which are incorporeal, arupa, and four corporeal. 
In popular theology they are said to be created from Brahma's side. 
They are variously genealogized, but in esoteric philosophy thev are 
as given in the Secret Doctrine. In Isis Unveiled it is said of them': "It 
is generally believed that the Hindu term means the spirits of our 
ancestors, of disembodied people, hence the argument of some Spiritual- 
ists that fakirs (and yogis) and otlier Eastern wonder-workers, are 
mediums. This is in more than one sense erroneous. The Pitris are 
not the ancestors of the present living men, but those of the human 
kind, or Adamic races ; the spirits of human races, which on the great 
scale of descending evolution preceded our races of men, and they were 
physically, as well as spiritually, far superior to our modern pigmies. 
In Mdnava Dharma Shdstra they are called the Lunar Ancestors." The 
Secret ^ Doctrine has now explained that which was cautiously put for- 
ward in the earlier Theosophical volumes. 

Piyadasi (Pali.). "The beautiful", a title of King Chandragupta 
(the "Sandracottus" of the Greeks) and of Asoka the Buddhist king, 
his grandson. They both reigned in Central India between the fourth 
and third centuries B.C., called also Devanarapiya, "the beloved of the 
gods". ■ J 

Plaksha (Sk.). One of the seven Dtvipas (continents or islands) 
in the Indian Pantheon and the Purdnas. 

Plane. From the Latin planus (level flat) an extension of space 
or of something in it, whether physical or metaphysical, e.g., a "plane 
of consciousness". As used in Occultism, the term denotes the range or 
extent of some state of consciousness, or of the perceptive power of a 
particular set of senses, or the action of a particular force, or the state 
of matter corresponding to any of the above. 

Planetary Spirits. Primarily the rulers or governors of the 
planets. As our earth has its hierarchy of terrestrial planetary spirits, 
from the highest to the lowest plane, so has every other heavenly body. 
In Occultism, however, the term "Planetary Spirit" is generally applied 



238 THEOiSOPHICAL 

only to the seven highest hierarchies corresponding to the Christian 
archangels. These have all passed through a stage of evolution corre- 
sponding to the humanity of earth on other worlds, in long past cycles. 
Our earth, being as yet only in its fourth round, is far too young to 
have produced high planetary spirits. The highest planetary spirit 
ruling over any globe is in reality the "Personal God" of that planet 
and far more truly its "over-ruling providence" than the self-contra- 
dictory Infinite Personal Deity of modern Churchianity. 

Plastic Soul. Used in Occultism in reference to the linga sharira 
or the astral body of the lov/er Quaternary. It is called "plastic" and 
also "Protean" Soul from its power of assuming any shape or form and 
moulding or modelling itself into or upon any image impressed in the 
astral light around it, or in the minds of the medium or of those present 
at seances for materialization. The linga sharira must not be confused 
with the mayavi rupa or "thought body"— the image created by the 
thought and will of an adept or sorcerer ; for while the ' ' astral form ' ' 
or linga sharira is a real entity, the "thought body" is a temporary 
illusion created by the mind. 

Plato. An Initiate into the Mysteries 'and the greatest Greek 
philosopher, whose writings are known the world over. He was tlie 
pupil of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle. He flourished over 400 
years before our era. 

Platonic School, or the "Old Akademe", in contrast with the 
later or N co-Platonic School of Alexandria (See " Philaletlrean " ) . 

Pleroma (Gr.). "Fulness", a Gnostic term adopted to signifv 
the divine world or Universal Soul. Space, developed and divided into 
a series of fBons. The abode of the invisible gods. It has three degrees, 

Plotinus. The noblest highest and grandest of all the Neo- 
Platonists after the founder of the school, Ammonius Saccas. He was- 
the most enthusiastic of the Philaletheans or "lovers of truth", whose 
aim was to found a religion on a system of intellectual abstraction, 
which is true Theosophy, or the whole substance of Neo-Platonism. If 
we are to believe Porphyry, Plotinus has never disclosed either his birth- 
place or connexions, his native land or his race. Till the age of twenty- 
eight he had never found teacher or teaching which would suit him or 
answer his aspirations. Then he happened to hear Ammonius Saccas, 
from which day he continued to attend his school. At thirty-nine he 
accompanied the Emperor Gordian to Persia and India with the object 
of learning their philosophy. He died at the age of sixty-six after 
writing fifty-four books on philosophy. So modest was he that it is said 
he "blushed to think he had a body". He reached Samddhi (highest 
ecstasy or "re-union with God" the divine Ego) several times during 
his life. As said by a biographer, "so far did his contempt for his 
bodily organs go, that he refused to use a remedy, regarding it as 
unworthy of a man to use means of this kind ' '. Again we read, ' ' as he 



GLOSSARY 239 

(lied, a drag-on (or serpent) that had been under his bed, glided through 
a hole in the wall and disappeared" — a fact suggestive for the student 
of symbolism. He taught a doctrine identical with that of the Vedantins, 
namely, that the Spirit-Soul emanating from the One deific principle 
was, after its pilgrimage, re-united to It. 

Point within a Circle. In its esoteric meaning the first unmani- 
fested Zc/yo.s- appearing on the infinite and shoreless expanse of 
Space, represented by the Circle. It is the plane of Infinity and Abso- 
luteness. This is only one of the numberless and hidden meanings of 
this symbol, which is the most important of all the geometrical figures 
used in metaphysical emblematology. As to the Masons, they have made 
of the point "an individual brother" whose duty to God and man is 
bounded by the circle, and have added John tlie Baptist and John the 
p]vangelist to keep company with the "brother", representing them 
under two perpejidieular jiarallel lines. 

Popes-Magicians. There are several sueli in history ; e.g.. Pope 
Sylvester 11., the artist who made an "oracular head", like the one 
fabricated by Albertus Magnus, the learned Bishop of Ratisbon. Pope 
Sylvester was considered a great "enchanter and sorcerer" by Cardinal 
Benno, and the "head" was smashed to pieces by Thomas Aquinas, 
because it talked too much. Then there were Popes Benedict IX., John 
XX., and the Vlth and Vllth Gregory, all regarded by their contempo- 
raries as magicians. The latter Gregory was the famous Hildebrand. 
As to Bishops and lesser Priests who studied Occultism and became 
•'Xpert in magic arts, they are numberless. 

Popol Vuh. The Sacred Books of the Guatemalians. Quiche MSS., 
discovered b\' Brasseur de Bourbourg. 



- 1^- 



Porphyry, or Prophyrius. A Neo-Platonist and a most dis- 
tinguished writer, only second to Plotinus as a teacher and philosopher. 
He was born before the middle of the third century a.d., at Tyre, since 
he called himself a Tyrian and is supposed to have belonged to a Jewish 
family. Though himself thoroughly Hellenized and a Pagan, his name 
Melek (a king) does seem to indicate that he had Semitic blood in 
his veins. Modern critics very justly consider him the most practically 
philosophical, and the soberest, of all the Neo-Platonists. A distinguished 
writer, he was specially famous for his controversy with lamblichus 
regarding the evils attendant ui)on the practice of Theurgy. He was, 
however, finally converted to the views of his opponent. A natural-born 
mystic, he followed, as did his master Plotinus, the pure Indian Raj- 
Yoga training, which leads to the union of tlie Soul with the Over-Soul 
or Higher Self (Buddhi-Manas). He complains, however, that, all his 
efforts notwitlistanding, lie did not reacli this state of ecstacy before he 
was sixty, while Plotinus was proficient in it. This was so, probably 
because while his teacher held physical life and body in the greatest 
f'ontempt. limiting philosophical research to those regions where life and 



240 THEOSOPHICAL 

thought become eternal and divine, Porphyry devoted his whole time to 
considerations of the bearing of philosophy on practical life. "The end 
of philosophy is with him morality", says a biographer, "we might 
almost say, holiness — the healing of man's infirmities, the imparting to 
him a purer and more vigorous life. Mere knowledge, however true, is 
not of itself sufficient; knowledge has for its object life in accordance 
with Notts" — "reason", translates the biographer. As we interpret 
Nous, however, not as reason, but mind (Manas) or the divine eternal 
Ego in man, we would translate the idea esoterically, and make it read 
"the occult or secret knoivledge has for its object terrestrial life in 
accordance with Nous, or our everlasting reincarnating Ego", which 
would be more consonant with Porphyry's idea, as it is with esoteric 
philosophy. {See Porphyry's De Abstinentia i., 29.) Of all the Neo- 
Platonists, Porphyry approached the nearest to real Theosophy as now 
taught by the Eastern secret school. This is shown by all our modern 
critics and writers on the Alexandrian school, for "he held that the Soul 
should be as far as possible freed from the bonds of matter, ... be 
ready ... to cut oft' the whole body". {Ad Morcellam, 34.) He 
recommends the practice of abstinence, saying that "we should be like 
the gods if we could abstain from vegetable as well as animal food". 
He accepts with reluctance theurgy and mystic incantation as those are 
"powerless to purify noetic (manasic) principle of the soul": theurgy 
can "but cleanse the lower or psychic portion, and make it capable of 
perceiving lower beings, such as spirits, angels and gods" (Aug. De 
Civ. Dei. x., 9), just as Theosophy teaches. "Do not defile the divinity", 
he adds, "with the vain imaginings of men; you will not injure that 
which is for ever blessed (Buddhi-Manas) but you will blind yourself 
to the perception of the greatest and most vital truths". {Ad Marcellam, 
18.) "If we would be free from the assaults of evil spirits, we must 
keep ourselves clear of those things over which evil spirits have power, 
for they attack not the pure soul which has no affinity with them". {De 
Ahstin. ii., 43.) This is again our teaching. The Church Fathers held 
Porphyry as the bitterest enemy, the most irreconcilable to Christianity. 
Finally, and once more as in modern Theosophy, Porphyry — as all the 
Neo-Platonists, according to St. Augustine — "praised Christ while they 
disparaged Christianity ' ' ; Jesus, they contended, as we contend, ' ' said 
nothing himself against the pagan deities, but wrought wonders by 
their help". "They could not call him as his disciples did, God, but 
they honoured him as one of the best and wisest of men". (De Civ. Dei., 
xix., 23.) Yet, "even in the storm of controversy, scarcely a word 
seems to have been uttered against the private life of Porphyry. His 
system prescribed purity and ... he practised it". (See A Diet, 
of Christian Biography, Vol. IV., "Porphyry".) 

Poseidonis (Gr.). The last remnant of the great Atlantean 
Continent. Plato's island Atlantis is referred to as an equivalent ternt 
in Esoteric Philosophy. 



GLOSSARY 241 

Postel, Guillaume. A French adept, born in Normandy in 1510. 
His learning brought him to the notice of Francis I., who sent him 
to the Levant in search of occult MSS., where he was received into and 
initiated by an Eastern Fraternity. On his return to France he became 
famous. He was persecuted by the clergy and finally imprisoned by the 
Inquisition, but was released by his Eastern brothers from his dungeon. 
His Clavis Ahsconditorum, a key to things hidden and forgotten, is very 
celebrated. 

Pot-Amun. Said to be a Coptic term. The name of an Egyptian 
priest and hierophant who lived under the earlier Ptolemies. Diogenes 
Laertius tells us that it signifies one consecrated to the **Amun", the 
god of wisdom and secret learning, such as were Hermes, Thoth, and 
Nebo of the Chaldees. This must be so, since in Chaldea the priests 
consecrated to Nebo also bore his name, being called the Neboi'm, or in 
some old Hebrew Kabbalistic works, "Abba Nebu". The priests gen- 
erally took the names of their gods. Pot-Amun is credited with having 
been the first to teach Theosophy, or the outlines of the Secret Wisdom- 
Religion, to the uninitiated. 

Prabhavapyaya (8k.). That whence all originates and into 
which all things resolve at the end of the life-cycle. 

Prachetas (Sk.). A name of Varuna, the god of water, or 
esoterically — its principle. 

Prachetasas (Sk.). See Secret Doctrine, II., 176 et seq. Daksha 
is the son of the Prachetasas, the ten sons of Prachinavahis. Men 
endowed with magic powers in the Fur anas, who, while practising re- 
ligious austerities, remained immersed at the bottom of the sea for 
10,000 years. The name also of Daksha, called Prdchetasa. 

Pradhana (Sk.). Undifferentiated substance, called elsewhere 
and in other schools — Akasa ; and Mulaprakriti or Root of Matter by the 
Vedantins. In short, Primeval Matter. 

Pragna (Sk.) or Prajna. A synonym of Mahat, the Universal 
Mind. The capacity for perception. {8. D., I. 139) Consciousness. 

Prahlada (Sk.). The son of Tiranyakashipu, the King of the 
Asuras. As Prahlada was devoted to Vishnu, of whom his father was 
the greatest enemy, he became subjected in consequence to a variety of 
tortures and punishments. In order to save his devotee from these, 
Vishnu assumed the form of Nri-Sinha (man-lion, his fourth avatar) 
and killed the father. 

Prajapatis (Sk.). Progenitors; the givers of life to all on this 
Earth. They are seven and then ten — corresponding to the seven and 
ten Kabbalistic Sephiroth ; to the Mazdean Amesha-Spentas, &c. 
Brahma, the creator, is called Prajapati as the synthosis of the Lords of 
Being. 



242 



THEOSOPHICAL 



Prakrita (Sk.). One of the provincial dialects of Sanskrit— " the 
language of the gods", and therefore, its materialization. 

Prakritika Pralaya (Sk.). The Pralaya succeeding to the 
Age of Brahma, when everything that exists is resolved into its 
primordial essence (or Prakriti), 

Prakriti (Sk.). Nature in general, nature as opposed to Purusha 
—spiritual nature and Spirit, which together are the "two primeval 
aspects of tlie One Unknown Deity". (Secret Doctrine, I. 51.) 

Pralaya (Sk.). A period of obscuration or repose— planetary, 
cosmic or universal — the opposite of Manvantara (^S'. D., I. 370.). 

Pramantha (Sk.). An accessory to producing the sacred fire by 
friction. The sticks used by Brahmins to kindle fire by friction. 

Prameyas (Sk.). Things to be proved; objects of Pramdna or 
proof. 

Pram-Gimas (Lithuanian). Lit., "Master of all", a deity-title. 

Pramlocha (Sk.). A female Asparas—a water-nymph who beguiled 
Kandu. (See "Kandu".) 

Prana (Sk.). Life-Principle; the breatli of Life. 

Pranamaya Kosha (Sk.). The vehicle of Prdna, life or the Linga 
Sarira: a Vedantic term. 

Pranatman (Sk.). The same as Sutratmd. the eternal germ-thread 
on whieli are strung, like beads, the personal lives of the Ego. 

Pranava (Sk.). A sacred word, equivalent to Aum. 

Pranayama ^S'A-.;. The suppression and regulation of the breath 
in Yoga practice. 

Pranidhana (Sk.). The fiftli observance of the Yogis; ceaseless 
devotion. (See Yoga Shdstras, ii. 32.) 

Prapti (Sk.). From Prdp, to reach. One of the eight Siddhis 
(powers) of Raj-Yoga. The power of transporting oneself from one 
place to another, instantaneously, by the mere force of will ; the faculty 
of divination, of healing and of prophesying, also a Yoga power. 

Prasanga Madhyamika (Sk.). A Buddhist school of philosopli\- 
in Tibet. It follows, like the Yogaeharya system, the Mahdydna 
or "Great Vehicle" of precepts; but, having been founded far later 
than the Yogaeharya, it is not half so rigid and severe. It is a semi- 
exoteric and very popular system among the literati and laymen. 

Prashraya, or Yinaya (Sk.). "The progenetrix of affection." A 
title bestowed upon the Vedic Aditi, the "Mother of the Gods".- 

Pratibhasika (Sk.). The apparent or illusory life. 

Pratisamvid (Sk.). The four "unlimited forms of wisdom" at- 
tained by an Arhat ; the last of which is the absolute knowledge of and 
power over the twelve Nidanas. (See "Nidana".) 



GLOSSARY 243 

Pratyabhava (Sk.). Tlie state of the Ego under the necessity of re- 
peated births. 

Pratyagatma (Sk.). The same as Jivatma, or the one living: T'nivcr- 

sal Soul — Alaya. 

Pratyahara (Sk.). The same as "Mahapralaya". 

Pratyaharana (Sk.). The preliminary training in practical Raj- 
Yoga. 

Pratyaksha (Sk.). Spiritual perception by means of senses. 

Pratyasarga (Sk.). In Sankhya philosophy the "intellectual rvolu- 
tion of the Universe"; in the Puranas the 8th creation. 

Pratyeka Buddha (Sk.). The same as '"Pasi-Buddha". The 
Pratyeka Buddha is a degree which belongs exclusively to the Yoga- 
charya school, yet it is only one of higli intellectual development with no 
true spirituality. It is the dead-letter of the Yoga laws, in which 
intellect and comprehension play the greatest part,- added to the strict 
carrying out of the rules of the inner development. It is one of the three 
paths to Nirvana, and the lowest, in which a Yogi — "without teacher 
and without saving others" — by the mere force of will and technical 
observances, attains to a kind of nominal Buddhaship individually ; 
doing no good to anyone, but working selfishly for his own salvation and 
himself alone. The Pratyekas are respected outwardly but are despised 
inwardly by those of keen or spiritual appreciation. A Pratyeka is 
generally compared to a "Khadga" or solitary rhinoceros and called 
Ekashringa Rishi, a selfish solitary Rishi (or saint). "As crossing 
Sansara ('the ocean of birth and death' or the series of incarnations), 
suppressing errors, and yet not attaining to absolute perfection, the 
Pratyeka Buddha is compared with a horse which crosses a river swim- 
ming, without touching the ground." {Sanskrit-Chinese Diet.) He is 
far below a true "Buddha of Compassion". He strives only for the 
reaching of Nirvana. 

Pre-existence. The term used to denote that we have lived 
before. The same as reincarnation in the past. The idea is derided by 
some, rejected by others, called absurd and inconsistent by the third ; 
yet it is the oldest and the most universally accepted belief from an 
immemorial antiquity. And if this belief was universally accepted by 
the most subtle philosophical minds of the pre-Christian world, surely 
it is not amiss that some of our modern intellectual men should also 
believe in it, or at least give the doctrine the benefit of the doubt. Even 
the Bible hints at it more than once, St. John the Baptist being regarded 
as the reincarnation of Elijah, and the Disciples asking whether the 
blind man was horn hlind because of his sins, which is equal to saying 
that he had lived and sinned before being born blind. As Mr. Bonwick 
well says: it was "the work of spiritual progression and soul discipline. 
The pampered sensualist returned a beggar ; the proud oppressor, a 
slave : the selfish woman of fashion, a seamstress. A turn of the wheel 



244 THEOSOPHICAL 

gave a chance for the development of neglected or abused intelligence 
and feeling, hence the popularity of reincarnation in all climes and 
times. . . . thus the expurgation of evil was . . . gradually 
but certainly accomplished." Verily "an evil act follows a man, pass- 
ing through one hundred thousand transmigrations" (Panchatantra) . 
"All souls have a subtle vehicle, image of the body, which carries the 
passive soul from one material dwelling to another" says Kapila; while 
Basnage explains of the Jews : ' ' By this second death is not considered 
hell, but that which happens when a soul has a second time animated a 
body". Herodotus tells his readers, that the Egyptians "are the earliest 
who have spoken of this doctrine, according to which the soul of man 
is immortal, and after the destruction of the body, enters into a newly 
born being. When, say they, it has passed through all the animals of 
the earth and sea, and all the birds, it will re-enter the body of a new 
born man." This is Pre-cxistence. Deveria showed that the funeral 
books of the Egyptians say plainly "that resurrection was, in reality, 
but a renovation, leading to a new infancy, and a new youth". (See 
"Reincarnation".) 

Pretas (Sk.). "Hungry demons" in popular folk-lore. "Shells", 
of the avaricious and selfish man after death; "Elementaries" reborn as 
Pretas, in Kamarloka, according to the esoteric teachings. 

Priestesses. Every ancient religion had its priestesses in the tem- 
ples. In Egypt tliey were called the Sd and served the altar of Tsis and 
in the temples of other goddesses. Canephoroc was the name given by 
the Greeks to those consecrated priestesses who bore the baskets of the 
gods during the public festivals of the Eleusinian Mysteries. There 
were female prophets in Israel as in Egypt, diviners of dreams and 
oracles; and Herodotus mentions the Hierodnlcs, the virgins or nuns 
dedicated to the Tlieban Jove, who were generally the Pharaoh's 
daughters and other Princesses of the Royal House. Orientalists speak 
of the wife of Cephrenes, the builder of the so-called second Pyramid, 
who was a priestess of Thoth. (See "Nuns".) 

Primordial Light. In Occultism, the light which is born in, and 
through the preternatural darkness of chaos, which contains "the all in 
all", the seven rays that become later the seven Principles in Nature. 

Principles. The Elements or original essences, the basic differentia- 
tions upon and of which all things are built up. We use the term to 
denote the seven individual and fundamental aspects of the One Uni- 
versal Reality in Kosmos and in man. Hence also the seven aspects in 
their manifestation in the human being — divine, spiritual, psychic, as- 
tral, physiological and simply physical. 

Priyavrata (Sl\). The name of the son of Swayambhuva Manu in 
exoteric Hinduism. The occult designation of one of the primeval races 
in Occultism. 

Proclus (Gr.). A Greek writer and mystic philosopner, known as a 



GIXiSSARY 245 

Commentator of Plato, and surnamed the Diadoeluis. He lived in the 
fifth century, and died, ag:ed 75, at Athens a.d. 485. His last ardent 
disciple and follower and the translator of his works was Thomas Taylor 
of Norwich, who, says Brother Kenneth Mackenzie, "was a modern 
mystic who adopted the pagan faitli as being the only veritable faith, 
and actually sacrificed doves to Venus, a goat to Bacchus and .... 
designed to immolate a bull to Jupiter" but was prevented by his 
landlady, 

Prometheus (Gr.). The Greek logos; he, who by bringing on earth 
divine fire (intelligence and consciousness) endowed men with reason 
and mind. Prometheus is the Hellenic type of our Kumaras or Egos, 
those who, by incarnating in men, made of them latent gods instead of 
animals. The gods (or Elohim) were averse to men becoming "as one 
of us" (Genesis iii., 22), and knowing "good and evil". Hence we see 
these gods in every religious legend punishing man for his desire to 
know. As the Greek myth has it, for stealing the fire he brought to men 
from Heaven, Prometheus was chained by the order of Zeus to a crag 
of the Caucasian Mountains. 

Propator (Gr.). A Gnostic term. The "Depth" of Bythos, or En- 
Aior, the unfathomable light. The latter is alone the Self-Existent and 
the Eternal — Propator is only periodical. 

Protogonos (Gr.). The "first-born"; used of all the manifested gods 
and of the Sun in our system. 

Proto-ilos (Gr.). The first primordial matter. 

Protologoi (Gr.). The primordial seven creative Forces when anthro- 
pomorphized into Archangels or Logoi. 

Protyle (Gr.). A newly-coined w^ord in chemistry to designate the 
first homogeneous, primordial substance. 

Pschent (Eg.). A symbol in the form of a double crown, meaning 
the presence of Deity in death as in life, on earth as in heaven. This 
Pschent is only w^orn by certain gods. 

Psyche (Gr.). The animal, terrestrial Soul; the lower Manas. 

Psychism, from the Greek psyche. A term now used to denote very 
loosely every kind of mental phenomena, e.g., mediumship, and the 
higher sensitiveness, hypnotic receptivity, and inspired prophecy, simple 
clairvoyance in the astral light, and real divine seership ; in short, the 
word covers every phase and manifestation of the powers and potencies 
of the human and the divine Souls. 

Psychography. A word first used by theosophists ; it means writing 
under the dictation or the influence of one's "soul-power", though 
Spiritualists have now adopted the term to denote writing produced by 
their mediums under the guidance of returning "Spirits". 

Psychology. Tlie Science of Soul in days of old: a Science which 
served as the unavoidable basis for physiology. Whereas in our modern 



246 THEOSOPHICAL 

day it is psychology tliat is being based (by our great scientists) upon 
physiology. 

Psychometry. Lit., "Soul-measuring"; reading or seeing, not with 
the physical eyes, but with the soul or inner Sight. 

Psychophobia. Lit., "Soul-fear," applied to materialists and certain 
atheists, wlio l)ecome struck with madness at the very mention of Soul 
or Spirit. 

Psylli (Or.). Serpent-charmers of Africa and Egypt. 

Ptah, or Pthah (Eg.). The son of Kneph in the Egyptian Pantheon. 
He is the Principle of Light and Life through which "creation" or 
rather evolution took place. The Egyptian logos and creator, the 
Demiurgos. A very old deity, as, according to Herodotus, he had a tem- 
ple erected to him by Menes, the first king of Egypt. He is "giver of 
life" and the self-born, and the father of Apis, the sacred bull, con- 
ceived through a ray from tlie Sun. Ptah is thus the prototype of 
Osiris, a later deity. Herodotus makes him a father of the Kabiri, the 
mystery-gods; and the Targum of Jerusalem says: "Egyptians called 
the wisdom of the First Intellect Ptah ' ' ; hence he is Mahat the ' ' divine 
wisdom ' ' ; though from anotlier aspect he is Swahhdvat, the self-created 
substance, as a prayer addressed to him in the Ritual of the Dead says. 
after calling Ptah "father of fathers and of all gods, generator of all 
men produced from his substance": "Thou art without father, being 
engendered by thy om^i will ; thou art without mother, being born by the 
renewal of thine own substa))c< from whom proceeels substance". 

Puja (8l\). An offering; woi'ship and divine honours otfered to an 
idol or something sacred. 

Pulastya (Sk.). One of the seven "mind-born sons" of Brahma; 
the re})uted father of tlie Ndgas (serpents, also Initieites) and other 
s.ymbolical creatures. 

Puins (Sk.). Spirit, supreme Purusha, Man. 

Punarjanma (Sk.). The power of evolving objective manifestations; 
motion of forms; also, re-birth. 

Pundarik-aksha (Sk.). Lit., "lotus-eyed", a title of Vishnu. 
"Supreme and imperishable glory"", as translated by some Orientalists. 

Puraka (Sk.). Inbreathing process; a way of breathing as regulated 
according to the prescribed rules of Hatha Yoga. 

Puranas (Sk.). Lit,., "ancient". A collection of symbolical and 
allegorical writings — eighteen in number now — supposed to have been 
composed by Vyasa, the author of Mahdbhdrata. 

Purohitas (Sk.). Family priests; Brahmans. 

Pururavas (Sk.). The son of Budha, the son of Soma (the moon), 
and of Ha ; famous for being the first to produce fire by the friction of 
two pieces of wood, and make it (the fire) triple. An occult character. 



GLOSSARY 247 

Purusha (Sk.J. Man", heavenly man. Spirit, the same as Narayana 
in another aspect. "The Spiritual Self." 

Purusha Narayana (8k.). Primordial male — Brahma. 

Purushottama (8k.). Lit., "best of men"; metaphysically, however, 
it is spirit, the Supreme Soul of the universe ; a title of Vishnu. 

Purvaja (8k.). "Pregenetic", the same as the Orphic Protologos ; a 
title of Vishnu. 

Purvashadha (8k.). An asterism. 

Pushan (8k.). A Vedic deity, the real meaning of which remains 
unknown to Orientalists. It is qualified as the "Nourisher", the feeder 
of all (helpless) beings. Esoteric philosophy explains the meaning. 
Speaking of it the Taittirhja Brdhmana says that, "When Prajapati 
formed living beings, Pushan nourislied them". This then is the same 
mysterious force that nourishes the foetus and unborn babe, by Osmosis, 
and which is called the "atmospheric (or akasic) nurse", and the "father 
nourisher". When the lunar Pitris had evolved men, these remained 
senseless and helpless, and it is "Pushan who fed primeval man". Also 
a name of the Sun. 

Pushkala (8k.) or Fiiskola. A palm leaf prepared for writing on, 
used in Ceylon. All the native books are written on such palm leaves, 
aiid last for centuries. 

Pushkara (8k.). A blue lotus; the seventh Dwipa or zone of 
Bharatavarsha (India). A famous lake near Ajmere ; also the proper 
name of several persons. 

Puto (8k.). An island in China where Kwan-Shai-Yin and Kwan-Yin 
have a number of temples and monasteries. 

Putra (8k.). A son. 

Pu-tsi K'iun-ling (Chin.). Lit., "the Universal Saviour of all 
beings". A title of Avalokiteswara, and also of Buddha. 

Pygmalion (Gr.). A celebrated sculptor and statuar}^ in the island of 
Cyprus, who became enamoured of a statue he had made. So the God- 
dess of beauty, taking pity on him, changed it into a living woman 
(Ovid, Met.). The above is an allegory of the soul. 

Pymander (Gr.). The "Thought divine". The Egyptian Prometheus 
and the personified Nous or divine light, which appears to and instructs 
Hermes Trismegistus, in a hermetic work called "Pymander". 

■ Pyrrha (Gr.). A daughter of Epimatheos and Pandora, who was 
married to Deucalion. After a deluge when mankind was almost annihil- 
ated, Pyrrha and Deucalion made men and women out of stones wliich 
they threw behind them. 

Pyrrhonism (Gr.). Tlie doctrine of Scepticism as first taught by 
Pyrrlio, tliough his system was far more philosophical tlian the blank 
denial of our modern Pvrrhonists. 



248 THEOSOPHICAL 

Pythagoras (Gr.). The most famous of mystic philosophers, born at 
Samos, about 586 b.c. He seems to have travelled all over the world, 
and to liave culled his philosophy from the various systems to which 
he had access. Thus he studied the esoteric sciences with the Brach- 
manes of India, and astronomy and astrology in Chaldea and Egypt. 
He is known to this day in the former country under the name of 
Yavanacharya ("Ionian teacher"). After returning he settled in 
Crotona, in Magna Grecia, where he established a college to which very 
soon resorted all the best intellects of the civilised centres. His father 
was one Mnesarchus of Samos, and was a man of noble birth and learn- 
ing.. It was Pythagoras who was the first to teach the heliocentric 
system, and who was the greatest proficient in geometry of his century. 
It was he also who created the word "philosopher", composed of two 
words meaning a "lover of wisdom" — philo-sophos. As the greatest 
mathemetician, geometer and astronomer of historical antiquity, and 
also the highest of the metaphysicians and scholars, Pythagoras has won 
imperishable fame. He taught reincarnation as it is professed in India 
and much else of the Secret Wisdom. 

Pythagorean Pentacle (Gr.). A Kabbalistic six-pointed star with an 
eagle at the apex and a bull and a lion under the face of a man ; a mystic 
symbol adopted by the Eastern and Roman Christians, who place these 
animals beside the four Evangelists. 

Pythia or Pythoness (Gr.). Modern dictionaries inform us that the 
term means one who delivered the oracles at the temple of Delphi, and 
"any female supposed to have the spirit of divination in her — a witch" 
(Webster). This is neither true, just nor correct. On the authority of 
lambliclms, Plutarch and others, a Pytbia was a priestess chosen among 
the sensitives of the poorer classes, and placed in a temple where oracular 
powers were exercised. Tliere she had a room secluded from all but the 
chief Hierophant and Seer, and once admitted, was, like a nun, lost to 
the world. Sitting on a tripod or brass placed over a fissure in the 
ground, through which arose intoxicating vapours, these subterranean 
exhalations, penetrating her whole system, produced the prophetic 
mania, in wliicli abnormal state she delivered oracles. Aristophanes in 
"Vfestas"" I., reg. 28, calls the Pythia ventriloqua vates or the "ventrilo- 
quial prophetess", on account of her stoniach-\oiee. The ancients placed 
the soul of man (the lower Manas) or his personal self -consciousness, in 
the pit of his stomach. AVe find in the fourth verse of the second 
Nahhdnedishia hymn of the Brahmans: "Hear, sons of the gods, one 
who speaks through his name (nahha), for he hails you in your dwell- 
ings!" This is a modern somnambulic phenomenon. The navel was 
regarded in antiquity as "the circle of the sun", the seat of divine 
internal light. Therefore was the oracle of Apollo at Delphi, the city of 
Delphus, the womb or abdomen — while the seat of the temple was called 
the omphalos, navel. As well-known, a number of mesmerized subjects 
can read letters, hear, smell and see through that part of their body. In 



GLOSSAEY 



249 



India there exists to this day a belief (also among the Parsis) that 
adepts have flames in their navels, which enlighten for tiiem all dark- 
ness and unveil the spiritual world. It is called with the Zoroastrians 
the lamp of Deshtur or the "High Priest"; and the light or radiance of 
the Dikshita (the initiate) with the Hindus. 

Pytho (Gr.). The same as 06 — a fiendish, devilish influence; the oh 
through which the sorcerers are said to work. 



250 THEOSOPHICAL 



Q. 



V^. — The seventeeiitli letter of tlie English Alpliabet. It is the obso- 
lete ^olian Qoppa, and the Hebrew Koph. As a numeral it is 100, and 
its symbol is the back of the head from the ears to the neck. "With the 
^olian Occultists it stood for the symbol of differentiation. 

Qabbalah (Hch.). The ancient Chaldean Secret Doctrine, abbreviated 
into Kabala. An occult system handed down by oral transmission; but 
which, though accepting tradition, is not in itself composed of merely 
traditional teachings, as it was once a fundamental science, now dis- 
figured by the additions of centuries, and by interpolation by the 
Western Occultists, especially by Christian Mystics. It treats of hitherto 
esoteric interpretations of the Jewish Scriptures, and teaches several 
methods of interpreting Biblical allegories. Originally the doctrines 
were transmitted "from mouth to ear" only, says Dr. W. Wynn West- 
cott, "in an oral manner from teacher to pupil who received them; 
hence the name Kabbalah, Qabalah or Cabbala from the Hebrew root 
QBL, to receive. Besides this Theoretic Kabbalah, there was created 
a Practical branch, wliich is concerned with the Hebrew letters, as 
types alike of Sounds, Nimibers, and Ideas." (See "Gematria", "No- 
taricon", "Temura".) For the original book of the Qahbalah — the 
Zohar — see further on. But the Zohar we have now is not the Zohar 
left by Simeon Ben Jochai to his son and secretary as an heirloom. The 
author of the present approximation was one Moses de Leon, a Jew of 
the Xlllth century (See "Kabalah" and "Zohar".) 

Qadmon, Adam, or Adam Kadmon (Hcb.). Tlie Heavenly or Celes- 
tial Man, the Microcosm (q.v.) He is the manifested Logos; the third 
Logos according to Occultism, or the Paradigm of Humanity. 

Qai-yin (Hch.). The same as Cain. 

Qaniratha (Mazd.). Our eartli, in the Zoroastrian Scriptures, whicli 
is placed, as taught in the Secret Doctrine, in the midst of the other 
six Karshwars, or globes of the terrestrial chain. (See Secret Doctrine, 
II. p. 759.) 

Q'lippoth (Ileh.), or Klippoth. The world of Demons or Shells; the 
same as the Aseeyatic World, called also Olam. Klippoth. It is the 
residence of Samael, the Prince of Darkness in the Kabbalistic allegories. 
But note what we read in the Zohar (ii. 43aJ : "For the service of the 
Angelic World the Holy. . . . made Samael and his legions, i.e., 
the world of action, who are as it were the clouds to be used (by the 
higher or upjier Spirits, our Egos) to ride ujDon in their descent to the 
earth, and serve, as it were, for their horses". This, in conjunction 
with the fact that Q'lippoth contains the matter of whicli stars, planets. 



GLOSSARY 251 

and even men are made, shows that Samael with liis k^n^ions is simply 
cliaotic, tnrbuh'nt matter, which is used in its finer state by spirits to 
robe themselves in. For speaking of the "vesture" or form (rupa) of 
the incarnating Egos, it is said in the Occult Catechism that they, the 
]\ranasaputras or Sons of Wisdom, use for the consolidation of their 
forms, in order to descend into lower splieres, the dregs of Sivahhdvat, or 
that plastic matter which is tliroughout Space, in other words, primor- 
dial ilus. And these dregs are what the Egyptians have called Typhon 
and modern Europeans Satan, Samael, etc., etc. Deus est Demon inver- 
sus — the Demon is the lining of God. 

Quadrivium (Lat.). A term used by the Scholastics during the 
Middle Ages to designate the last four paths of learning — of which 
there M^ere originall}^ seven. Thus grammar, rhetoric and logic were 
called the trivium, and arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy' (the 
Pythagorean obligatory sciences) w^ent under the name of quadrivium. 

Quetzo-Cohuatl (Mcx.). The serpent-god in the Mexican Scriptures 
and legends. His wand and other "land-marks" show him to be some 
great Initiate of antiquity, who received the name of "Serpent" on 
account of his wisdom, long life and powers. To this day the aboriginal 
tribes of Mexico call themselves by the names of various reptiles, animals 
and birds. 

Quiche Cosmogony. Called Popul Vuh; discovered by the Abbe Bra.s- 
seur de Bourboug. (See "Popol Vuh".) 

Quietists. A religious sect founded by a Si)anisli monk named 
]\Iolinos. Their eldef doctrine was that contemplation (an internal state 
of complete rest and passivity) was the only religious practice possible, 
and constituted the whole of religious observances. They were the 
Western Hatha Yogis and passed their time in trying to separate their 
minds from the objects of the senses. The practice became a fashion in 
France and also in Russia during the early portion of this century. 

Quinanes. A very ancient race of giants, of whom there are many 
traditions, not only in the folk-lore but in tlie history of Central America. 
(Occult science teaches that tlie race which preceded our own human 
race was one of giants which gradually decreased, after the Atlantean 
deluge had almost swept them off the face of the earth, to the present 
size of man. 

Quindecemvir (Lat.). Tlie Roman priest who had charge of the 
Silnlline books. 

Qu-tamy (Chald.). The name of the nustic who receives the revela- 
tions of the moon-goddess in the ancient Chaldean work, tran.slated 
into Arabic, and retranslated by Chwolsohn into German, under the 
name of Nahatli((in Agriculture. 



252 THEOSOPHICAL 



R. 

r\-«— The eighteenth letter of the alphabet; "the canine" as its sound 
reminds one of a snarl. In the Hebrew alphabet it is the twentieth, and 
its numeral is 200. It is equivalent as Resh to the divine name Rahim 
(clemency) ; and its symbols are, a sphere, a head, or a circle. 

Ra (Eg.). The divine Universal Soul in its manifested aspect — the 
ever-burning light ; also the personified Sun. 

Rabbis (Heh.). Originally teachers of the Secret Mysteries, the 
Qahhalah; later, every Levite of the priestly caste became a teacher and 
a Rabbin. (See the series of Kabbalistic Rabbis by w.w.w.) 

1 Rabbi Abulafia of Saragossa, born in 1240, formed a school of Kab- 
balah named after liim ; his cliief works were The Seven Paths of the 
Law and The Epistle to Rahhi Solomon. 

2 Rabbi Akiba. Author of a famous Kabbalistic work, the "Alpha- 
bet of R. A.", which treats every letter as a symbol of an idea and an 
emblem of some sentiment ; the Bool- of Enoch was originally a portion of 
this work, which appeared at the close of the eightli century. It was 
not purely a Kabbalistic treatise. 

3 Rabbi Azariel ben Menachem (a.d. 1160). The author of the 
Commentaru on the Ten Sephiroth, which is the oldest purely Kabba- 
listic work extant, setting aside the Sephcr Yetzirah, which although 
older, is not concerned with the Kabbalistic Sephiroth. He was the 
pupil of Isaac the Blind, who is the reputed fathei* of the li^uropean 
Kabbalah, and lie was the teacher of the equally famous R. Moses 
Nachraanides. 

4 Rabbi Moses Botarel (1480). Author of a famous commentary on 
the Sepher Yetzirah; he taught that by ascetic life and the use of in- 
vocation, a man's dreams might be made prophetic. 

5 Rabbi Chajim Vital (1600). The great exponent of the Kabbalah 
as taught R. Isaac Loria : author of one of the most famous works, Otz 
Chiini, or Tree of Life; from this Knorr von Rosenroth has taken the 
Book 0)1 the Rashith ha Gilgalim, revolutions of souls, or scheme of 
reincarnations. 

6 Rabbi Ibn Gebirol. A famous Hebrew Rabbi, author of the hymn 
Kether Malchuth, or Royal Diadem, which appeared about 1050; it is a 
beautiful poem, embodying the cosmic doctrines of Aristotle, and it even 
now forms part of the Jewish special service for the evening preceding 
the great annual Day of Atonement (See Ginsburg and Sachs on the 
Religious Poetry of the Spanish Jews). This author is also known as 
Avicebron. 



GLOSSARY 253 

7 Rabbi Gikatilla. A distinwuishofl Kabbalist who flourislied about 
1300: he wrote tlie famous books, llu Garden of Nuts, The Gate to the 
Voivel Points, The tnystery of the shining Metal, and The Gates of Right- 
eousness. He laid especial stress on the use of Gematria, Notaricon and 
Temura. 

8 Rabbi Isaac the Blind of Posquiero. The first who pul)li('ly taught 
in Europe, about a.d. 1200, the Theosophic doctrines of the Kahhalah. 

9 Rabbi Loria (also written Luria, and also naraert Ari from his 
initials). Founded a school of the Kahhalah circa 1560. He did not 
write any works, but his disciples treasured up liis teaching-s, and 
R. Chajim Vital published them. 

10 Rabbi Moses Cordovero (a.d. 1550). Tlie author of several Kab- 
balistic works of a wide reputation, viz., A Siveet Light, The Book of 
Retirement, and The Garden of Pomegranates; this latter can be read in 
Latin in Knorr von Rosenroth's Kahhalah Denvdata, entitled Tractatns 
de Aninio, ex lihro Pardes Rimmonini. Cordovero is notable for an 
adherence to the strictly metaphysical part, ignoring the wonder-work- 
ing branch which Rabbi Sabbatai Zevi practised, and almost perished in 
the pursuit of. 

11 Rabbi Moses de Leon (circa 1290 a.d.). The editor and first pub- 
lisher of the first Zohar or "Splendour'', the most famous of all the 
Kabbalistic volumes, and almost the only one of which any large part 
has been translated into English. This Zohar is asserted to be in the 
main the production of the still more famous Rabbi Simon ben Jochai, 
who lived in the reign of the Emperor Titus. 

12 Rabbi Moses Maimonides (died 1304). A famous Hebrew Rabbi 
and author, who condemned the use of charms and amulets, and objected 
to the Kabbalistic use of the divine names. 

13 Rabbi Sabbatai Zevi (born 1641). A very famous Kabbalist, who 
passing beyond the dogma became of great reputation as a thaumaturgist, 
working wonders by the divine names. Later in life he claimed ]\Iessiah- 
ship and fell into the hands of the Sultan Mohammed IV. of Turkey, and 
would have been murdered, but saved his life by adopting the Moham- 
medan religion. (See Jost on Judaism and its Sects.) 

14 Rabbi Simon ben Jochai (circa a.d. 70-80). It is round this name 
that cluster the mystery and poetry of the origin of the Kahhalah as a 
gift of the deity to mankind. Tradition has it that the Kahhalah was a 
divine theosophy first taught by God to a company of angels, and that 
some glimpses of its perfection were conferred upon Adam ; that the 
wisdom passed from him unto Noah ; thence to Abraham, from whom 
the Egyptians of his era learned a portion of the doctrine. Moses de- 
rived a partial initiation from the land of his birth, and this was per- 
fected by direct communications with the deity. From Moses it passed to 
the seventy elders of the Jewish nation, and from them the theosophic 
scheme was handed from generation to generation ; David and Solomon 
especially became masters of this concealed doctrine. No attempt, the 



254 THEOSOPHICAL 

legends tell us, was made to commit the sacred knowledge to writing 
until the time of the destruction of the second Temple by Titus, when 
Rabbi Simon ben Jochai, escaping from the besieged Jerusalem, con- 
cealed himself in a cave, where he remained for twelve years. Here he, a 
Kabbalist already, was further instructed by the prophet Elias. Here 
Simon taught his disciples, and his chief pupils. Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi 
Abba, committed to writing those teachings which in later ages became 
known as the Zohar, and were certainly published afresh in Spain by 
Rabbi Moses de Leon, about 1280. A fierce contest has raged for cen- 
turies between the learned Rabbis of Europe around the origin of the 
legend, and it seems quite hopeless to expect ever to arrive at an ac- 
curate decision as to what portion of the Zohar, if any, is as old as 
Simon ben Jochai. (See "Zohar".) [w.w.w.] 

Radha (Sk.). The shepherdess among the Gopis (shepherdesses) of 
Krishna, who was the wife of the god. 

Raga (8k.). One of the five Kleshas (afflictions) in Patanjali's Yoga 
philosophy. In Sdnkhya Kdrikd, it is the "obstruction" called love and 
desire in the ph^'sical or terrestrial sense. The five Kleshas are : Aviclyd, 
or ignorance; Asmitd, selfishness, or "I-am-ness"; Rdga, love; Divesha, 
hatred ; and Ahhinivesa, dread of suffering. 

Ragnarok (Scand.). A kind of metaphysical entity called the 
"Destroyer" and the "Twilight of the Gods", the two-thirds of whom 
are destroyed at the "Last Battle" in the Edda. Ragnarok lies in chains 
on the ledge of a rock so long as there are some good men in the world ; 
but when all laws are broken and all virtue and good vanish from it, 
then Ragnarok will be unbound and allowed to bring every imaginable 
evil and disaster on the doomed world. 

Ragon, J. M. A French Mason, a distinguuished writer and great 
symbologist, who tried to bring Masonry back to its pristine purity. He 
was born at Bruges in 1789, was received when quite a boy into the 
Lodge and Chapter of the "Vrais Amis", and upon removing to Paris 
founded the Society of the Trinosophes. It is rumoured that he was the 
possessor of a number of j^apers given to him by the famous Count de 
St. Germain, from which he had all his remarkable knowledge upon 
early Masonry. He died at Paris in 1866, leaving a quantity of books 
written by himself and masses of MSS., which were bequeathed by him 
to the "Grand Orient". Of the mass of his published works very few 
are obtainable, while others have entirely disappeared. This is due to 
mj^sterious persons (Jesuits, it is believed) who hastened to buy up 
every edition they could find after his death. In short, his works are 
now extremely rare. 

Rahasya (Sk.). A name of the Upanishads. Lit., secret essence of 
knowledge. 

Rahat. The same as "Arhat"; the adept who becomes entirely free 
from an,y desire on this plane, by acquiring divine knowledge and 
powers. 



GLOSSARY 255 

Ra'hmin Seth (Hch.). According to the Kahala, (or Qahhalah), the 
"soul-sparks", contained in Adam (Kadmon), went into three sources, 
the heads of which were his three sons. Thus, while the "soul spark" 
(or Ego) called Chesed went into Habel, and Geboor-ah into Qai-yin 
(Cain) — Ra'hmin went into Seth, and these three sons were divided into 
seventy human species called "the principal roots of the human race". 

Rahu (Sk.). A Daiiya (demon) whose lower parts were like a dra- 
gon's tail. He made himself immortal by robbing the gods of some 
Amrita — the elixir of divine life — for which they were churning the 
ocean of milk. Unable to deprive him of his immortality. Vishnu exiled 
him from the earth and made of him the constellation Draco, his head 
being called Rahu and his tail Ketu — astronomically, the ascending and 
descending nodes. With tlie latter appendage he has ever since waged a 
destructive war on the denouncers of his robbery, the sun and the moon, 
and (during the eclipse) is said to swallow them. Of course the fable 
has a mystic and occult meaning . 

Rahula (Sk.). The name of Gautama Buddha's son. 

Raibhyas (Sk.). A class of gods in the 5th Manvantara. 

Raivata Manvantara (Sk.). The life-cycle presided over by Raivata 
Maim. As he is the fifth of the fourteen Manus (in Esotercism, Dhijan 
Chohans), there being seven roo^Manus and seven sfccZ-Manus for the 
seven Rounds of our terrestrial chain of globes (See Esot. Buddhism by 
A. P. Sinnett. and the Secret Doctrine, Vol. I., "Brahminical Chronol- 
ogy"), Raivata presided over the third Round and was its roof-Manu. 

Raja (Sk.). A Prince or King in India. 

Rajagriha (Sk.). A city in Magadha famous for its conversion to 
Buddhism in the days of the Buddhist kings. It was their residence 
from Bimbisara to Asoka, and was the seat of the first Synod, or 
Buddhist Council, held 510 B.C. 

Rajarshis (Sk.). The King-Rishis or King-Adepts, one of the thre^e 
classes of Rishis in India ; the same as the King-Hierophants of ancient 
Kgypt. 

Rajas (Sk.). The "quality of foulness" {i.e., differentiation), and 
activity in the Purdnos. One of the three Gunas or divisions in the cor- 
relations of matter and nature, representing form and change. 

Rajasas (Sk.). The elder Agniskwattas — the Fire-Pitris, "fire" 
standing as a symbol of enlightenment and intellect. 

Raja- Yoga \Sk.). The true system of developing psychic and spirit- 
ual powers and union with one's Higher Self — or the Supreme Spirit, 
as the profane express it. The exercise, regulation and concentration of 
thought. Raja- Yoga is opposed to Hatha-Yoga, the physical or psycho- 
physiological training in asceticism. 

Raka (Sk.). The day of the full moon: a day for occult practices. 
Raksha (Sk.). An amulet prepared during the full or new moon. 



256 THEOSOPHICAL 

Rakshasas (Sk.). Lit., "raw eaters", and in the popular supersti- 
tion evil spirits, demons. Esoterically, however, they are the Gibhorim 
(giants) of the Bible, the Fourth Race or the Atlanteans. (See Secret 
Doctrine, II., 165.) 

Rakshasi-Bhasha (Sk.). Lit., the language of the Eakshasas. In 
reality, the speech of the Atlanteans, our gigantic forefathers of the 
fourth Root-race. 

Ram Mohum Roy (8k.). Tlie well-known Indian reformer who came 
to England in 1833 and died there. 

Rama (Sk.). The seventh avatar or incarnation of Vishnu; the 
eldest son of King Dasaratha, of the Solar Race. His full name is Rama- 
Chandra, and he is the hero of the Bdmdyana. He married Sita, who 
M'as the female avatar of Lakshmi, Vishnu's wife, and was carried away 
by Ravana the Demon-King of Lanka which act led to the famous war. 

Ramayana (Sk.). The famous epic poem collated with the Mahdbhd- 
rata. It looks as if this poem was either the original of the Iliad or 
vice vcrsd, except that in Rdmdyana the allies of Rama are monkeys, 
led by Hanuman, and monster birds and other animals, all of whom 
fight against the Rakshasas, or demons and giants of Lanka. 

Rasa (Sk.). The mystery-dance performed by Krishna and his Gopis, 
the shepherdesses, represented in a yearly festival to this day, especially 
in Rajastan. Astronomically it is Krishna — the Sun — around whom 
circle the planets and the signs of the Zodiac symbolised by the Gopis. 
The same as the "circle-dance" of the Amazons around the priapic 
image, and the dance of the daughters of Shiloh (Judges xxi.), and that 
of King David around the ark. (See Isis Unveiled, II., pp. 45, 331 and 
332.) 

Rashi (Sk.). An astrological division, the sixth, relating to Kanya 
(Virgo) the sixth sign in the Zodiac. 

Rashi-Chakra (Sk.). The Zodiac. 

Rasit (Heb.). Wisdom. 

Rasollasa (Sk.). The first of the eight physical perfections, or 
Siddhis (phenomena), of the Hatha Yogis. Rasollasa is the prompt 
evolution at ivill of the juices of the body independently of any nutri- 
ment from without. 

Rasshoo (Eg.). The solar fires formed in and out of the primordial 
"waters", or substance, of Space. 

Ratnavabhasa Kalpa (Sk.). The age in which all sexual difference 
will have ceased to exist and birth will take place in the Anupddaka 
mode, as in the second and third Root-races. Esoteric philosophy 
teaches that it will take place at the end of the sixth and during the 
seventh and last Root-race in this Round. 

Ratri (Sk.). Night; the body Brahma assumed for purposes of 
creating the Rakshasas or alleged giant-demons. 

Raumasa (Sk.). A class of devas (gods) said to have originated from 



GLOSSARY 257 

the pores of Verabhadra's skin. An allusion to the pre-Adamic race 
called the "sweat-born". (Seci'et Doctrine, Vol. II.) 

Ravail. The true name of the founder of modern Spiritism in France, 
who is better known under the pseudonym of Allan Kardec. 

Ravana (8k.). The King:-Demon (the Rakshasas), the Sovereign of 
Lanka (Ceylon), who carried away Sita, Rama's wife, which led to the 
jrreat war 'described in the lidmdijana. 

Ravi (8k.). A name of the Sun. 

Rechaka (8k.). A practice in Hatha Yoga, during the performance 
of Pranayama or the regulation of breath : namely, that of opening one 
nostril and emitting breath therefrom, and keeping the other closed ; 
one of the three operations respectively called Puraka, Kumbhaka and 
Ri'chaka — operations very pernicious to health. 

Red Colour. This has always been associated with male characteris- 
tics especially by the Etruscans and Hindoos. In Hebrew it is Adam, 
the same as the word for "earth" and "the first man". It seems that 
nearly all myths represent the first perfect man as white. The same 
word without the initial A is Dam or Dem, which means Blood, also of 
red colour, [w.w.w.] 

The colour of the fourth Principle in man — Kama, the seat of desires 
is represented red. 

Reincarnation. The doctrine of rebirth, belived in by Jesus and the 
Aj^ostles, as by all men in those days, but denied now by the Christians. 
All the Egyptian converts to Christianity, Church Fathers and others, 
believed in this doctrine, as shown by the writings of several. In the 
still existing symbols, the human-headed bird flying towards a mummy, 
a body, or "tlve soul uniting itself with its sahou (glorified body of the 
Ego, and also the kdmalokic shell) proves this belief. "The song of the 
Resurrection" chanted by Isis to recall her dead husband to life, might 
be translated "Song of Rebirth", as Osiris is collective Humanity. "Oh! 
Osiris [here follows the name of the Osirified mummy, or the departed] , 
rise again in holy earth (matter), august mummy in the coffin, under 
thy corporeal substances", was the funeral prayer of the priest over the 
deceased. "Resurrection" with the Egyptians never meant the resur- 
rection of the mutilated mummy, but of the Soul that informed it, the 
Ego in a new body. The putting on of flesh periodically ny the Soul or 
the Ego, was a universal belief ; nor can anything be more consonant 
with justice and Karmic law. (See "Pre-existence".) 

Rekh-get-Amen (Eg.). The name of the priests, hierophants, and 
teachers of Magic who, according to Lenormant, Maspero, the Cham- 
I)ollions, etc., etc., "could levitate, Avalk the air, live under water, sus- 
tain great pressure, harmlessl}- suff'er mutilation, read the past, foretell 
the future, make themselves invisible, and cure diseases" (Bonwick. 
Religion of Magic). And the same author adds: "Admission to the 
mysteries did not confer magical powers. These depended upon two 



258 THEOSO?HICAL 

things : the possession of innate capacities, and the knowedge of certain 
formulffi employed under suitable circumstances". Just the same as it 
is now. 

Rephaim (Heh.). Spectres, phantoms. (Secret Doctrine, II., 279.) 
Resha-havurah (Hel., Kab.). Lit., the "White Head", from which 
flows the fiery fluid of life and intelligence in three hundred and seventy 
streams, in all the directions of the Universe. The "White Head" is the 
first Sephira, the Crown, or first active light. 

Reuchlin, John. Nicknamed the "Fatlier of the Reformation"; the 
friend of Pico di Mirandola, the teacher and instructor of Erasmus, of 
Luther and Melancthon. He was a great Kabbalist and Occultist. 

Rig Veda (8k.). The first and most important of the four Veda^. 
Fabled tohave been "created" from the Eastern mouth of Brahma; 
recorded in Occultism as having been delivered by great sages on 
Lake Man(a)saravara beyond the Himalayas, dozens of thousands of 
years ago. 

Rik (8k.). A verse of Rig-Veda. 

Riksha (8k.). Each of the twenty-seven constellations forming the 
Zodiac. Any fixed star, or constellation of stars. 

Rimmon (Heh.). A Pomegranate, the type of abundant fertility; oc- 
curs in the Old Testament ; it figures in Syrian temples and was deified 
there, as an emblem of the celestial prolific mother of all ; also a type of 
the full womb, [w.w.w.] 

Rings, Magic. These existed as talismans in every folk-lore. In 
Scandinavia sucli rings are always connected with the elves and dwarfs 
who were alleged to be the possessors of talismans and who gave them 
occasionally to human beings whom they wished to protect. In the 
words of the chronicler: "These magic rings brought good luck to the 
owner so long as they were carefully preserved ; but their loss was 
attended with terrible misfortunes and unspeakable misery". 

Rings and Rounds. Terms employed by Theosophists in explana- 
tion of Eastern cosmogony. They are used to denote the various evolu- 
tionary cycles in the Elemental, Mineral, &c., Kingdoms, througli 
which the Monad passes on any one globe, the term Round being used 
only to denote the cyclic passage of the Monad round the complete chain 
of seven globes. Generally speaking, Theosophists use the term ring as 
a synonym of cycles, whether cosmic, geological, metaphysical or any 
other. 

Riphaeus (Gr.). In mythology a mountain chain upon which slept 
the frozen-hearted god of snows and hurricanes. In Esoteric philosophy 
a real prehistoric continent which from a tropical ever sunlit land has 
now become a desolate region beyond the Arctic Circle. 

Rishabha (Sk.). A sage supposed to have been the first teacher of 
the Jain doctrines in India. 

Rishabham (8k.). The Zodiacal sign Taurus. 



GLOSSARY 259 

Rishi-Prajapati (Sk.). Lit., "revealers", holy sages in the religious 
history of Ai'yavarta. Esoterieally the highest of them are the Hier- 
archies of "Builders" and Architects of the Universe and of living 
things on earth ; they are generally called Dj-han Chohans, Devas and 
gods. 

Rishis (Sk.). Adepts; the inspired ones. In Vedic literature the term 
is employed to denote tlioso persons through whom the various Mantras 
were revealed. 

Ri-thlen. Lit.^ "snake-keeping". It is a terrible kind of sorcery 
practised at Cherrapoonjee in the Khasi-Hills. The former is the an- 
cient capital of the latter. As the legend tells us : ages ago a thlen 
(serpent-dragon) whicli inhabited a cavern and devoured men and 
cattle was put to death by a local St. George, and cut to pieces, levery 
piece being sent out to a diflPerent district to be burnt. But the piece 
received by tlve Khasis was preserved by them and became a kind of 
household god, and their descendants developed into Ri-thlens or "snake- 
keepers", for the piece they preserved grew into a dragon (thlcn) and 
ever since has obsessed certain Brahmin families of that district. To 
acquire the good grace of their thlcn and save their own lives, these 
"keepers" have often to commit murders of women and children, from 
whose bodies they cut out the toe and finger nails, which they bring to 
their thlen, and thus indulge in a number of black magic practices con- 
nected with sorcery and necromancy. 

Roger Bacon. A very famous Franciscan monk who lived in Eng- 
land in the thirteenth century. He was an Alchemist who firmly be- 
lieved in the existence of the Philosopher's Stone, and was a great mech- 
anician, chemist, physicist and astrologer. In his treatise on the Ad- 
mirahle Force of Art and Nature, he gives hints about gunpowder and 
predicts the use of steam as a propelling power, describing besides the 
hydraulic press, the diving-bell and the kaleidoscope. He also made a 
famous brazen liead fitted witli an acoustic apparatus which gave out 
oracles. 

Ro and Ru (Eg.). The gate or outlet, the spot in the lieavens whence 
])roeeeded or was born primeval liglit; synonymous witli "cosmic 
womb". 

Rohinila (Sk.). The ancient name of a monastery visited b}- Buddha 
Sakyamuni, now called Royuallah, near Balgada, in Eastern Behar. 

Rohit (Sk.). A female deer, a hind; the form assumed by Vach (the 
female Logos and female aspect of Brahma, who created her out of one 
half of his body) to escape the amorous pursuits of hei* "father", who 
transformed himself for that purpose into a buck or red deer (the colour 
of Brahma being red). 

Rohitaka Stupa (Sk.). The "red stupa", or dagoba, built by King 
Asoka, and on which Maitribala-raja fed starving Yakshas with his 
blood. The Yakshas are inoffensive demons (Elementaries) called 
pynya-janas or "good people". 



260 THEOSOPHICAL 

Rosicrucians (Mys.). The name was first given to the disciples of a 
learned Adept named Christian Rosenkreuz, who flourished in Germany, 
circa 1460. He founded an Order of mystical students whose early 
history is to be found in the German work, Fama Fraternitatis (1614), 
which has been published in several languages. The members of the 
Order maintained their secrecy, but traces of them have oeen found in 
various places every half century since these dates. The Societas 
Rosicrucians in Anglia is a Masonic Order, which has adopted member- 
ship in the ''outer"; the Chabrath Zereh Aur Bother, or Order of the 
G. D., which has a very complete scheme of initiation into the Kabbalali 
and the Higher Magic of the Western or Hermetic type, and admits botli 
sexes, is a direct descendant from mediaeval sodalities of Rosicrucians, 
themselves descended from the Egyptian Mysteries, [w.w.w.] 

Rostan. Book of the Mysteries of Rostan ; an occult work in jiianu- 
script. 

Rowhanee (Eg.), or Er-Roohanec. Is the Magic of modern Egypt, 
supposed to proceed from Angels and Spirits, that is Genii, and by the 
use of the mystery names of Allah; they distinguish two forms — llwee, 
that is the Higher or White Magic ; and Suflee and Sheytanee, the 
Lower or Black Demoniac Magic. There is also Es-Seemuja, which is 
deception or conjuring. Opinions difi^er as to the importance of a branch 
of Magic called Darb el Mendel, or as Barker calls it in English, the 
Mendal : by this is meant a form of artificial clairvoyance, exhibited by 
a young boy before puberty, or a virgin, who, as the result of self-fascina- 
tion by gazing on a pool of ink in the hand, with coincident use of incense 
and incantation, sees certain scenes of real life passing over its surface. 
Manj^ Eastern travellers have narrated instances as E. AV. Lane in his 
Modern Egyptians and his Thousand and One Nights, and E. B. Barker ; 
the incidents have been introduced also into many works of fiction, sucli 
as Marryat's Phantom Ship, and a similar idea is interwoven with the 
story of Rose Mary and the Beryl stone, a poem by Rossetti. For a 
superficial attempt at explanation, see the Quarterly Review, No. 117. 
[w.w.w.] 

Ruach (Heh.). Air, also Spirit; the Spirit, one of the "human prin- 
ciples" (Buddha-Manas). 

Ruach Elohim (Heh.). The Spirit of the gods; corresponds to the 
Holy Ghost of the Christians. Also the wind, breath and rushing water, 
[w.w.w.] 

Rudra (Sk.). A title of Siva, the Destroyer. 

Rudras (Sk.): The mighty ones; the lords of the three upper worlds. 
One of the classes of the "fallen" or incarnating spirits; they are all 
born of Brahma. 

Runes (Scand.). The Runic language and characters are the mystery 
or sacerdotal tongue and alphabet of the ancient Scandinavians. Runes 
are derived from the word runa (secret). Therefore both language and 
character could neither be understood nor interpreted without having 



GLOSSARY 261 

the key to it. Heiiee while the written runes consisting of sixteen letters 
are known, the ancient ones composed of marks and signs are inde- 
cipherable. They are called the magic characters. "It is clear", says 
E. W. Anson, an authority on the folk-lore of the Norsemen, "that the 
runes were from various causes regarded even in Germany proper as 
full of mystery and endowed with supernatural power". They are 
said to have been invented by Odin. 

Rupa (8k.). Body; any form, applied even to the forms of the gods, 
which are subjective to us. 

Ruta (Sk.). The name of one of the last islands of Atlantis, which 
perished ages before Foseidonis, the "Atlantis" of Plato. 

Rutas (Sk.). An ancient people that inhabited the above island or 
continent in tlie Pacific Ocean. 



262 THEOSOPHICAL 



s. 

Q 

*^' — The nineteenth letter; numerically, sixty. In Hebrew it is the 
fifteenth letter, Saniech, held as holy because ' ' the sacred name of god is 
Samech". Its symbol is a prop, or a pillar, and a phallic egg. In occult 
geometry it is represented as a circle quadrated by a cross. In the 
Kablalah the "divisions of Gan-Eden or paradise" are similarly 
divided. 

Sa or Hea (Chald.). The synthesis of the seven Gods in Babylonian 
mythology. 

Sabalaswas (Sk.). Sons of Daksha (Secret Doctrine, II., 275). 
Sabao (Gr.). The Gnostic name of the genius of Mars. 
Sabaoth (Heh.). An army or host from Saba^ — to go to war; hence 
the name of the fighting god — the "Lord of Sabaoth". 

Sabda (Sk.). The Word, or Logos. 

Sabda Brahmam (Sk.). "The Unmanifested Logos." The Vedas; 
"Ethereal Vibrations diffused throughout Space". 

Sabha (Sk.). An assembly; a place for meetings, social or political. 
Also MaMsabha, "the bundle of wonderful (mayavie or illusionary) 
things" the gift of Mayasur to the Pandavas (Mahdhhdrata.) 

Sabianism. The religion of the ancient Chaldees. The latter believ- 
ing in one impersonal, universal, deific Principle, never mentioned It, 
but offered worship to the solar, lunar, and planetary gods and rulers, 
regarding the stars and other celestial bodies as their respective symbols. 

Sabians. Astrolaters, so called; those who worshipped the stars, or 
rather their "regents". (See "Sabianism".) 

Sacha Kiriya (Sk.). A power with the Buddhists alcin to a magic 
mautram with the Brahmans. It is a miraculous energy which can be 
exercised by any adept, whether priest or layman, and "most efficient 
when accompanied by bhmvand" (meditation). It consists in a recita- 
tion of one's "acts of merit done either in this or some former birth" — 
as the Rev. Mr. Hardy thinks and puts it, but in reality it depends on 
the intensity of one's will, added to an absolute faith in one's own 
powers, whether of yoga — willing— or of prayer, as in the case of Mus- 
sulmans and Christians. Sacha means "true", and Kiriyang, "action". 
It is the power of merit, or of a saintly life. 

Sacrarium (Lai.). The name of the room in the houses of the ancient 
Romans, which contained the particular deity worshipped by the family ; 
also the adytum of a temple. 



GLOSSARY 263 

Sacred Heart. In E<^ypt, of Horns; in Baljylon, of tlie god Bel; and 
the lacerated lieart of Bacchus in Greece and elsewhere. Its symbol 
was tlie pcrsea. The pear-like shape of its fruit, and of its kernel espe- 
cially, resembles the heart in form. It is sometimes seen on the head 
of Isis, the mother of Horus, the fruit being cut open and the heart-like 
kernel exposed to full view. The Roman Catholics have since adopted 
the worship of the "sacred heart" of Jesus and of the Virgin Mary. 

Sacred Science. The name given to the inner esoteric philosophy, the 
.secrets taught in days of old to the initiated candidates, and divulged 
during the last and supreme Initiation by the Hierophants. 

Sadaikarupa (Sk.). The essence of the immutable nature. 

Sadducees. A sect, the followers of one Zadok. a disciple of Anti- 
gonus Saccho. They are accused of having denied the immortality of 
the (personal) soul and that of the resurrection of the (physical and 
])ersonal) body. Even so do the Theosophists ; though they deny neither 
the immortality- of the Ego nor the resurrection of all its numerous and 
successive lives, which survive in the memory of the Ego. But together 
with the Sadducees — a sect of learned philosophers who were to all the 
other Jews that which the polished and learned Gnostics were to the 
rest of the Greeks during the early centuries of our era — we certainly 
deny the immortality of tlie animal soul and the resurrection of the 
physical body. The Sadducees were the scientists and the learned men 
of Jerusalem, and held the highest offices, such as of high priests and 
judges, while tlie Pharisees were almost from^first to last the Pecksniffs 
of Judfea. 

Sadhyas (Sk.). One of the names of the "twelve great gods" created 
by Brahma. Kosmic gods; lit., "divine saerifieers". The Sadhyas are 
important in Occultism. 

Sadik. The same as the Biblical Melchizedec, identified by the mystic 
Bible-worshippers with Jehovah, and Jesus Christ. But Father Sadik 's 
identity with Noah being proven, he can be further identified with 
Kronos-Saturn. 

Safekh (Eg.). Written also Schek and Selakh, god of darkness and 
night, with the crocodile for his emblem. In the Typhonic legend and 
transformation lie is the same as Typhon. He is connected with both 
Osiris and Horus, and is their great enemy on earth. We find him often 
called the "triple crocodile". In astronomy he is the same as Makara 
or Capricorn, the most mystical of the signs of the Zodiac. 

Saga (Scand.). The goddess "who sings of the deeds of gods and 
heroes", and to whom the black ravens of Odin reveal the history of the 
Past and of the Future in the Norsemen's Edda. 

Sagara (Sk.). Lit., "the Ocean"; a king, the father of 60,000 sons, 
who, for disrespect shown to the sage Kapila, were reduced to ashes by 
a single glance of his eye. 

Sagardagan. One of the four paths to Nirvana. 



264 THEOSOPHICAL 

Saha (Sk.). "The world of suffering"; any inhabited world in the 



ehilio-cosmos. 



Sahampati (Sk.). Maha or Parabrahm. 

Saharaksha (Sk.). The fire of the Asuras; the name of a son of 
Pavamana, one of the three chief occult fires. 

Saint Martin, Louis Claude de. Born in France (Amboise), in 1743. 
A great mystic and writer, who pursued his philosophical and theosophi- 
cal studies at Paris, during the Revolution. He was an ardent disciple 
of Jacob Boehme, and studied under Martinez Paschalis, finally founding 
a mystical semi-Masonic Lodge, ''the Rectified Rite of St. Martin", with 
seven degrees. He was a true Theosophist. At the present moment 
some ambitious charlatans in Paris are caricaturing him and passing 
themselves off as initiated Martinists, and thus dishonouring the name of 
the late Adept. 

Sals (Eg.). The place where the celebrated temple of Isis-Neith 
was found, wherein was the ever-veiled statue of Neith (Neith and Isis 
being interchangeable), with the famous inscription, "I am all that has 
been, and is, and shall be, and my peplum no mortal has withdrawn". 
(See "Sirius".) 

Saka (Sk.). Lit., "the One", or the Eka; used of the "Dragon of 
Wisdom" or the manifesting deities, taken collectively. 

Saka (Sk.). According to the Orientalists the same as the classical 
Saccp. It is during the reign of their King Yudishtira that the Kali Yuga 
began. 

Saka Dwipa (Sk.). One of the seven islands or continents mentioned 
in the Purduas (ancient works). 

Sakkayaditthi. Delusion of personality; the erroneous idea that "7 
am I", a man or a woman with a special name, instead of being an 
inseparable part of the whole. 

Sakradagamin (Sk.). Lit., "he who will receive birtli (only) once 
more ' ' before Nirvana is reached by him ; he who has entered the second 
of the four paths which lead to Nirvana and has almost reached per- 
fection. 

Sakshi (Sk.). The name of the hare, who in the legend of the "moon 
and the hare" threw himself into the fire to save some starving pilgrims 
who would not kill him. For this sacrifice Indra is said to have trans- 
ferred him to the centre of the moon. 

Sakti (Sk.). The active female energy of the gods; in popular Hin- 
duism, their wives and goddesses ; in Occultism, the crown of the astral 
light. Force and the six forces of nature synthesized. Universal Energy. 

Sakti-Dhara (Sk.). Lit., the "Spear-holder", a title given to Karti- 
keya for killing Taraka, a Daitya or giant-demon. The latter, demon 
though he was, seems to have been such a great Yogin, owing to his 
religious austerities and holiness, that he made all the gods tremble 
before him. This makes of Kartikeya, the war god, a kind of St. Michael. 



GLOSSARY 265 

Sakwala. This is a hana or "word" uttered by Gautama Buddha 
in his oral instructions. Sakwala is a mundane, or rather a solar system, 
of which there is an indefinite number in the universe, and which denotes 
that space to which the light of every sun extends. Each Sakwala con- 
tains earths, hells and heavens (meaning good and bad spheres, our 
earth being considered as hell, in Occultism) ; attains its prime, then 
falls into decay and is finally destroyed at regularly recuiTing periods, 
in virtue of one immutable law. Upon the earth, the Master taught 
that there have been already four great "continents" (the Land of the 
Gods, Lemuria, Atlantis, and the present "continent" divided into five 
parts of the Secret Doctrine), and that three more have to appear. The 
former "did not co7\imunicate with each other", a sentence showing that 
Buddha was not speaking of the actual continents known in his day (for 
Pdtdla or America was perfectly familiar to the ancient Hindus), but 
of the four geological formations of the earth, with their four distinct 
roo^-races which had already disappeared* 

Sakya (Sk.). A patronymic of Gautama Buddha. 

Sakyamuni Buddha (Sk.). A name of the founder of Buddhism, the 
great Sage, the Lord Gautama. 

Salamanders. The Rosicrucian name for the Elementals of Fire. The 
animal, as well as its name, is of most occult significance, and is widely 
used in poetry. The name is almost identical in all languages. Thus, 
in Greek, Latin, French, Spanish, Italian, etc., it is Salamandra, in 
Persian Samandcl, and in Sanskrit Salamandala. 

Salmali (Sk.). One of the seven zones; also a kind of tree. 

Sama (Sk.). One of the Ihava pushpas, or "flowers of sanctity". 
Sama is the fifth, or "resignation". There are eight such flowers, 
namely: clemency or charity, self-restraint, affection (or love for others), 
patience, resignation, devotion, meditation and veracity. Sama is also 
the repression of any mental perturbation. 

Sama Veda (Sk.). Lit., "the Scripture, or Shdstra, of peace". One 
of the four Vedas. 

Samadhana (Sk.). That state in which a Yogi can no longer diverge 
from the path of spiritual progress ; when everything terrestrial, except 
the visible body, has ceased to exist for him. 

Samadhi (Sk.). A state of ecstatic and complete trance. The term 
comes from the words Sam-ddha, "self-possession". He who possesses 
this power .is able to exercise an absolute control over all his faculties, 
physical or mental; it is the highest state of Yoga. 

Samadhindriya (Sk.). Lit., "the root of concentration " ; the fourth 
of the five roots called Pancha Indriyani, which are said in esoteric 
philosophy to be the agents in producing a highly moral life, leading 
to sanctity and liberation ; when these are reached, the two spiritual roots 
lying latent in the body (Atma and Buddhi) will send out shoots and 
blossom. Samddhindriija is the organ of ecstatic meditation in Raj-yoga 
practices. 



266 THEOSOPHICAL 

Samael (Heh.). The Kabbalistic title of the Prince of those evil 
spirits who represent incarnations of human vices; the angel of Death. 
From this the idea of Satan has been evolved, [w.w.w.] 

Samajna (8k.). Lit., "an enlightened (or luminous) Sage". Trans- 
lated verbally, Samgharana Samajna, the famous Vihai-a near Kustana 
(China), means "the monastery of the luminous Sage". 

Samana (Sk.). One of the five breaths (Prdnas) which carry on the 
chemical action in the animal body. 

Samanera. A novice ; a postulant for the Buddhist priesthood. 

Samanta Bhadra (Sk.). Lit., "Universal Sage". The name of one 
of the four Bodhisattvas of the Yogacharya School, of the Mahayana 
(the Great Vehicle) of Wisdom of that system. There are four ter- 
restrial and three celestial Bodhisattvas : the first four only act in the 
present races, but in the middle of the fifth Root-race appeared the fifth 
Bodhisattva, who, according tq^n esoteric legend, was Gautama Buddha, 
but who, having appeared too early, had to disappear bodily from the 
world for a while. 

Samanta Prabhasa (Sk.). Lit., "universal brightness" or dazzling 
light. The name under which each of the 500 perfected Arhats re- 
appears on earth as Buddha. 

Samanya (Sk.). Community, or commingling of qualities, an abstract 
notion of genus, such as humanity. 

Samapatti (Sk.). Absolute concentration in Raja- Yoga; the process 
of development by which perfect indifference (Sams) is reached 
(apatti). This state is the last stage of development before the possi- 
bility of entering into Samadhi is reached. 

Samaya (Sk.). A religious precept, 

S'ambhala (Sk.). A very mysterious locality on account of its future 
associations. A town or village mentioned in the Purdnas, whence, it is 
prophesied, the Kalki Avatar will appear. The "Kalki" in Vishnu, the 
Messiah on the White Horse of the Brahmins; Maitreya Buddha of the 
Buddhists, Sosiosh of the Parsis, and Jesus of the Christians (See 
Revelations). All these "messengers" are to appear "before the 
destruction of the world", says tlie one ; before the end of Kali Yuga say 
the others. It is in S'ambhala that the future Messiah will be born. 
Some Orientalists make inodern Muradabad in Rohilkhand (N.W.P.) 
identical with S'ambhala, while Occultism places it in tlie .Himalayas. 
It is pronounced Shamhhala. 

Sambhogakaya (Sk.). One of the three "Vestures" of glory, or 
bodies, obtained by ascetics on the "Path". Some sects hold it as the 
second, while others as the third of the Buddhakshetras, or forms of 
Buddha. Lit., the "Body of Compensation" (See Voice of the Silence, 
Glossary iii). Of such Buddhakshetras there are seven, those of 
Nirmanakaya, Sambhogakaya and Dharmakaya, belonging to the 
Trikdya, or three-fold quality. 



\ 



GLOSSARY 267 

Samgha (Sk.). The corporate assembly, or a quorum of priests; called 
also Bhikshu Samgha; the word "church" used in translation does not 
at all express the real meaning. 

Samkhara (Pali). One of the five SkandJias or attributes in Buddhism. 
Samkhara (Pali). "Tendencies of mind" (See "Skandhas"). 
Samma Sambuddha (Pali). The recollection of all of one's past 
incarnations ; a yoga phenomenon. 

Samma Sambuddha (Pali). A title of the Lord Buddha, the "Lord 
of meekness and resignation"; it means "perfect illumination". 

Samothrace (Gr.). An island famous for its Mysteries, perhaps the 
oldest ever established in our present race. The Samothracian Mysteries 
were renowned all over the world. 

Samothraces (Gr.). A designation of the Five gods worshipped at the 
island of that name during the Mysteries. They are considered as iden- 
tical with the Cabeiri, Dioscuri and Corybantes. Their names were 
mystical, denoting Pluto, Ceres or Proserpine, Bacchus and ^sculapms, 
or Hermes. 

Sampajnana (Sk.). A power of internal illumination. 
Samskara (Sk.). Lit., from Sam and Kri, to improve, refine, impress. 
In Hindu philosophy the term is used to denote the impressions left upon 
the mind by individual actions or external circumstances, and capable of 
being developed on any future favourable occasion — even in a future 
birth. The Samskara denotes, therefore, the germs of propensities and 
impulses from previous births to be developed in this, or the coming 
ja7imds or reincarnations. In Tibet, Samskara is called Doodyed and in 
China is defined as, or at least connected with, action or Karma. It is, 
strictly speaking, a metaphysical term, which in exoteric philosophies is 
variously defined ; e.g., in Nepaul as illusion, in Tibet as notion, and in 
Ceylon as discrimination. The true meaning is as given above, and as 
such is connected with Karma and its working. 

Samtan (Tib.). The same as Dhyana or meditation. 
Samvara (Sk.). A deity worshipped by the Tantrikas. 
Samvarta (Sk.). A minor Kalpa. A period in creation after which 
a partial annihilation of the world occurs. 

Samvartta Kalpa (Sk.). The Kalpa or period of destruction, the 
same as Pralaya. Every root-race and sub-race is subject to such 
Kalpas of destruction; the fifth root-race having sixty-four such cata- 
clysms periodically ; namely : fifty-six by fire, seven by water, and one 
small Kalpa by winds or cyclones. 

Samvat (Sk.). The name of an Indian chronological era, supposed to 
have commenced fifty-seven years B.C. 

Samvriti (Sk.). False conception— the origin of illusion. 



268 THEOSOPHICAL 

Samvritisatya (Sk.). Truth mixed with false conceptions (Samvriti) ; 
the reverse of absolute truth — or Paramdrthasatya, self-consciousness in 
absolute truth or reality. 

Samyagajiva (Sk.). Mendicancy for religious purposes: the correct 
profession. It is the fourth Marga (path), the vow of poverty, obliga- 
tory on every Arhat and monk. 

Samyagdrishti (Sk.). The ability to discuss truth. The first of tlie 
eight Margas (paths) of the ascetic. 

Samyakkarmanta (Sk.). The last of the eight Margas. Strict purity 
and observance of lionestj', disinterestedness and unselfishness, the char- 
acteristic of every Arhat. 

Samyaksamadhi (Sk.). Absolute mental coma. The sixth of the eight 
Margas ; the full attainment of Samadhi. 

Samyaksambuddha (Sk.). or Sammdsamhuddha, as pronounced in 
Ceylon. Lit., the Buddha of correct and harmonious knowledge, and 
the third of the ten titles of Sakyamuni. 

Samyattaka Nikaya (Pali). A Buddliist work composed mostly of 
dialogues between Buddha and his disciples. 

Sana (Sk.). One of the three esoteric Kumaras, whose names are 
Sana, Kapila and Sanatsujata, the mysterious triad which contains the 
mystery of generation and reincarnation. 

Sana or Sanaischara (Sk.). The same as Sani or Saturn the planet. 
In the Hindu Pantheon he is the son of Surya, the Sun, and of Sanjua, 
Spiritual Consciousness, who is the daughter of Visva-Karman, or rather 
of Chhaya, the shadow left behind by Sanjna. Sanaischara, the "slow- 
moving". 

Sanaka (Sk.). A sacred plant, the fibres of which are woven into 
yellow robes for Buddhist priests. 

Sanat Kumara (Sk.) The most prominent of the seven Kumaras, 
the Vaidhatra, the first of which are called Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatana, 
and Sanat Kumara; which names are all significant qualifications of the 
degrees of human intellect. 

Sanat Sujatiya (Sk.). A work treating of Krishna's teachings, such 
as in Bhagavad GUd and Anugita. 

Sancha-Dwipa (Sk.). One of the seven great islands Sapta-Dwipa. 

Sanchoniathon (Gr.). A pre-christian writer on Phoenician Cos- 
mogony, whose works are no longer extant. Philo Byblus gives only the 
so-called fragments of Sanchoniathon. 

Sandalphon (Heh.). The Kabbalistic Prince of Angels, emblemati- 
cally represented by one of the Cherubim of the Ark. 

Sandhya (Sk.). A period between two Yugas, morning-evening: 
anything coming between and joining two others. Lit., "twilight"; thfi 
period between a full Manvantara, or a "Dav", and a full Pralaya or a 
"Night" of "Brahma". 



\ 

\ 



GLOSSARY 269 

Sandhyamsa (Sk.). A period following? a Yuga. 

Sanghai Dag-po (Tib.). The "concealed Lord"; a title of those who 
have merged into, and identified themselves with, the Absolute. Used of 
the "Nirvanees" and the " Jivanmuktas". 

Sangye Khado (8k.). The Queen of the Khado or female genii: the 
Ddkini of the Hindus and the Lilith of the Hebrews. 

Sanjna (Sk.). Spiritual Consciousness. The wife of Surya, the Sun. 

Sankara (Sk.). The name of Siva. Also a great Vedantic philos- 
opher. 

Sankhya (Sk.). The system of philosophy founded by Kapila Rishi, 
a system of analytical metaphysics, and one of the six Darshanas or 
schools of philosophy. It discourses on numerical categories and the 
meaning of the twenty-five tativas (the forces of nature in various de- 
grees). This "atomistic school", as some call it, explains nature by the 
inter-action of twenty-four elements with purusha (spirit) modified by 
the three gunas (qualities), teaching the eternity of pradhdna (primor- 
dial, homogeneous matter), or tlie self-transformation of nature and the 
eternity of tlie human Egos. 

Sankhya Karika (Sk.). A work by Kapila, containing his aphorisms. 

Sankhya Yoga (Sk.). The system of Yoga as set forth by the above 
scliool. 

Sanna (Ftdi.). One of the five Skaudhas, namely the attribute of 
abstract ideas. 

Sannyasi (Sk.). A Hindu ascetic who has reached the highest mystic 
knowledge ; whose mind is fixed onh' upon the supreme truth, and who 
has entirely renounced everything terrestrial and worldly. 

Sansara (Sk.). Lit., "rotation"; the ocean of births and deaths. 
Human rebirths represented as a continuous circle, a wheel ever in 
motion. 

Sanskrit (Sk.). The classical language of the Brahmans, never 
known nor spoken in its true systematized form (given later approxi- 
mately by Panini), except by the initiated Brahmans, as it was pre- 
eminently "a mystery language". It has now degenerated into the 
so-called Prakrita. 

Santa (Sk.). Lit., "placidity". The primeval quality of the latent, 
undiff'erentiated state of elementary' matter. 

Santatih (Sk.). The "offspring." 

Saphar (Heh.). Sepharim; one of those called in the Kabbalah — 
Sepher, Saphar and Sipur, or "Number, Numbers and Numbered", by 
whose agency the world was formed. 

Sapta (Sk.). Seven. 

Sapta Buddhaka (Sk.). An account in Mahdniddna Sutra of Sapta 
Buddha, the seven Buddhas of our Round, of which Gautama Sakyamuni 
is esoterically the fifth, and exoterically, as a blind, the seventh. 



270 THEOSOPHICAL 

Sapta Samudra (Sk.). The "seven oceans". These have an occult 
significance on a higher plane. 

Sapta Sindhava (8k.). The "seven sacred rivers". A Vedic term. 
In Zend works they are called Hapta Heando. These rivers are closely 
united with the 'esoteric teachings of the Eastern schools, having a very 
occult significance. 

Sapta Tathagata (Sk.). The chief seven Nirmdnakdyas among the 
numberless ancient world-guardians. Their names are inscribed on a 
heptagonal pillar kept in a secret chamber in almost all Buddhist temples 
in China and Tibet. The Orientalists are wrong in thinking that these 
are "the seven Buddhist substitutes for the Rishis of the Brahmans." 
(See "Tathagata-gupta"). 

Saptadwipa (Sk.). The seven sacred islands or "continents" in the 
Pur anas. 

Saptaloka (Sk.). The seven higher regions, beginning from the earth 
upwards. 

Saptaparna (Sk.). The "sevenfold". A plant which gave its name 
to a famous cave, a Vihdra, in Rajagriha, now near Buddhagaya, where 
the Lord Buddha used to meditate and teach his Arhats, and where 
after his death the first Synod was held. This cave had seven chambers, 
whence the name. In Esotericism Saptaparna is the symbol of thti 
"sevenfold Man-Plant". 

Saptarshi (Sk.). The seven Rishis. As stars they are the constella- 
tion of the Great Bear, and called as such the Riksha and Chitrasik- 
handinas, bright-crested. 

Sar or Saros (Chald.). A Chaldean god from whose name, represented 
by a circular horizon the Greeks borrowed their word Saros, the cycle. 

Sarama (Sk.). In the Vedas, the dog of Indra and mother of the two 
dogs called Sarameyas. Sarama is the "divine watchman" of the god 
and the same as he who watched "over the golden flock of stars and 
solar rays"; the same as Mercury, the planet, and the Greek Hermes, 
called Sarameyas. 

Saraph (Heh.). A flying serpent. 

Sarasvati (Sk.). The same as Vach, wife and daughter of Brahma, 
produced from one of the two halves of his body. She is the goddess of 
speech and of sacred or esoteric knowledge and wisdom. Also called Sri. 

Sarcophagus (Gr.). A stone tomb, a receptacle for the dead; sarc= 
flesh, and phagein=^to eat. Lapis assius, the stone of which the sarco- 
phagi were made, is found in Lycia, and has the property of consuming 
the bodies in a very few weeks. In Egypt sarcophagi were made of 
various other stones, of black basalt, red granite, alabaster and other 
materials, as they served only as outward receptacles for the wooden 
colons containing the mummies. The epitaphs on some of them are as 
remarkable as they are highly ethical, and no Christian could wish for 
anything better. One epitaph, dating thousands of years before the 



GLOSSARY 



271 



year one of our inoderu era, reads:— "I have giveu Avater to him who 
was thirsty and clothing to liim who was naked. I have done harm to 
no man." Another: "I have done actions desired by men and those 
which are commanded by the gods". The beauty of some of these tombs 
may be judged by the ahibaster sarcophagus of Oimenephthah I., at Sir 
John Soane's Museum, Lincoln's Inn. "It was cut out of a single block 
of fine alabaster stone, and is 9 ft. 4 in. long, by 22 to 24 in. in width 
and 27 to 32 in. in height. . . . Engraved dots, etc., outside were 
once tilled with blue copper to represent the heavens. To attempt a de- 
scription of the wonderful figures inside and out is bevond the scope of 
this work. jVIuch of our knowledge of the mythologv of the people is 
derived from this precious monument, with its hundreds of figures to 
illustrate tlie last judgment, and the life beyond the grave. Gods, men, 
serpents, symbolical animals and plants are there most beautifully 
carved." (Fioirral Riics of the Egijptians.) 

Sargon (Chahl). A Babylonian king. Tlie story is now found to 
have been the original of Moses and the ark of bulruslies in the Nile. 
Sarira .(Sk.). Envelope or body. 

Sarisripa (Sk.). Serpents, crawling insects, reptiles, "the infinite- 
si lually small", 

Sarku (Chald.). Lit., the light race; that of the gods in contradis- 
tinction to the dark race called zahmat gagnadi, or the race that fell, ie , 
mortal men. 

Sarpas (Sk.). Serpents, whose king was Sesha, the serpent, or rather 
an aspect of Vishnu, who reigned in Patala. 

Sarpa-rajni (Sk.). The queen of the serpents in the Brdhmanas. 

Sarva Mandala (Sk.). A name for the "Egg of Brahma". 

Sarvada (Sk.). Lit., "all-sacrificing". A title of Buddha, who in 
a former Sataka (birth) sacrificed his kingdom, liberty, and even life to 
save orliers. ' 

Sarvaga (Sk.). The supreme "World-Substance". 

Sarvatma (Sk.). The supreme Soul; the all-pervading Spirit. 

Sarvesha (Sk.). Supreme Being. Controller of everv action and 
force in the universe. 

Sat (Sk.). The one ever-present Keality in the infinite world; the 
divme essence wliich is, but cannot be said to exist, as it is Absoluteness 
Be-ness itself. ' 

Sata rupa (Sk.). The "hundred-formed one"; applied to Vach, who 
to be the female Brahma assumes a hundred forms, i.e., Nature. 

Sati (Eg.). Tlie triadie goddess, witli Aiiouki of the Egyptian god 
Klinoum. 

Satta (Sk.). The "one and sole Existence "—Brahma (neut.). 



272 THEOSOPHICAX, 

Satti or Sutitec, (Sk.). The burning of living widows together with 
their dead husbands — a custom now happily abolished in India; lit., 
"a chaste and devoted wife". 

Sattva (Sk.). Understanding; quiescence in divine knowledge. It 
follows generally the word Bodhi when used as a compound word, e.g., 
"Bodhisattva". 

Sattva or Sahva, (Sk.). Goodness; the same as Sattva, or purity, one 
of the irigunas or three divisions of nature. 
Satya (Sk.). Supreme truth. 

Satya Loka (Sk.). The world of infinite purity and wisdom, the 
celestial abode of Brahma and the gods. 

Satya Yuga ^S'A;.;. The golden age, or the age of truth and purity; 
the first of the four Yugas, also called Krita Yuga. 

Satyas (Sk.). One of the names of the twelve great gods. 

Scarabaeus. In Egypt, the symbol of resurrection, and also of rebirth ; 
of resurrection for the mummy or rather of the highest aspects of the 
personality which animated it, and of rebirth of the Ego, the "spiritual 
body" of the lower, human Soul. Egyptologists give us but half of the 
truth, when in speculating upon the meaning of certain inscriptions, 
they say, "the justified soul, once arrived at a certain period of its 
peregrinations (simply at the death of the physical body) should be 
united to its body (i.e., the Ego) never more to he separated from it". 
(Rouge.) What is this so-called body? Can it be the mummy? Cer- 
tainly not, for the emptied mummified corpse can never resurrect. It 
can only be the eternal, spiritual vestment, the Ego that never dies but 
gives immortality to whatsoever becomes united with it. ' ' The delivered 
Intelligence (which) retakes its luminous envelope and (re)becomes 
Daimon", as Prof. Maspero says, is the spiritual Ego; the personal Ego 
or Kama Matias, its direct ray, or the lower soul, is that which aspires 
to become Osirified, i.e., to unite itself with its "god"; and that por- 
tion of it which will succeed in so doing, will never more he separated 
from it (the god), not even when the latter incarnates again and again, 
descending periodically on earth in its pilgrimage, in search of further 
experiences and following the decrees of Karma. Khem, "the sower 
of seed", is shown on a stele in a picture of Resurrection after physical 
death, as the creator and the sower of the grain of corn, which after 
corruption, springs up afresh each time into a new ear, on which a 
scarabaius beetle is seen poised; and Deveria shows very justly that 
"Ptah is the inert, material form of Osiris, who will become Sokari 
(the eternal Ego) to be reborn, and afterwards be Harmachus", or 
Horus in his transformation, the risen god. The prayer so often found 
in the tumular inscriptions, "the wish for the resurrection in one's liv- 
ing soul" or the Higher Ego, has ever a scarabseus at the end, standing 
for the personal soul. The scarab£eus is the most honoured, as the most 
frequent and familiar, of all Egyptian symbols. ' No mummy is without 
several of them; the favourite ornament on engravings, household fur- 



GLOSSARY 273 

niture and utensils is this sacred beetle, and Pierret pertinently shows 
in his Livre des Morts that the secret meaning of this hieroglyph is 
sufificiently explained in that the Egyptian name for the searabfeus, 
Klicprr, signifies to he, to become, to huild again. 

Scheo (Eg.). The god who, conjointly with Tefnant and Seb, inhabits 
Aanroo the region called "the land of the rebirth of the gods". 

Schesoo-Hor (Eg.). Lit., the servants of Horus; the early people who 
settled in Egypt and who were Aryans. 

Schools of the Prophets. Schools established by Samuel for the train- 
ing of the Nabiim (prophets). Their method was pursued on the same 
lines as that of a Chela or candidate for initiation into the occult 
sciences, i.e., the development of abnormal faculties or clairvoyance 
leading to Seership. Of such schools there were many in days of old in 
Palestine and Asia Minor. That the Hebrews worshiped Nebo, the 
Chaldean god of secret learning, is quite certain, since they adopted his 
name as an equivalent of "Wisdom. 

Seance. A word which has come to mean with Theosophists and 
Spiritualists a sitting with a medium for phenomena, the materialisation 
of "spirits" and other manifestations. 

Seb (Eg.). The Egyptian Saturn; the father of Osiris and Isis. 
Esoterically, the sole principle before creation, nearer in meaning to 
Parabrahm than Brahma. From as early as the second Dynasty, there 
were records of him, and statues of Seb are to be seen in the museums 
represented with the goose or Mack swan that laid the egg of the world 
on his head. Nout or Neith, the "Great Mother" and yet the "Immacu- 
late Virgin", is Seb's wife; she is the oldest goddess on record, and 
is to be found on monuments of the first dynasty, to which Mariette 
Bey assigns the date of almost 7000 years B.C. 

Secret Doctrine. The general name given to the esoteric teachings 
of antiquity. 

Sedecla (Heh.). The Obeah woman of Endor. 

Seer. One who is a clairvoyant; who can see things visible, and 
invisible — for others — at any distance and time with his spiritual or 
inner sight or perceptions. 

Seir Anpin, or Zauir Anpin (Heh.). In the Kahhalah, "the Son of 
the concealed Father", he who unites in himself all the Sephiroth. 
Adam Kadmon, or the first manifested "Heavenly Man", the Logos. 

Sekhem (Eg.). The same as Sekten. 

Sekhet (Eg.). See "Pasht". 

Sekten (Eg.). Devachan; the place of post mortem reward, a state of 
bliss, not a locality, 

Sena (Sk.). The female aspect or Sakti of Karttikeya; also called 
Kaumara. 

Senses. The ten organs of man. In the exoteric Pantheon and the 



274 THEOSOPHICAL 

allegories of the East, these are the emanations of ten minor gods, the 
terrestrial Prajapati or "progenitors". They are called in contradis- 
tinction to the' five physical and the seven superphysical, the "elemen- 
tary senses". In Occultism they are closely allied with various forces 
of nature, and with our inner organisms, called cells in physiology. 

Senzar. The mystic name for the secret sacerdotal language or the 
"Mystery-speech" of the initiated Adepts, all over the world. 

Sepher Sephiroth (Hch.). A Kabbalistic treatise concerning the 
gradual evolution of Deity from negative repose to active emanation and 
creation, [w.w.w.] 

Sepher Yetzirah (Heh.). "The Book of Formation". A very ancient 
Kabbalistic work ascribed to the patriarch Abraham. It illustrates the 
creation of the universe by analogy with the twenty-two letters of the 
Hebrew alphabet, distributed into a triad, a heptad, and a dodecad, cor- 
responding with the three mother letters. A, M, S, the seven planets, 
and the twelve signs of the Zodiac. It is written in the Neo-Hebraic 
of the Mishnah. [w.w.w.] 

Sephira (Heh.). An emanation of Deity; the parent and synthesis 
of the ten Sephiroth when she stands at the head of the Sephirothal 
Tree; in the Kahhalah, Sephira, or the "Sacred Aged", is the divine 
Intelligence (the same as Sophia or Metis), the first emanation from 
the "Endless" or Ain-Suph. 

Sephiroth (Heh.). The ten emanations of Deity; the highest is formed 
by the concentration of the Ain Soph Aur, or the Limitless Light, and 
each Sephira produces by emanation another Sephira. The names of 
the Ten Sephiroth are— 1. Kether — The Crown; 2. Chokmah— Wisdom ; 
3. Binah— Understanding ; 4. Chesed— Mercy ; 5. Geburah— Power ; 6. 
Tiphereth— Beauty ; 7. Netzach— Victory ; 8. Hod— Splendour ; 9. Jesod— 
Foundation ; and 10. Malkuth — The Kingdom. 

The conception of Deity embodied in the Ten Sephiroth is a very 
sublime one, and each Sephira is a picture to the Kabbalist of a group 
of exalted ideas, titles and attributes, which the name but faintly rep- 
resents. Each Sephira is called either active or passive, though this 
attribution may lead to error; passive does not mean a return to nega- 
tive existence ; and the two words only express the relation between in- 
dividual Sephiroth, and not any absolute quality, [w.w.w.] 

Septerium (Lai.). A great religious festival held in days of old every 
ninth year at Delphi, in honour of Helios, the Sun, or Apollo to com- 
memorate his triumph over darkness, or Python; Apollo-Python being 
the same as Osiris-Typhon in Egypt. 

Seraphim (Heh.) Celestial beings described by Isaiah (vi., 2,) as of 
human form with the addition of three pair of wings. The Hebrew 
word is ShRPIM, and apart from the above instance, is translated 
serpents, and is related to the verbal root ShRP, to hum up. The word 
is used for serpents in Numhers and Deuteronomy. Moses is said to 



GLOSSARY 



275 



have raised in the wilderness a ShRP or >Seraph of Brass as a type 
This bright serpent is also used as an emblem of Light. 

Compare the myth of ^scnlapiiis, the healing deity, wno is said to 
have been brought to Rome from Epidauras as a serpent, and whose 
statues show him holding a wand on which a snake is twisted (See Ovid 
Metam.. lib. xv.). The Seraphim of the Old Testament seems to be 
related to the Cherubim (q.v.). In the Kablalah the Seraphim are a 
group of angelic powers allotted to the Sephira Geburah— Severity 
[w.w.w.] 

Serapis (Eg.). A great solar god who replaced Osiris in the popular 
worship, and in whose honour the seven vowels were sung. He was 
often made to appear in representations as a serpent, a "Dragon of 
VVisdom". The greatest god of Egypt during the first centuries of 
Christianity. 

Sesha (8k.). Ananta, the great Serpent of Eternity, the couch of 
Vishnu ; the symbol of infinite Time in Space. In the exoteric beliefs 
besha IS represented as a thousand-headed and scvcn-he&ded cobra- the 
former the king of the nether world, called Patala, the latter' the 
carrier or support of Vishnu on the Ocean of Space. 

Set or Seth (Eg.). The same as the Son of Noah and Typhon— who 
IS the dark side of Osiris. The same as Thoth and Satan, the adversary 
not the devil represented by Christians. 

Sevekh (Eg.). The god of time; Chronos; the same as Sefekh. Some 
Orientalists translate it as the "Seventh". 

Shaberon (Tib.). The Mongolian Shaberon or Khubilgan (or Khubil- 
khans) are the reincarnations of Buddha, according to the Lamaists- 
great Saints and Avatars, so to say. 

Shaddai, El (Heh.). A name of the Hebrew Deity, usually translated 
(jod Almighty, found m Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Ruth and Job Its 
Greek equivalent is Kurios Pantokrator; but by Hebrew derivation it 
means rather "the pourer forth", shad meaning a beast, and indeed 
shdt IS also used for "a nursing mother", [w.w.w.] 

Shamans. An order of Tartar or Mongolian priest-magicians or as 
some say, priest-sorcerers. They are not Buddhists, but a sect of the 
old Bhon religion of Tibet. They live mostly in Siberia and its 
borderlands. Both men and women may be Shamans. They are all 
magicians, or rather sensitives or mediums artificially developed. At 
present those who act as priests among the Tartars are generally very 
Ignorant, and far below the fakirs in knowledge and education. 

Shanah (Heb.). The Lunar Year. 

Shangna (Sk.). A mysterious epithet given to a robe or "vesture" 
in a metaphorical sense. To put on the "Shangna robe" means the 
acquirement of Secret Wisdom, and Initiation. (See Voice of the 
6ile7ice, pp. 84 and 85, Glossary.) 



276 THEOSOPHICAL 

Shastra or 8'dstra (8k.). A treatise or book; any work of divine or 
accepted authority, including: law books. A Shastri means to this day, 
in India, a man learned in divine and human law. 
Shedim (Hel.). See "Siddim". 

Shekinah (Heh.). A title applied to Malkuth, the tentn Sephira, by 
the Kabhalists; but by the Jews to the cloud of glory which rested on 
the Mercy-seat in the Holy of Holies. As taught, however, by all the 
Rabbins of Asia Minor, its nature is of a more exalted kind, Shekinah 
being the veil of Ain-Soph, the Endless and the Absolute ; hence a kind 
of Kabbalistic Mulaprakriti. [w.w.w.] 

Shells. A Kabbalistic name for the phantoms of the dead, the 
"spirits" of the Spiritualists, figuring in physical phenomena; so named 
on account of their being simply illusive forms, empty of their higher 
principles. 

Shemal (Chald.). Samael, the spirit of the earth, its presiding ruler 
and genius. 

Shemhamphorash (Hel).). The separated name. The mirific name 
derived from the substance of deity and showing its self -existent essence. 
Jesus was accused by the Jews of having stolen this name from the 
Temple by magic arts, and of using it in the production of his miracles. 

Sheol (Hch.). The hell of the Hebrew Pantheon; a region of stillness 
and inactivity as distinguished from Gehenna, (q.v.). 

Shien-Sien (Chin.). A state of bliss and soul-freedom, during which 
a man can travel in spirit where he likes. 

Shiites (Pers.). A sect of Musselmen who place the prophet Ali liigher 
than Mohammed, rejecting Sunnah or tradition. 

Shila (Pali). The second virtue of the ten Paramitas of perfection. 
Perfect harmony in words and acts. 

Shinto (Jap.). The ancient religion of Japan before Buddhism based 
upon the worship of spirits and ancestors. 

Shoel-ob (Heh.). A consulter with familiar "spirits"; a necromancer, 
a raiser of the dead, or of their phantoms. 

Shoo (Eg.). A personification of the god Ra ; represented as the 
"great cat of the Basin of Persea in Anu". 

Shudala Madan (Tarn.). The vampire, the ghoul, or graveyard spook. 

Shille Madan (Tarn.). The elemental which is said to help the "jug- 
glers" to grow mango trees and do other wonders. 

Shutukt (Tib.). A collegiate monastery in Tibet of great fame, con- 
taining over 30,000 monks and students. 

Sibac (Quiche). The reed from the pith of which the third race of 
men was created, according to the scripture of the Guatemalians, called 
the Popol Vuh. 

Sibika (8k.). The weapon of Kuvera, god of wealth (a Vedic deity 
living in Hades, hence a kind of Pluto), made out of the parts of the 



GLOSSAEY 277 

divine splendour of Vislniu, residing in the Sun, and filed off by Vis- 
varkarman, tlie god Initiate. 

Siddbanta (Sk.). Any learned work on astronomy or mathematics, 
in India. 

Siddhartha (Sk.). A name given to Gautama Buddha. 

Siddhas (Sk.). Saints and sages who have become almost divine also 

a hierarchy of Dhyan Chohans. 

Siddhasana (Sk.). A posture in Hatha-yoga practices. 

Siddha-Sena (Sk.). Lit., "the leader of Siddhas"; a title of Kartti- 
keya, the "mysterious youth" (kumdra guha). 

Siddhis (Sk.). Lit., ''attributes of perfection"; phenomenal powers 
acquired through holiness by Yogis. 

Siddim (Hch.). The Canaanites, we are told, worshipped these evil 
powers as deities, the name meaning the "pourers forth ' ; a valley was 
named after them. There seems to be a connection between these, as 
types of Fertile Nature, and the many-bosomed Isis and Diana of 
Ephesns. In Psalm cvi., 37, the word is translated "devils", and we 
are told that the Canaanites shed the blood of their sons and daughters 
to them. Their title seems to come from the same root ShD, from which 
the god named El Shaddai is derived, [w.w.w.] 

The Arabic Sliedim means "Nature Spirits", Elementals; they are 
the afrits of modern Egypt and djins of Persia, India, etc. 

Sidereal. Anything relating to the stars, but also, in Occultism, to 
various influences emanating from such regions, sucli as "sidereal 
force", as taught by Paracelsus, and sidereal (luminous), ethereal body, 
etc. 

Si-dzang (Chin.). The Chinese name for Tibet; mentioned in the 
Imperial Library of the capital of Fo Kein, as the "great seat of Occult 
learning", 2,207 years b.c. (Secret Doctrine. I., p. 271.) 

Sige (Gr.). "Silence" ; a name adopted by the Gnostics to signify the 
root whence proceed the .^ons of the second series. 

Sighra or Sighraga (Sk.). The father of Moru, "who is still living 
through the power of Yoga, and will manifest himself in the beginning 
of the Krita age in order to re-establish the Kshattriyas in the nineteenth 
Yuga" say the Puranic prophecies. "Moru" stands here for "Morya", 
the dynasty of the Buddhist sovereigns of Pataliputra which began with 
the great King Chandragupta, the grandsire of King Asoka. It is the 
first Buddhist Dynasty. {Secret Doctrine, I., 378.) 

Sigurd (Scand.). The hero who slew Fafnir, the "Dragon", roasted 
his heart and ate it, after wliich he became the wisest of men. An 
allegory referring to Occult study and initiation. 

Simeon-ben-Jochai. An Adept-Rabbin, who was the author of the 
Zohar, (q.v.). 



278 THEOSOPHICAL 

Simon Magus. A very great Samaritan Gnostic and Thaumaturgist, 
called ''the great Power of God". 

Simorgh (Pers.). The same as the winged Siorgh, a kind of gigantic 
griffin, half phoenix, half lion, endowed in the Iranian legends with 
oracular powers. Simorgh was the guardian of the ancient Persian 
Mysteries. It is expected to reappear at the end of the cycle as a 
gigantic bird-lion. Esoterically, it stands as the symbol of the Man van - 
taric cycle. Its Arabic name is RaJcshi. 

Sinai (Heh.). Mount Sinai", the Nissi of Exodus (xvii., 15), the birth- 
place of almost all the solar gods of antiquity, such as Dionysus, born at 
Nissa or Nysa, Zeus of Nysa, Bacchus and Osiris, (q.v.) Some 
ancient people believed the Sun to be the progeny of the Moon, who was 
herself a Sun once upon a time. Sin-ai is the "Moon Mountain", hence 
the connexion. 

Sing Bonga. The Sun-spirit with the Kollarian tribes. 

Singha (Sk.). The constellation of Leo; Singh meaning "lion". 

Sinika (Sk.). Also Sinita and Sanika, etc., as variants. The Vishnu 
Purana gives it as the name of a future sage who will be taught by him 
who will become Maitreya, at the end of Kali Yuga, and adds that this is 
a great mystery. 

Sinivali (Sk.). The first day of the new moon, which is greatly con- 
nected with Occult practices in India. 

Siphra Dtzeniouta (Chalcl). The Book of Concealed Mystery; one 
division of the Zohar. (See Mathers' Kabbalah Unveiled.) 

Sirius (Gr.). In Egyptian, Sothis. The dog-star: the star wor- 
shipped in Egypt and reverenced by the Occultists; by the former 
because its heliacal rising with the Sun was a sign of the beneficent 
inundation of the Nile, and by the latter because it is mysteriously 
associated with Thoth-Hermes, god of wisdom, and Mercury, in another 
form. Thus Sothis-Sirius had, and still has, a mystic and direct influ- 
ence over the whole living heaven, and is connected with almost every 
god and goddess. It was "Isis in the heaven" and called Isis-Sothis, for 
J sis was "in the constellation of the dog", as is declared on her monu- 
ments. "The soul of Osiris was believed to reside in a personage who 
walks with great steps in front of Sothis, sceptre in hand and a whip 
upon his shoulder." Sirius is also Anubis, and is directly connected 
with the ring "Pass me not"; it is, moreover, identical with Mithra, 
the Persian Mystery god, and with Horus and even Hathor, called 
sometimes the goddess Sothis. Being connected with the Pyramid, 
Sirius was, therefore, connected with the initiations which took place in 
it. A temple to Sirius-Sothis once existed within the great temple of 
Denderah. To sum up, all religions are not, as Dufeu, the French 
Egyptologist, sought to prove, derived from Sirius, the dog-star, but 
Sirius-Sothis is certainly found in connection with every religion of 
antiquity. 



GLOSSAEY 279 

Sishta (Sk.). Tlie sreat elect or Sages, left after every minor Pralai/a 
(that which is called ''obscuration" in Mr. Sinnett's Esoteric Bud- 
dhism), when the globe goes into its night or rest, to become on its 
re-awakening, the seed of the next humanity. Lit. "remnant." 

Sisthrus (Chald.). Ac<Jording to Berosus, the last of the ten kings 
of the dynasty of the divine kings, and the "Noah" of Chaldea. Thus, 
as Vishnu foretells the coming deluge to Vaivasvata-Manu, and fore- 
warning, commands him to build an ark, wherein he and seven Rishis 
are saved; so the god Hea foretells the same to Sisithrus (or 
Xisuthrus) commanding him to prepare a vessel and save himself with a 
few elect. Following suit, almost 800,000 years later, the Lord God of 
Israel repeats the warning to Noah. Which is prior, therefore? The 
story of Xisuthrus, now deciphered from the Assyrian tablets, corrobo- 
rates that which was said of the Chaldean deluge by Berosus, Apollo- 
dorus, Abydenus, etc., etc. (See eleventh tablet in G. Smith's Chaldean 
Account of Genesis, page 263, et seq.). This tablet xi. covers every point 
treated of in chapters six and seven of Genesis — the gods, the sins of 
men, the command to build an ark, the Flood, the destruction of men, 
the dove and the raven sent out of the ark, and finally the Mount of 
Salvation in Armenia (Nizir-Ararat) ; all is there. The words "the god 
Hea heard, and his liver was angry, because his men had corrupted his 
purity", and the story of his destroying all his seed, were engraved on 
stone tablets many thousand years before the Assyrians reproduced them 
on their baked tiles, and even these most assuredly antedate the Penta- 
teuch, "written from memory" by Ezra, hardly four centuries B.C. 

Sistrum (Gr.). Egyptian ssesh or kemken. An instrument, usually 
made of bronze but sometimes of gold or silver, of an open circular form, 
with a handle, and four wires passed through holes, to the end of ^yhich 
jingling pieces of metal were attached; its top was ornamented with a 
figure of Isis, or of Hathor. It was a sacred instrument, used in tem- 
ples for the purpose of producing, by means of its combination of metals, 
magnetic currents, and so^uids. To this day it has survived in Christian 
Abyssinia, under the name of sanasel, and the good priests use it to 
"drive devils from the premises", an act quite comprehensible to the 
Occultist, even though it does provoke laughter in the sceptical Orien- 
talist. The priestess usually held it in her right hand during the cere- 
mony of purification of the air, or the "conjuration of the elements", 
as E. Levi would call it, while the priests held the Sistrum in their left 
hand, using the right to manipulate the "key of life"— the handled 
cross or Tau. 

Sisumara (Sk.). An imaginary rotating belt, upon which all the 
celestial bodies move. This host of stars and constellations is repre- 
sented under the figure of Sisumara, a tortoise (some say a porpoise!), 
dragon, crocodile, and what not. But as it is a symbol of the Yoga- 
meditation of lioly Vasudeva or Krishna, it must be a crocodile,^ or 
rather, a dolphin, since it is identical with the zodiacal Makara. 



280 ' THEOSOPHICAL 

Dhruva, the ancient pole-star, is placed at the tip of the tail of this 
sidereal monster, whose head points southward and whose body bends in 
a ring. Higher along the tail are the Prajapati, Agni, etc., and at its 
root are placed Indra, Dharma, and the seven Rishis (the Great Bear), 
etc., etc. The meaning is of course mystical. 

Siva {8k. ). The third person of the Hindu Trinity (the Trimurti). 
He is a god of the first order, and in his character of Destroyer higher 
than Vishnu, the Preserver, as he destroys only to regenerate on a 
higher plane. He is born as Rudra, the Kumara, and is the patron of 
all the Yogis, being called, as such, Maha-Yogi, the great ascetic. His 
titles are significant: Trilochana, "the three-eyed", Mahadeva, "the great 
god", Savkara, etc., etc., etc. 

Siva-Rudra (Sk.). Rudra is the Vedic name of Siva, the latter being 
absent from the Veda. 

Skandha or Skhanda (8k.). Lit., "bundles", or groups of attributes; 
everything finite, inapplicable to the eternal and the absolute. There 
are five — esoterically, seven — attributes in every human living being, 
which are known as the Pancha 8kandhas. These are (1) form, rupa; 
(2) perception, viddna; (3) consciousness, sanjnd; (4) action, sanskdra; 
(5) knowledge, vidydna. These unite at the birth of man and constitute 
his personality. After the maturity of these Skandhas, they begin to 
separate and weaken, and this is followed by jardmarana, or decrepti- 
tude and death. 

Skrymir (Scand.). One of the famous giants in the Eddas. 

Sloka (8k.). The Sanskrit epic metre formed of thirty-two syllables: 
verses in four half -lines of eight, or in two lines of sixteen syllables each. 

Smaragdine Tablet of Hermes. As expressed by Eliphas Levi, "this 
Tablet of Emerald is the whole of magic in a single page ' ' ; but India 
has a single word which, when understood, contains "the whole of 
magic". This is a tablet, however, alleged to have been found by Sarai, 
Abraham's wife (!) on the dead hody of Hermes. So say the Masons 
and Christian Kabbalists. But in Theosophy we call it an allegory. 
May it not mean that Sarai-swati, the wife of Brahma, or the goddess 
of secret wisdom and learning, finding still much of the ancient wisdom 
latent in the dead body of Humanity, revivified that wisdom? This led 
to the rebirth of the Occult Sciences, so long forgotten and neglected, 
the world over. The tablet itself, however, although containing the 
"whole of magic", is too long to be reproduced here. 

Smartava (Sk.). The Smarta Brahmans; a sect founded by Sanka- 
racharya. 

Smriti (8k.). Traditional accounts imparted orally, from the word 
Smriti, "Memory" a daughter of Daksha. They are now the legal and 
ceremonial writings of the Hindus ; the opposite of, and therefore less 
sacred, than the Vedas, which are 8ri(ti, or "revelation". 

Sod (Heh.). An "Arcanum", or religious mystery. The Mysteries 



GLOSSARY 



281 



of Baal, Adonis and Bacchus, all sun-gods liaving serpents as symbols, 
or, as in the case of Mithra, a "solar serpent". The ancient Jews had 
their Sod also, symbols not excluded, since they had the "brazen ser- 
pent" lifted in the Wilderness, which particular serpent was the Per- 
sian ]\Iithra, tlie symbol of Moses as an Initiate, but was certainly nev^r 
meant to represent the historical Christ. "The secret (Sod)' oi the 
Lord is with them that fear him", says David, in Psalm xxv., 14. But 
this reads in the original Hebrew, "Sod Ihoh (or the Mvsteries) of 
Jehovah are for those who fear him". So terribly is the Old Testament 
mistranslated, that verse 7 in Psalm Ixxxix., which stands in the original 
"AI (El) is terrible in the great Sod of the KedcsUm" (the GaUi] the 
priests of the inner Jewish mysteries), reads now in the mutilated 
t^ranslation "God is greatly to be feared in the assembly of the saints". 
Simeon and Levi held their Sod, and it is repeatedly mentioned in the 
Bible. "Oh my soul," exclaims the dying Jacob, "come not thou into 
their secret (Sod, in the orig.), unto their assembly", i.e., into the 
Sodality of Simeon and Levi (Gen. xlix., 6). (See *Dunlap. Sod, the 
Mysteries of Adoni.) 

Sodales (Lat.). The members of the Priest-colleges. (See Freund's 
Latin Lexicon, iv., 448.) Cicero tells us also (Be Senectute, 13) that 
''Sodalities were constituted in the Idaean Mysteries of the Mighty 
Mother". Those initiated into the Sod were termed the "Companions". 

Sodalian Oath. The most sacred of all oaths. The penaltv of death 
followed the breaking of the Sodalian oath or pledge. The oath and the 
Sod (the secret learning) are earlier than the Kahhalah or Tradition, 
and the ancient Midrashim treated fully of the Mysteries or Sod before 
they passed into the Zohar. Now they are referred to as the Secret 
Mysteries of the Tliorah, or Law, to break which is fatal. 

Soham (Six.). A mystic syllable representing involutions: lit., "Th^t 
I .vm". 

Sokaris (Eg.). A fire-god; a solar deity of many forms. He is Ptah- 
Sokans, when the symbol is purely cosmic, and "Ptah-Sokaris-Osiris" 
when it is phallic. This deity is hermaphrodite, the sacred bull Apis 
being Its son, conceived in it by a solar ray. According to Smith's 
History of thr East, Ptah is a "second Demiurgus, an emanation from 
the first creative Principle" (the first Logos). The upright Ptah, with 
cross and statf, is the "creator of the eggs of the sun and moon". 
Pierret thinks that he represents the primordial Force that preceded 
the gods and "created the stars, and the eggs of the sun and moon". 
Mariette Bey sees in him "Divine Wisdom scattering the stars in im- 
mensity", and he is corroborated by the Targum of Jerusalem, which 
states tliat the "Egyptians called the Wisdom of the First Litellect 
Ptah ' '. 

Sokhlt (Eg.). A deity to whom the cat was sacred. 
Solomon's Seal. The symbolical double triangle, adopted bv the T. S. 
and by many Theosophists. Why it sliould l)e called "Solomon's Seal" 



282 THEOSOPHICAL 

is a mystery, unless it came to Europe from Iran, where many stories are 
told about that mythical personage and the magic seal used by him to 
catch the dji7is and imprison them in old bottles. But this seal or double 
triangle is also called in India the "Sign of Vishnu", and may be seen 
on the houses in every village as a talisman against evil. The triangle 
was sacred and used as a religious sign in the far East ages before 
Pythagoras proclaimed it to be the first of the geometrical figures, as 
well as the most mysterious. It is found on pyramid and obelisk, and 
is pregnant with occult meaning, as are, in fact, all triangles. Thus the 
pentagram is the triple triangle — the six-pointed being the hexalp ha. 
(See "Pentacle" and "Pentagram".) The way a triangle points 
determines its meaning. If upwards, it means the male element and 
divine fire; downwards, the female and the waters of matter; upright, 
but with a bar across the top, air and astral light; downwards, with 
a bar — the earth or gross matter, etc., etc. When a Greek Christian 
priest in blessing holds his two fingers and thumb together, he simply 
makes the magic sign — by the power of the triangle or "trinity". 

Soma (8k.). The moon, and also the juice of the plant of that name 
used in the temples for trance purposes; a sacred beverage. Soma, the 
moon, is the symbol of the Sercet Wisdom. In the Upanishads the word 
is used to denote gross matter (with an association of moisture) capable 
of producing life under the action of heat. (See "Soma-drink".) 

Soma-drink. Made from a rare mountain plant by initiated Brah- 
mans. This Hindu sacred beverage answers to the Greek ambrosia or 
nectar, quaffed by the Gods of Olympus. A cup of Kykeon was also 
quaffed by the Mystes at the Eleusinian initiation. He who drinks it 
easily reaches Bradhna, or the place of splendour (Heaven). The Soma- 
drink known to Europeans is not the genuine beverage, but its substi- 
tute; for the initiated priests alone can taste of the real Soma; and 
even kings and Rajas, when sacrificing, receive the substitute. Haug, 
by his own confession, shows in his Aitarcya Brahmana, that it was 
not the Soma that he tasted and found nasty, but the juice from the 
roots of the Nyagradha, a plant or bush which grows on the hills of 
Poona. We were positively informed that the majority of the sacrificial 
priests of the Dekkan have lost the secret of the true Soma. It can be 
found neither in the ritual books nor through oral information. The 
true followers of the primitive Vedic religion are very few ; these are 
the alleged descendants of the Rishis, the real Agnihotris, the initiates 
of the great Mysteries. The Soma-drink is also commemorated in the 
Hindu Pantheon, for it is called King-Soma. He who drinks thereof 
is made to participate in the heavenly king; he becomes filled with his 
essence, as the Christian apostles and their converts were filled with the 
Holy Ghost, and purified of their sins. The Soma makes a new man 
of the initiate; he is reborn and transformed, and his spiritual nature 
overcomes the physical ; it bestows the divine power of inspiration, and 
develops the clairvoyant faculty to the utmost. According to the ex- 
oteric explanation the soma is a plant, but at the same time it is an 



GLOSSARY 283 



angel. It forcibly connects the inner, highest "spirit" of man, which 
spirit is an angel like the mystical Soma, with his "irrational soul", 
or astral body, and thus united by the power of the magic drink, they 
soar together above physical nature and participate during life in the 
beatitude and ineffable glories of Heaven. 

Thus the Hindu Soma is mystically and in all respects the same that 
the Eucharist supper is to the Christian. The idea is similar. By 
means of the sacrificial prayers — the mantras — this liquor is supposed 
to be immediately transformed into the real Soma, or the angel, and even 
into Brahma himself. Some missionaries have expressed themselves with 
much indignation about this ceremony, the more so, seeing that the 
Brahmans generally use a kind of spiriUious liquor as a substitute. But 
do the Christians believe less fervently in the transubstantiation of the 
communion wine into the blood of Christ, because this wine happens to 
be more or less spirituoiLs? Is not the idea of the symbol attached to 
it the same ? But the missionaries say that this hour of soma-drinking 
is the golden hour of Satan, who lurks at the bottom of the Hindu 
sacrificial cup. (Isis Unveiled.) 

Soma-loka (Sk.). A kind of lunar abode where the god Soma, tlie 
regent of tlie moon, resides. The abode of the Lunar Pitris — or 
Pitriloka. 

Somapa (Sk.). A class of Lunar Pitris. (See "Trisuparna.") 

Somnambulism Lit.., "sleep-walking", or moving, acting, writing, 
reading and performing every function of waking consciousness in one's 
.sleep, with utter oblivion of the fact on awakening. This is one of the 
great psycho-physiological phenomena, the least understood as it is the 
most puzzling, to which Occultism alone holds the key. 

Son-kha-pa (Tih.). Written also Tsong-kha-pa. A famous Tibetan 
reformer of the fourteenth century who introduced a purified Buddhism 
into his country. He was a great Adept, who being unable to witness 
any longer the desecration of Buddhist philosophy by the false priests 
who made of it a marketable commodity, put a forcible stop thereto by a 
timely revolution and the exile of 40,000 sham monks and Lamas from 
the country. He is regarded as an Avatar of Buddha, and is the founder 
of the Gdiikpa ("yellow-cap") Sect, and of the mystic Brotherhood 
connected with its chiefs. The "tree of the 10,000 images" (khoom- 
hoom) has, it is said, sprung fi'om the long hair of this ascetic, who 
leaving it behind him disappeared forever from the view of the profane. 

Sooniam. A magical ceremony for the purpose of removing a sickness 
from one person to another. Black magic, sorcery. 

Sophia (Gr.). Wisdom. The female Logos of the Gnostics; the 
ITniversal Mind ; and the female Holy Ghost with others. 

Sophia Achamoth (Gr.). The daughter of Sophia. The personified 
Astral Liglit, or the lower plane of Ether. 

Sortes Sanctorum (Lot.). The "holy casting of lots for purposes of 



284 THEOSOPHICAL 

divination", practiced by the early and mediaeval Christian clergy. St. 
Augustine, who does not "disapprove of this method of learning fu- 
turity, provided it be not used for worldly purposes, practised it him- 
self" (Life of St. Gregory of Tours). If, however, "it is practised by 
laymen, heretics, or heathen" of any sort, sortes sanctorum become— if 
we believe the good and pious fathers — sortes diaholorum or sortilegium 
— sorcery. 

Sosiosh (Zend). The Mazdean Saviour who, like Vishnu, Maitreya 
Buddha and others, is expected to appear on a white horse at the end 
of the cycle to save mankind. (See "S'ambhala".) 

Soul. The ^v^yi, or nephesh of the BiUe ; the vital principle, or the 
breath of life, which every animal, down to the infusoria, shares with 
man. In the translated Bible it stands indifferently for life, blood and 
soul. "Let us not kill his nephesh", says the original text: "let us not 
kill him'\ translate the Christians (Genesis xxxvii, 21), and so on. 

Sowan (Pali). The first of the "four paths" which lead to Nirvana, 
in Yoga practice. 

Sowanee (Pali). He who entered upon that "path". 

Sparsa (8k.). The sense of touch. 

Spenta Armaita (Zend). The female genius of the earth; the "fair 
daughter of Ahura Mazda". With the Mazdeans, Spenta Armaita is 
the personified Earth. 

Spirit. The lack of any mutual agreement between writers in the use 
of this word has resulted in dire confusion. It is commonly made 
synonymous with soul; and the lexicographers countenance the usage. 
In Theosophical teachings the term ' ' Spirit ' ' is applied solely to that 
which belongs directly to Universal Consciousness, and which is its 
homogeneous and unadulterated emanation. Thus, the higher Mind in 
Man or his Ego (Manas) is, when linked indissolubly with Buddhi, a 
spirit; while tlie term "Soul", human or even animal (the lower Manas 
acting in animals as instinct), is applied only to Kama-Manas, and 
qualified as the living soul. This is nephesh, in Hebrew, tne "breath of 
life". Spirit is formless and immaterial, being, when individualised, of 
the highest spiritual swhst-cince—Suddasativa, the divine essence, of 
which the body of the manifesting highest Dhyanis are formed. There- 
fore, the Theosophists reject the appellation "Spirits" for those phan- 
toms which appear in the phenomenal manifestations of the Spiritual- 
ists, and call them "shells", and various other names. (See "Sukshma 
Sarira".) Spirit, in short, is no entity in the sense of having form ; for, 
as Buddhist philosophy has it, where there is a form, there is a cause 
for pain and suffering. But each individual spirit — this individuality 
lasting only throughout the manvantaric life-cycle— may be described 
as a center of consciousness, a self-sentient and self-conscious centre ; a 
state, not a conditioned individual. This is why there is such a wealth 
of words in Sanskrit to express the different States of Being, Beings and 
Entities, each appellation showing the philosophical difference, the 



GLOSSARY 285 

plant' to whic'li siieli unit lu'loiigs, and the depree of its spirituality or 
/nateriality. Unfortunately these terms are almost untranslatable into 
our Western tongues. 

Spiritualism. In philosophy, the state or condition of mind opposed 
to materialism or a niaf< rial conception of things. Theosophy, a doctrine 
which teaches that all wliich exists is animated or informed by the 
Universal Soul or Spirit, and that not an atom in our universe caii be 
outside of this omnipresent Principle — is pure Spiritualism. As to the 
belief that goes under that name, namely, belief in the constant com- 
munication of the living with the dead, whether through the mediumistic 
powers of oneself or a so-called medium — it is no better than the materi- 
alisation of spirit, and the degradation of the human and the divine 
souls. Believers in such communications are simply dishonouring the 
dead and performing constant sacrilege. It w^as well called "Nec- 
ronuincy" in days of old. But our modern Spiritualists take oflFenee 
at being told this simple truth. 

Spook. A ghost, a hobgoblin. Used of the various apparitions in the 
seance-rooms of the Spiritualists. 

Sraddha (8k.). Lit., faith, respect, reverence. 

Sraddha (SJc.). Devotion to the memory and care for the welfare of 
the manes of dead relatives. A post-mortem rite for newly-deceased 
kindred. There are also monthly rites of Sraddha. 

Sraddhadeva (Sl\). An epithet of Yama, the god of death and king 
of the nether world, or Hades. 

Sramana (Sk.). Buddhist priests, ascetics and postulants for Nirvana, 
■'they who have to place a restraint on their thoughts'". The word 
Saman, now "Shaman" is a corruption of this primitive word. 

Srastara (Sk.). A couch consisting of a mat or a tiger's skin, strewn 
with darhha, kusa and other grasses, used by escetics — gurus and ehelas 
— and si)read on the floor. 

Sravah (Mazd.). The Amshaspends, in their highest aspect. 
Sravaka (Sk.). Lit., "he who causes to hear"; a picacner. But in 
Buddhism it denotes a disciple or chela. 

Sri Sankaracharya (Sk.). The great religious reformer of India, and 
teacher of the Vedanta philosophy — the greatest of all such teachers, 
regarded by the Adwaitfis (Non-dualists) as an incarnation of Siva and 
a worker of miracles. He established many mathams (monasteries), and 
founded the most learned sect among Brahmans, called the Smartava. 
The legends about him are as numerous as his philosophical Avritings. At 
the age of thirty-two he went to Kashmir, and reaching Kedaranath in 
the Himalayas, entered a cave alone, whence he never returned. His 
followers claim that he did not die, but only retired from the world. 

Sringa Giri (Sk.). A large and wealthy monastery on the ridge of 
the Western Ghauts i]i Mysore (Southern India) ; the chief matham of 
the Adwaita and Smarta IBrahmans. founded bv Sankaracharva. There 



286 THEOSOPHICAL 

resides the religious head (the latter being called Sankaracharya) of all 
the Vedantie Adwaitas, credited by many with great abnormal powers. 
Sri-pada (Sk.). The impression of Buddha's foot. Lit., "the step or 
foot of the Master or exalted Lord". 

Srivatsa (Sk.). A mystical mark worn by Krishna, and also adopted 
by the Jains. 

Sriyantra (Sk.). The double triangle or the seal of Vishnu, called 
also "Solomon's seal", and adopted by the T. S. 

Srotapatti (Sk.). Lit., "he who has entered the stream", i.e., the 
stream or path that leads to Nirvana, or figuratively, to the Nirvanic 
Ocean. The same as Sowance. 

Srotriya (Sk.). The appellation of a Brahman who practises the 
Vedic rites he studies, as distinguished from the Vedaviiy tlie Brahman 
who studies them only theoretically. 

Sruti (Sk.). Sacred tradition received by revelation; the Vedas are 
such a tradition as distinguished from "Smriti" (q.v.). 

St. Germain, the Count of. Referred to as an enigmatical personage 
by modern wi'iters. Frederic II., King of Prussia, used to say of him 
that he was a man whom no one had ever been able to make out. Many 
are his "biographies", and each is wilder than the oilier. By some 
he was regarded as an incarnate god, by others as a clever Alsatian 
Jew. One thing is certain. Count de St. Germain — whatever his real 
patronymic may have been — had a right to his name and title, for he 
had bought a property called San Germano, in the Italian Tyrol, and 
paid the Poj^e for the title. He was uncommonly handsome, and his 
. enormous erudition and linguistic capacities are undeniable, for he spoke 
English, Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Russian, 
Swedish. Danish, and many Slavonian and Oriental languages, with 
equal facility with a native. He was extremely wealthy, never 
received a sou from anyone — in fact never accepted a glass of water or 
broke bread with anyone — but made most extravagant presents of 
superb jewellery to all his friends, even to the royal families of Europe. 
His proficiency in music was marvellous ; he played on every instrument, 
the violin being his favourite. "St. Germain rivalled Paganini himself", 
was said of him by an octogenarian Belgian in 1835, after hearing the 
"Genoese maestro". "It is St. Germain resurrected who plays the 
violin in the body of an Italian skeleton", exclaimed a Lithuanian 
baron who had heard both. 

He never laid claim to spiritual powers, but proved to have a right to 
such claim. He used to pass into a dead trance from thirty-seven to 
forty-nine hours without awakening, and then knew all lie had to know, 
and demonstrated the fact by prophesying futurity and never making 
a mistake. It is he who prophesied before the Kings Louis XV. and 
XVI., and the unfortunate Marie Antoinette. Many were the still living 
witnesses in the first quarter of this century who testified to his mar- 
vellous memory; he could read a paper in the morning and, though 



GLOSSARY 287 

hardly glancing at it, could i'Pi)eat its contents without missing one word 
da\s aftei'wards; he could write with two hands at once, the right hand 
writing a piece of poetry, the left a diplomatic paper of the greatest 
importance. He read sealed letters without touching them, while still in 
the hand of those who brought them to him. He was the greatest adept 
in transmuting metals, making gold and the most marvellous diamonds, 
an art, he said, he had learned from certain Brahmans in India, who 
taught him the artificial crystallisation ("quickening") of pure carbon. 
As our Brother Kenneth Mackenzie has it: — "In 1780, when on a visit 
to the French Ambassador to the Hague he broke to pieces with a 
hammer a superb diamond of his own manufacture, the counterpart of 
wliicii, also manufactured by himself, he had just before sold to a 
jeweller for 5500 louis d'or". He was the friend and confidant of Count 
OrloflP in 1772 at Vienna, whom he had helped and saved in St. Peters- 
burg in 1762, when concerned in the famous political conspiracies of 
that time ; he also became intimate with Frederick the Great of Prussia. 
As a matter of course, he had numerous enemies, and therefore it is 
not to be wondered at if all the gossip invented about him is now at- 
tributed to his own confessions: e.g., that he was over five hundred 
years old; also, that he claimed personal intimacy "with the Saviour 
and his twelve Apostles, and that he had reproved Peter for his bad 
temper" — the latter clashing somewhat in point of time Avith the former, 
if he had really claimed to be only five hundred years old. If he said 
that "he had been born in Chaldea and professed to possess the secrets 
of the Egyptian magicians and sages", he may have spoken truth with- 
out making any miraculous claim. There are Initiates, and not the 
highest either, who are placed in a condition to remember more than one 
of their past lives. But we have good reason to know that St. Germain 
could never have claimed "personal intimacy" with the Saviour. How- 
ever that may be, Count St. Germain Avas certainly the greatest Oriental 
Adept Europe has seen during the last centuries. But Europe knew 
him not. Perchance some may recognise him at the next Terreur, which 
will affect all Europe when it comes, and not one country alone. 

Sthala Maya (8k.). Gross, concrete and — because differentiated — an 
illusion. 

Sthana (Sk.). Also Aydna; the place or abode of a god. 

Sthavara (Sk.). From sthd to stay or remain motionless. The term 
for all conscious, sentient objects deprived of the power of locomotion — 
fixed and rooted like the trees or plants ; while all those sentient things, 
which add motion to a certain degree of consciousness, are called 
Jangama, from gam, to move, to go. 

Sthavirah, or Sthdviranikaya (Sk.). One of the earliest philosophical 
contemplative schools, founded 300 B.C. In the year 247 before the 
Christian era, it split into three divisions: the Mahdvihdra Vdsindh 
(School of the great monasteries), Jetavaniydh, and Ahhayagiri Vds- 
indh. It is one of th(> four branches of the Vaibhdchika School founded 



288 THEOSOPHICAL 

by Katyayana, one of the great disciples of Lord Gautama Buddha, the 
author of the Ahhidharma Jndna Prasthdna Shdstra, who is expected to 
reappear as a Buddha. (See "Abhayagiri", etc.) All these schools are 
highly mystical. Lit., Stdviranikaya is translated the "'k^chool of the 
Chairman" or "President" (Chohan). 

Sthiratman (8k.). Eternal, supreme, applied to the Universal Soul. 

Sthiti (8k.). The attribute of preservation; stability. 

Sthula (8k.). Differentiated and conditioned matter. 

Sthula Sariram (8k.). In metaphysics, the gross physical body. 

Sthulopadhi (8k.). A "principle" answering to the lower triad in 
man, i.e., body, astral form, and life, in the Taraka Raja Yoga system, 
which names only three chief principles in man. 8thulopadhi corre- 
sponds to the jagrata, or waking, conscious state. 

Stupa (8k.). A conical monument, in India and Ceylon, erected 
over relics of Buddha, Arhats, or other great men. 

Subhava (8k.). Being; the self-forming substance, or that "substance 
which gives substance to itself". (See the Ekasloka 8hdstra of Nagar- 
juna.) Explained paradoxically, as "the nature which has no nature 
of its own", and again as that which is with, and without, action. (See 
"Svabhavat".) This is the 8pirit within 8iibstance, the ideal cause of 
the potencies acting on the work of formative evolution (^not "creation" 
in the sense usually attached to the word) ; which potencies become in 
turn the real causes. In the words used in the Vedanta and Vyaya 
Philosophies: nimitta, the efficient, and updddna, the material, causes are 
contained in Subhava co-eternally. Says a Sanskrit Sloka: "Worthiest 
of ascetics, through its potency [that of the 'efficient' cause] every 
created thing comes hy its proper nature". 

Substance. Theosophists use the word in a dual sense, qualifying 
substance as perceptible and imperceptible ; and making a distinction 
between material, psychic and spiritual substances (see "Sudda 
Satwa"), into ideal {i.e., existing on higher planes) and real substance. 

Souchi (8k.). A name of Indra; also of the third son of Abhimanin, 
son of Agni ; i.e., one of the primordial forty-nine fires. 

Su-darshana (8k.). The Discus of Krishna; a flaming weapon that 
plays a great part in Krishna's biographies. 

Sudda Satwa (8k.). A substance not subject to the qualities of 
matter; a luminiferous and (to us) invisible substance, of which the 
bodies of the Gods and highest Dhyanis are formed. Philosophically, 
8uddha 8atwa is a conscious state of spiritual Ego-ship rather than any 
essence. 

Suddhodana (8k.). The King of Kapilavastu; the father of Gautama 
Lord Buddha. 

Sudha (8k.). The food of the gods, akin to amrita the substance that 
gives immortality. 



GLOSSARY 289 

S'udra (Six.). The last of the four castes that sprang from Brahma's 
body. The "servile caste" that issued from the foot of the deity. 

Sudyumna (Sk.). An epithet of Ila (or Ida), the offspring of Vaivas- 
vata Manu and his fair daughter who sprang from his sacrifice when 
he was left alone after tlie flood. Sudyumna was an androgynous crea- 
ture, one month a male and the other a female. 

Suffism (Gr.). From the root of Sophia, "Wisdom". A mystical 
sect in Persia som(>thing like the Vedantins ; though very strong in num- 
bers, none but very intelligent men join it. They claim, and very justly, 
the possession of the esoteric philosophy and doctrine of true Moham- 
medanism. The Suffi (or Sofi) doctrine is a good deal in touch w^ith 
Theosophy, inasmucli as it preaches one universal creed, and outward 
respect and tolerance for every popular exoteric faith. Tt is also in 
touch with Masonry. The Suffis have four degrees and four stages of 
initiation: ]st, probationary, with a strict outward observance of Mus- 
sulman rites, tlie hidden meaning of each ceremony and dogma being 
explained to the candidate; 2nd, metaphysical training; 3rd, the "Wis- 
dom" degree, when the candidate is initiated into the innermost nature 
of things; and 4th, final Truth, when the Adept attains divine powers, 
and complete union with tlie Universal Deity in ecstacy or Samddhi. 

Sugata (Sk.). One of the Lord Buddha's titles, having many 
meanings. 

Sukhab (Chald.). One of the seven Babylonian gods. 

Sukhavati (Sk.). The Western Paradise of the uneducated rabble. 
The popular notion is that there is a Western Paradise of Amitabha, 
wherein good men and saints revel in physical delights until they are 
carried once more by Karma into the circle of rebirth. This is an 
exaggerated and mistaken notion of Devachan. 

Suki (Sk.). A daughter of Rishi Kashyapa. wife of Garuda, the king 
of the birds, the vehicle of Vislmu ; the mother of parrots, owls and 
crows. 

Sukra (Sk.). A name of the planet Venus, called also Usanas. In 
tliis impersonation Usanas is the Guru and preceptor of the Daityas — 
the giants of the earth — in the Purdnas. 

Sukshma Sarira (Sk.). The dream-like, illusive body akin to 
Mdnasarupa or "thought-body". It is the vesture of tlie gods, or the 
Dhyanis and the Devas. Written also Sukshama Sharira and called 
Sukshmopadhi by the Taraka Raja Yogis. (Secret Doctrine, I., 157.) 

Sukshmopadhi (Sk.). In Taraka Raja Yoga the "principle" contain- 
ing both the higher and the lower Manas and Kama. It corresponds to 
the Manomaya Kasha of the Vedantic classification and to the Svapna 
state. (See "Svapna".) 

Su-Meru (Sk.). The same as ]\Ieru, the world-mountain. The prefix 
Su imi)lies the laudation and exaltation of the object or personal name 
which follows it. 



290 THEOSOPHICAL 

Summerland. The name given by tlie American Spiritualists and 
Phenomenalists to the land or region inhabited after death by their 
"Spirits". It is situated, says Andrew Jackson Davis, either within 
or beyond the Milky Way. It is described as having cities and beautiful 
buildings, a Congi-ess Hall, museums, and libraries for the instruction 
of the growing generations of young "Spirits". 

We are not told whether the latter are subject to disease, decay and 
death; but unless they are, the claim that the disembodied "Spirit" of a 
child and even still-born babe grows and develops as an adult is hardly 
consistent with logic. But that which we are distinctly told is that in 
the Summerland Spirits are given in marriage, beget spiritual (?) chil- 
dren, and are even concerned with politics. All this is no satire or 
exaggeration of ours, since the numerous works by Mr. A. Jackson 
Davis are there to prove it, e.g., the International Congress of Spirits 
by that author, as well as we remember the title. It is this grossly 
materialistic way of viewing a disembodied spirit that has turned many 
of the present Theosophists away from Spiritualism and its "phil- 
osophy". The majesty of death is thus desecrated, and its awful and 
solemn mystery becomes no better than a farce. 

Sunasepha (Sk.). The Puranic "Isaac"; the son of the sage Rishika 
who sold him for one hundred cows to King Ambarisha, for a sacritice 
and "burnt offering" to Varuna, as a substitute for the king's son 
Rohita, devoted by his father to the god. When already stretched on the 
altar Sunasepha is saved by Rishi Visvamitra, who calls upon his own 
hundred sons to take the place of the victim, and upon their refusal 
degrades them to the condition of Chandalas. After which the Sage 
teaches the victim a mantram the repetition of which brings the gods to 
his rescue; he then adopts Sunasepha for his elder son. (See Rdma- 
yana.) There are different versions of this story. 

Sung-Ming-Shu (Chin.). The Chinese tree of knowledge and tree 
of life. 

Siinya (Sk.). Illusion, in the sense that all existence is but a phan- 
tom, a dream, or a shadow. 

Sunyata (Sk.). Void, space, nothingness. The name of our objectiv(' 
universe in the sense of its unreality and illusiveness. 

Suoyator (Fin.). In the epic poem of the Finns, the Kalevala, the 
name for the primordial Spirit of Evil, fro^ whose saliva the serpent 
of sin was born. 

Surabhi (Sk.). The "cow of plenty"; a fabulous creation, one of the 
fourteen precious things yielded by the ocean of milk when churned by 
the gods. A "cow" which yields every desire to its possessor. 

Surarani (Sk.). A title of Aditi, the mother of the gods or suras. 

Suras (Sk.). A general term for gods, the same as devas; the con- 
trary to asuras or "no-gods". 



GLOSSARY 291 

Su-rasa (Sk.). A daug-hter of Daksha, Kashyapa's wife, and the 
mother of a thousand man3'-headed serpents and dragons. 
Surpa (Sk.). "Winnower." 

Surtur (Scand.). The leader of the fiery .sons of Muspel in the Eddas. 

Surukaya (Sk.). One of the "Seven Buddhas", or Sapta Tathdgata. 

Surya (Sk.). The Sun, worshipped in the Vedas. The offspring of 
Aditi (Space), the mother of the gods. The hus])and of Sanjna, or 
spiritual consciousness. The great god whom Visvakarman, his father- 
in-law, the creator of the gods and men, and their "carpenter", cruci- 
fies on a lathe, and cutting off the eighth part of his rays, deprives his 
head of its eflt'ulgency, creating round it a dark aureole. A mystery of 
the last initiation and an allegorical representation of it. 

Suryasiddhanta (Sk.). A Sanskrit treatise on astronomy. 

Suryavansa (Sk.). The solar race. A Surijavamee is one who claims 
descent from the lineage headed by Ikshvaku. Thus, while Rama belonged 
to the Ayodhya Dynasty of the Suryavansa, Krishna belonged to the 
line of Yadu of the lunar race, or the Chandravansa, as did Gautama 
Buddha. 

Suryavarta (Sk.). A degree or stage of Samadhi. 

Sushumna (Sk.). The solar ray — the first of the seven rays. Also 
the name of a spinal nerve which connects the heart with the Brahma- 
randra, and plays a most important part in Yoga practices. 

Sushupti Avastha (Sk.). Deep sleep; one of the four aspects of 
Pranava. 

Sutra (Sk.). The second division of the sacred writings, addressed to 
the Buddliist laity. 

Sutra Period (Sk.). One of the periods into which Vedic literature 
is divided. 

Sutratman (Sk.). Lit., "the thread of spirit"; the immortal Ego, 
the Individuality which incarnates in men one life after the other, and 
upon which are strung, like beads on a string, his countless Personalities. 
The universal life-supporting air, Saniashti pran ; universal energy. 

Svabhavat (Sk.). Explained by the Orientalists as "plastic sub- 
stance", which is an inadequate definition. Svabhavat is the world- 
substance and stuff, or rather that which is behind it — the spirit and 
essence of substance. The name comes from Suhhdva and is composed 
of three words — su, good, perfect, fair, handsome ; sva, self ; and bhdvd, 
being, or state of being. From it all nature ])roceeds and into it all re- 
turns at the end of the life-cycles. In Esoterieism it is called "Patlier- 
^lother". It is the plastic essence of matter. 

Svabhavika (Sk.). Tlie oldest existing seliool of Buddhism. They 
assigned the manifestation of the universe and physical phenomena to 
Svabhava or respective nature of things. According to Wilson the 
Svabhavas of tilings are "the inherent jn'operties of the qualities by 



292 THEOSOPHICAL 

M^hich they act, as soothing, terrific or stupefying, and the forms 
Swarupas are the distinction of biped, quadruped, brute, fish, animal 
and the like". 

Svadha (8k.). Oblation; allegorically called "the wife of the Pitris". 
the Agnishwattas and Barhishads. 

Svaha (Sk.). A customary exclamation meaning "May it be perpetu- 
ated" or rather, "so be it". When used at ancestral sacrifices (Bhra- 
manic), it means "May the race be perpetuated!" 

Svapada (Sk.). Protoplasm, cells, or microscopic organisms. 

Svapna (Sk.). A trance or dreamy condition. Clairvoyance. 

Svapna Avastha (Sk.). A dreaming state; one of tlie four aspects 
of Prdnava; a Yoga practice. 

Svaraj (Sk.). The last or seventh (synthetical) ray of the seven solar 
rays ; the same as Brahma. These seven rays are the entire gamut of 
the seven occult forces (or gods) of nature, as their respective names 
vs^ell prove. These are : Sushumna (the ray which transmits sunlight to 
the moon) ; Harikesha, Visvakarman, Visvatryarchas, Sannadhas, Sar- 
vavasu, and Svaraj. As each stands for one of the creative gods or 
Forces, it is easy to see how important were the functions of the sun in 
the eyes of antiquity, and why it was deified by the profane. 

Svarga (Sk.). A lieavenly abode, tlie same as Indra-loka ; a paradise. 
It is the same as — 

Svar-loka (Sk.). The paradise on Mount Meru. 

Svasam Vedana (Sk.). Lit., "the reflection which analyses itself"; a 
synonym of Paramartha. 

Svastika (Sk.). In popular notions, it is the Jaina cross, or the "four- 
footed" cross (croix cramponnee). In Masonic teachings, "the most 
ancient Order of the Brotherhood of the Mystic Cross" is said to have 
been founded by Fohi, 1,027 B.C., and introduced into China fifty-two 
years later, consisting of the three degrees. In Esoteric Pliilosophy, the 
most mystic and ancient diagram. It is "tlie originator of the fire by 
friction, and of the 'Forty-nine Fires'." Its symbol was stamped on 
Buddha's heart and therefore called the "Heart's Seal". It is laid on 
the breasts of departed Initiates after their death ; and it is mentioned 
with the greatest respect in the Rdmdyana. Engraved on every rock, 
temple and prehistoric building of India, and wherever Buddhists have 
left their landmarks ; it is also found in China, Tibet and Siam, and 
among the ancient Germanic nations as Thor's Hammer. As described 
by Eitel in his Hand-Book of Chinese Buddhism : (1) it is "found among 
Bonpas and Buddhists"; (2) it is "one of the sixty-five figures of the 
Sripada"; (3) it is "the symbol of esoteric Bucldhism"; (4) "the 
special mark of all deities worshipped by the Lotus School of China". 
Finally, and in Occultism, it is as sacred to us as the Pythagorean 
Tetraktys, of which it is indeed the double sj'mbol. 



GLOSSARY 293 

Svastikasana (Sk.). The secoud of the four principal postures of the 
t'ighty-four prescribed in Hatlia Yoga practices. 

Svayambhu (Sk.). A metaphysical and philosopliical term, meaning 
"the spontaneously self-produced" or the "self-existent being". An 
epithet of Brahma. Sva^-ambhuva is also tlie name of the first Manu. 

Svayambhu Sunyata (Sk.). Spontaneous self -evolution ; self-existence 
of tlie real in the unreal, i.e., of the Eternal Sat in the periodical Asat. 

Sveta (Sk.). A serpent-dragon; a son of Kashyapa. 

Sveta-dwipa (Sk.). Lit., the White Island or Continent; one of the 
Sapta-dwipa. Colonel Wilford sought to identify it with Great 
Britain, but failed. 

Sveta-lohita (Sk.). The name Siva when he appears in the 29th 
Kali)a as '"a moon-eoloured Kumara". 

Swedenborg, Emmanuel. The great Swedish seer and mystic. He was 
born on the 29tii January, 1688, and was the son of Dr. ^Tasper Swed- 
berg, bishop of Skara, in West Gothland ; and died in London, in Great 
Bath Street, Clerkenwell, on March 29th, 1772. Of all mystics, Sweden- 
borg has certainly influenced "Theosophy" the most, yet he left a far 
more profound impress on official science, l^^r while as an astronomer, 
mathematician, physiologist, naturalist, and philosopher he had no rival, 
iu.psychology and metaphysics he was certainly behind his time. When 
forty-six years of age, he became a "Theosophist", and a "seer"; but, 
although his life had been at all times blameless and respectable, he was 
never a true philanthropist or an ascetic. His clairvoyant powers, 
however, were very remarkable; but they did not go beyond this plane 
of matter ; all that he says of subjective worlds and spiritual beings is 
evidently far more the outcome of his exuberant fanc}', than of his 
spiritual insight. He left behind him numerous works, which are sadly 
misinterpreted by his followers. 

Sylphs. The Rosicrucian name for the elements of the air. 

Symbolism. The pictorial expression of an idea or a thought. 
Primordial writing had at first no characters, but a symbol generally 
stood for a whole phrase or sentence. A symbol is thus a recorded 
parable, and a parable a spoken symbol. The Chinese written language 
is nothing more than symbolical writing, each of its several thousand 
letters being a sj^mbol. 

Syzygy (Gr.). A Gnostic term, meaning a pair or couple, one active, 
the other passive. Used especially of ^ons. 



294 THEOSOPHICAL 



T. 

A • — The twentieth letter of the alphabet. In the Latin Alphabet its 
value was 160, and, with a dash over it (T) signified 160,000. It is 
the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, the Tan whose equivalents are T, 
TH, and numerical value 400. Its symbols are as a tau, a cross +, 
the foundation framework of construction; and as a teth (T), the ninth 
letter, a snake and the basket of the Eleusinian mysteries. 

Taaroa (Tah.). The creative power and chief god of the Tahitians. 

Tab-nooth (Heh.). Form;^>a Kabbalistic term. 

Tad-aikya (8k.). "Oneness"; identification or unity with the Abso- 
lute. The universal, unknowable Essence (Parabrahm) has no name 
in the Yedas but is referred to generally as Tad, "That". 

Tafne (Eg.). A goddess; daughter of the sun, represented with the 
head of a lioness. 

Tahmurath (Pers.). The Iranian Adam, whose steed was Simorgh 
Anke, the griffin-phoenix or infinite cycle. A repetition or reminiscence 
of Vishnu and Garuda. 

Tahor (Heh.). Lit., Mundus, the world; a name given to the Deity, 
whose identification indicates a belief in Pantheism. 

Taht Esmun (Eg.). The Egyptian Adam; the first human ancestor. 

Taijasi (Sk.). The radiant, flaming — from Tejas "fire"; used some- 
times to designate the Mdnasa-rupa, the "thought-body", and also the 
stars. 

Tairyagyonya (Sk.). The fifth creation, or rather the fifth stage of 
creation, that of the lower animals, reptiles, etc. (See "Tiryaksrotas".) 

Taittriya (Sk.). A Brahman a of the Yajur Veda. 

Talapoin (Siam.). A Buddhist monk and ascetic in Siam; some of 
these ascetics are credited with great magic powers. 

Talisman. From the Arabic tilism or tilsani, a "magic image". An 
object, whether in stone, metal, or sacred wood ; often a piece of parch- 
ment filled with characters and images traced under certain planetary 
influences in magical formula, given by one versed in occult sciences 
to one unversed, either with the object of preserving him from evil, or 
for the accomplishment of certain desires. The greatest virtue and 
efficacy of the talisman, however, resides in the faith of its possessor: 
not because of the credulity of the latter, or that it possesses no virtue, 
but because faith is a quality endowed with a most potent creative 
power; and therefore — unconsciously to the believer — intensifies a hun- 
dredfold the power originally imparted to the talisman by its maker. 



GLOSSARY 295 

Talmidai Hakhameem (Ilch.). A class of mystics and Kabbalists 
whom the Zohar calls "Disciples of the Wise", and who were Sdrisim 
or voluntary eunuchs, becoming such for spiritual motives. (See Mat- 
thew xix., 11-12, a passage implying the laudation of such an act.) 

Talmud (Heb.). Rabbinic Commentaries on the Jewish faith. It is 
composed of two parts, the older Mishnah, and the more modern Gemara. 
Hebrews, wlio call the Pentff,teuch tlic written law, call the Talmud 
the unwritten or oral law. [w.w.w.] 

The Talmud contains the civil and canonical laws of the Jews, who 
claim a great sanctity for it. For, save the above-stated difference 
between the Pentateuch and the Talmud, the former, they say, can claim 
no priority over the latter as both were received simultaneously by Moses 
on Mount Sinai from Jehovali, who ivrote the one and delivered the other 
orally. 

Tamala Pattra (Sk.). Stainless, pure, sage-like. Also the name of a 
leaf of the Laurus Cassia, a tree regarded as having various very occult 
and magical properties. 

Tamarisk, or Erica. A sacred tree in Egyj^t of great occult virtues. 
Many of the temples were surrounded with sucli trees, pre-eminently one 
at Philae, sacred among the sacred, as the body of Osiris was supposed 
to lie buried under it. 

Tamas (Sk.). The quality of darkness, "foulness" and inertia; also 
of ignorance, as matter is blind. A term used in metaphysical phil- 
osophy. It is tlie lowest of the three gunas or fundamental qualities. 

Tammuz (Syr.). A Syrian deity worshipped by idolatrous Hebrews 
as well as by Syrians. The women of Israel held annual lamentations 
over Adonis (that beautiful youth being identical with Tammuz). 
The feast held in his honour was solstitial, and began with the new 
moon, in the month of Tammuz (July), taking place chiefly at Byblos in 
Phcenicia ; but it was also celebrated as late as the fourth century of our 
era at Bethlehem, as we find St. Jerome writing {Epistles p. 49) his 
lamentations in these words: "Over Bethlehem, the grove of Tammuz, 
that is of Adonis, was casting its shadow ! And in the grotto where 
formerly the infant Jesus cried, the lover of Venus was being mourned." 
Indeed, in the Mysteries of Tammuz or Adonis a whole week was spent 
in lamentations and mourning. The funereal processions were succeeded 
by a fast, and later by rejoicings ; for after the fast Adonis-Tammuz was 
regarded as raised from the dead, and wild orgies of joy, of eating and 
drinking, as now in Easter week, went on uninterruptedly for several 
days. 

Tamra-Parna (Sk.). Ceylon, the ancient Taprobana. 

Tamti (Chald.). A goddess, the same as Belita. Tamti-Belita is the 
personified Sea, the mother of the City of Erech, the Chaldean 
Necropolis. Astronomically, Tamti is Astoreth or Istar, Venus. 



296 THEOSOPHICAL 

Tanaim (Heh.). Jewish Initiates, very learned Kabbalists in ancient 
times. The Talmud contains sundry legends about them and gives the 
chief names among them. 

Tanga-Tango (Peruv.). An idol much reverenced by the Peruvians. 
It is the symbol of the Triune or the Trinity, "One in three, and three 
in One", and existed before our era. 

Tanha (Pali). The thirst for life. Desire to live and clinging to life 
on this earth. This clinging is that which causes rebirth or re- 
incarnation. 

Tanjur (Tih.). A collection of Buddhist works translated from the 
Sanskrit into Tibetan and Mongolian. It is the more voluminous canon, 
comprising 225 large volumes on miscellaneous subjects. The Kanjur, 
which contains the commandments or the "Word of the Buddha", has 
only 108 volumes. 

Tanmatras (Sk.). The types or rudiments of the five Elements; the 
subtile essence of these, devoid of all qualities and identical with the 
properties of the five basic Elements— earth, water, fire, air and ether; 
i.e., the tanmatras are, in one of their aspects, smell, taste, touch, sight, 
and hearing. 

Tantra (Sk.). Lit., "rule or ritual". Certain mystical and magical 
works, whose chief peculiarity is the worship of the female power, 
personified in Sakti. Devi or Durga (Kali, Siva's wife) is the special 
energy connected with sexual rites and magical powers — the worst form 
of Mack magic or sorcery. 

Tantrika (Sk.). Ceremonies connected with the above worship. 
Sakti having a two-fold nature, white and black, good and bad, the 
Saktas are divided into two classes, the Dakshinacharis and Vamacharis, 
or the right-hand and the left-hand Saktas, i.e., "white" and "black" 
magicians. The worship of the latter is most licentious and immoral. 

Tao (Chin.). The name of the philosophy of Lao-tze. 

Taoer (Eg.). The female T}T)hon, the hippopotamus, called also 
Ta-ur, Ta-op-oer, etc. ; she is the Thoueris of the Greeks. This wife of 
Typhon was represented as a monstrous hippopotamus, sitting on her 
hind legs with a knife in one hand and the sacred knot in the other (the 
pdsa of Siva). Her back was covered with the scales of a crocodile, 
and she had a crocodile's tail. She is also called Teh, whence the name 
of Typhon is also, sometimes, Tehh. On a monument of the sixth 
dynasty she is called "the nurse of the gods". She was feared in Egypt 
even more than Typhon. (See "Typhon".) 

Tao-teh-king (Chin.). Lit., "The Book of the Perfectibility of Na- 
ture" written by the great philosopher Lao-tze. It is a kind of cos- 
mogony which contains all the fundamental tenets of Esoteric Cosmo- 
genesis. Thus he says that in the beginning there was naught but 
limitless and boundless Space, All that lives and is, was born in it, 
from the "Principle which exists by Itself, developing Itself from 



GLOSSARY 297 

Itself", i.e., Sivahhavat. As its name is unknown and its essence is 
unfathomable, pliilosoi)liers have called it Tao (Anima Mundi), the 
uncreate unborn and eternal energy of nature, manifesting periodically. 
Nature as well as man when it reaches purity will reach rest, and then 
all become one with Tao, which is the source of all bliss and felicity. 
As in the Hindu and Buddhistic philosopliies, such purity and bliss 
and immortality can only be reached through the exercise of virtue 
and perfect quietude of our worldly spirit ; the human mind has to 
control and finally subdue and even crush the turbulent action of man's 
physical nature ; and the sooner he reaches the required degree of moral 
purification, the happier he will feel. (See Annales du Musee Guimet, 
Vols. XT. and XIT. ; Etudes siir la Religion des Chinois, by Dr. Groot.) 
As the famous Sinologist, Pauthier, remarked: "Human Wisdom can 
never use language more holy and profound". 

Tapas (Sk.). "Abstraction", "meditation". "To perform tapas" is 
to sit for contemplation. Therefore ascetics are often called Tdpasas. 

Tapasa-taru (Sk.). The Sesamum Orient ale, a tree very sacred among 
the ancient ascetics of China and Tibet. 

Tapasvi (Sk.). Ascetics and anchorites of every religion, whether 
Buddhist, Brahman, or Taoist. 

Taphos (Gr.). Tomb, the sarcophagus placed in the Adytum and 
used for purposes of initiation. 

Tapo-loka (Sk.). The domain of the fire-devas named Vairajas. It 
is known as the "world of the seven sages", and also "the realm of 
penance". One of the Shashta-loka (six worlds) above our own, which 
is the seventh. 

^ Tara (Sk.). The wife of Brihaspati (Jupiter), carried away by King 
Soma, the Moon, an act which led to the war of the Gods with the 
Asuras. Tara personifies mystic knowledge as opposed to ritualistic 
faith. Slie is the mother (by Soma) of Buddha, "Wisdom". 

Taraka (Sk.). Described as a Danava or Daitya, i.e., a "Giant- 
Demon' ', whose superhuman austerities as a yogi made the gods tremble 
for their power and supremacy. Said to have been killed by Karttikeva 

(See Secret Doctrine, II., 382.) 

Tarakamaya (Sk.). The first war in Heaven through Tara. 

Taraka Raja Yoga (Sk.). One of tlie Brahminical Yoga systems for 
the development of purely spiritual powers and knowledge which lead to 
Nirvana. 

Targum (Chald.). Lit., "Interpretation", from the root tar gem, to 
interpret. Paraphrase of Hebrew Scriptures. Some of the Targums 
are very mystical, the Aramaic (or Targumatic) language being used 
all through the Zohar and other Kabbalistic works. To distinguish this 
language from the Hebrew, called the "face" of the sacred tongue, it is 
referred to as ahorayim, the "back part", the real meaning of which 
must be read between the lines, according to certain methods given to 



298 THEOSOPHICAL 

students. The Latin word tergum, "back", is derived from the Hebrew 
or rather Aramaic and Chaldean iargum. The Book of Daniel begins 
in Hebrew, and is fully comprehensible till chap, ii., v. 4, when the 
Clialdees (the IMagician-Initiates) begin speaking to the king in Aramaic 
— not in Syriac, as mistranslated in the Protestant Bible. Daniel speaks 
in Hebrew before interpreting the king's dream to him; but explains 
the dream itself (chap, vii.) in Aramaic. "So in Ezra iv., v. and vi., 
the words of the kings being there literally quoted, all matters con- 
nected therewith are in Aramaic," says Isaac Myer in his Qahlalah. 
The Targumim are of different ages, the latest already showing signs of 
the Massoretic or vowel-system, whieli made them still more full of 
intentional blinds. The precept of the Firke Ahoth (c. i., § 1), "Make a 
fence to the Thorah" (law), has indeed been faithfully followed in the 
Bible as in the Targumim; and wise is he who would interpret either 
correctly, unless he is an old Occultist-Kabbalist. 

Tashilhumpa (Tib.). The great centre of monasteries and colleges, 
three hours' walk from Tchigadze, the residence of the Teshu Lama 
for details of whom see "Panchen Rimboche". It was built in 1445 by 
the order of Tson-kha-pa. 

Tassissudun (Tih.). Lit., "the holy city of the doctrine" ; inhab- 
ited, nevertheless, by more Dugpas than Saints. It is the residential 
capital in Bhutan of the ecclesiastical Head of the Bhons — the Dharma 
Raja. ^ The latter though professedly a Northern Buddhist, is simply a 
worshipper of the old demon-gods of the aborigines, the nature-sprites 
or elementals, worshipped in the land before the introduction of Bud- 
dhism. All strangers are prevented from penetrating into Eastern or 
Great Tibet, and the few scholars who venture on their travels into 
those forbidden regions, are permitted to penetrate no further than the 
border-lands of the land of Bod. They journey about Bhutan, Sikkhim, 
and elsewhere on the frontiers of the country, but can learn or knoAV 
nothing of true Tibet; hence, nothing of the true Northern Buddhism 
or Lamaism of Tsong-kha-pa. And yet, while describing no more than 
the rites and beliefs of the Bhons and the travelling Shamans, they 
assure the world they are giving it the pure Northern Buddhism, and 
comment on its great fall from its pristine purity! 

Tat (Eg.). An Egyptian symbol: an upright round standard taper- 
ing toward the summit, with four cross-pieces placed on the top. It 
M'as used as an amulet. The top part is a regular equilateral cross. 
This, on its phallic basis, represented the two principles of creation, the 
male and the female, and related to nature and cosmos; but when the 
tat stood by itself, crowned with the atf (or atef), the triple crown of 
Horus — two feathers with the urteus in front — it represented the sep- 
tenary man; the cross, or the two cross-pieces, standing for the lower 
quaternary, and the atf for the higher triad. As Dr. Birch well re- 
marks: "The four horizontal bars , . . represent the four founda 
tions of all things, the tat being an emblem of stability". 



GLOSSARY 299 

Tathagata (8k.). "One who is like the coming"; he who is, like his 
predecessors (the Bnddlias) and successors, the coming future Buddha 
or World-Saviour. One of tlie titles of Gautama Buddha, and the 
highest epithet, since the first and the last Buddhas were the direct 
immediate avatars of the One Deity. 

Tathagatagupta (Sli.). Secret or concealed Tathagata, or the "guar- 
dian"' protecting Buddhas: used of the Nirmanakayas. 

Tattwa (8k.) Eternally existing "That"; also, the diflfereut prin- 
ciples in Nature, in their occult meaning. Tattwa 8amdsa is a work of 
Sankhya philosophy attributed to Kapila himself. 

Also the abstract principles of existence cr categories, physical and 
metaphysical. The subtle elements — five exoterically, seven in esoteric 
philosophy — which are correlative to the five and the seven senses on 
the physical plane ; the last two senses are as yet latent in man, but will 
be developed in the two last root-races. 

Tau (TJch.). That which has now become the square Hebrew letter^ 
fmi, but was ages before the invention of the Jewish alphabet, the 
Egyptian handled cross, the crux ansata of the Latins, and identical with 
the Egyptian ankh. This mark belonged exclusively, and still belongs, to 
the Adepts of every country. As Kenneth R. F. Mackenzie shows. "It 
was a symbol of salvation and consecration, and as such has been 
adopted as a ^Masonic symbol in the Royal Arch Degree". It is also 
called the astronomical cross, and was used by the ancient Mexicans — 
as its presence on one of the palaces at Palenque shows — as well as by 
the Hindus, who placed the tau as a mark on the brows of their Chelas. 

Taurus (Lat.). A most mysterious constellation of the Zodiac, one 
connected with all the "First-born" solar gods. Taurus is under the 
asterisk A, which is its figure in the Hebrew alphabet, that of Alcphr 
and therefore that constellation is called the "One", the "First", after 
the said letter. Hence, the "First-born", to all of whom it was made 
sacred. The Bull is the symbol of force and procreative power — the 
Logos; hence, also, the horns on the head of Isis, the female aspect of 
Osiris and Horus. Ancient mystics saw the ansated cross, in the horns 
of Taurus (the upper portion of the Hebrew Aleph) pushing away the 
Dragon, and Christians connected the sign and constellation with Christ. 
St. Augustine calls it "the great City of God", and the Egyptians called 
it the "interpreter of the divine voice", the Apis-Pacis of Hermonthis. 
(See "Zodiac".) 

Taygete (Gr.). One of the seven daughters of Atlas — the third, who 
became later one of the Pleiades. These seven daughters are said to 
typify the seven sub-races of the fourth root-race, that of the Atlanteans. 

[The 8anskrit ivords commencing with the letters Teh are, owing to 
faulty transliteration, misplaced and shotdd come under C] 

Tchaitya (8k.). Any locality made sacred through some event in the 
life of Buddha ; a term signifying the same relation to gods, and any 
kind of place or object of worship. 



300 THEOSOPHICAL 

Tchakchur (Sk.). The first Vidjndna (q.v.). Lit., "the eye'", mean- 
ing the faculty of sight, or rather, an occult perception of spiritual and 
subjective realities (Chakshur). 

Tchakra, or Cliahra (8k.). A spell. The disk of Vishnu, whicli 
served as a weapon ; the wheel of the Zodiac, also the wheel of time, 
etc. With Vishnu, it was a symbol of divine authority. One of the 
sixty-five figures of the Sripada, or the mystic foot-print of Buddha 
which contains that number of symbolical figures. The Tchakra is used 
in mesmeric phenomena and other abnormal practices. 

Tchandalas, or Chhanddlos (Sk.). Outcasts, or people without caste, a 
name now given to all the lower classes of the Hindus; but in antiquity 
it was applied to a certain class of men, who, having forfeited their 
right to any of the four castes — Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and 
Sudras — were expelled from cities and sought refuge in the forests. 
Then they became "bricklayers", until finally expelled they left the 
country, some 4,000 years before our era. Some see in them the an- 
cestors of the earlier Jews, whose tribes began with A-brahm or "No- 
Brahm". To tliis day it is the class most despised b}^ the Brahmins 
in India. 

Tchandragupta, or Chandragupta (Sk.). The son of Nanda, the first 
Buddhist King of the Morya Dynasty, the grandfather of King Asoka, 
"the beloved of the gods" (Piyadasi). 

Tchatur Maharaja (Sk.). The "four kings", Devas who guard the 
four quarters of the universe, and are connected with Karma. 

Tcherno-Bog Slavon.). Lit., "black god"; the chief deity of the 
ancient Slavonian nations. 

Tchertchen. An oasis in Central Asia, situated about 4,000 feet above 
the river Tchertchen Darya ; the very hot-bed and ceuire of ancient 
civilization, surrounded on all sides by numberless ruins, above and 
below ground, of cities, towns, and burial-places of every description. 
As the late Colonel Prjevalski reported, the oasis is inhabited by some 
3,000 people "representing the relics of about a hundred nations and 
races now extinct, the very names of which are at present unknown 
to ethnologists". 

Tchhanda Riddhi Pada (Sk.). "The step of desire", a term used 
in Raja Yoga. It is the final renunciation of all desire as a sine qua non 
condition of phenomenal powers, and entrance on the direct path of 
Nirvana. 

Tchikitsa Vidya Shastra (Sk.). A treatise on occult medicine, which 
contains a number of "magic" prescriptions. It is one of the Pancha 
Vidya Shdstras or Scriptures. 

Tchina (Sk.). The name of China in Buddhist works, the land being 
so called since tlie Tsin dynasty, which was established in the year 349 
before our era. 

Tchitta Riddhi Pada (Sk.). "The step of memory." The third 



GLOSSARY 301 

condition of the mj'stic series which leads to the acquirement of adept- 
ship ; i.e., the renunciation of physical memory, and of all tlioughts con- 
nected with worldly or personal events in one's life — benefits, personal 
pleasures or associations. Physical memory has to be sacrificed, and 
recalled by ivill power only when absolutely needed. The Riddhi Pdda, 
lit., the four "Steps to Riddhi'', are the four modes of controlling and 
finally of annihilating desire, memory, and finally meditation itself — 
so far as these are connected with any efifort of the physical brain — 
meditation then becomes absolutely spiritual. 

Tchitta Smriti Upasthana (Sk.). One of the four aims of Smriti 
Upasthana, i.e., the keeping ever in mind the transitory character of 
man's life, and the incessant revolution of the wheel of existence. 

Tebah (Heh.). Nature; which mystically and esoterically is the 
same as its personified Eloliim, the numerical value of both words — 
Tebah and Elohim (or Aleim) being the same, namelj^ 86. 

Tefnant (Eg.). One of the three deities who inhabit "the land of 
the rebirtli of gods" and good men, i.e., Aamroo (Devachan). The three 
d(uties are Scheo, Tefnant, and Seb. 

Telugu, One of the Dravidian languages spoken in Southern India. 

Temura (Heh.). Lit., "Change". The title of one division of the 
practical Kahalah, treating of the analogies between words, the rela- 
tionship of M^iich is indicated by certain changes in position of the let- 
ters, or changes by substituting one letter for another. 

Ten Pythagorean Virtues. Virtues of Initiation, &c., necessary before 
admission. (See "Pythagoras".) They are identical with those pre- 
scribed by Manu, and the Buddhist Paramitas of Perfection. 

Teraphim (He'd.). The same as Seraphir.i, or the Ivabeiri Gods; 
.serpent-images. Tlie first Teraphim, according to legend, were received 
by Dardanus as a dowry, and brought by him to Samothrace and Troy. 
The idol-oracles of the ancient Jews. Rebecca stole them from her 
father Laban. 

Teratology. A Greek name coined by GeofiProi St. Hilaire to denote 
the pre-natal formation of monsters, both human and animal. 

Tetragrammaton. The four-lettered name of God, its Greek title : 
tlie four letters are in Hebrew "yod, he, vau, he", or in English capitals, 
IHVH. The true ancient pronunciation is now unknown; the sincere 
Hebrew considered this name too sacred for speech, and in reading the 
sacred writings he substituted the title "Adonai", meaning Lord. In 
the Kahhedah, I is associated with Chokmah, 11 with Binah, V with 
Tiphereth, and H final with Malkuth. Christians in general call IHVH 
Jehovah, and many modern Biblical scholars write it Yahvah. In the 
Secret Doctrine, the name Jeliovah is assigned to Sephira Binah alone, 
but this attribution is not recognised by tlie Rosicrucian school of Kab- 
balists, nor by Mathers in his translation of Knorr Von Rosenroth's 
Kahhedah Denudata: certain Kabbalistie authorities have referred Binah 



302 THEOSOPHICAL 

alone to IHVH, but only in reference to the Jehovah of the exoteric 
Judaism. The IHVH of the Kabbalah has but a faint resemblance to 
the God of the Old Testament, [w.w.w.] 

The Kahhnlah of Knorr von Rosenroth is no authority to the Eastern 
Kabbalists; because it is well known that in writing his Kahhalak 
Denudata he followed the modern rather than the ancient (Chaldean) 
MSS. ; and it is equally well known that those MSS. and writings of the 
Zohar that are classfiied as "ancient", mention, and some even use, the 
Hebrew vowel or Massoretic points. This alone would make these would- 
be Zoharic books spurious, as there are no direct traces of the Massorah 
scheme before the tenth century of our era, nor any remote trace of it 
before the seventh. (See "Tetrakt3\s".) 

Tetraktys (Gr.). or the Tetrad. The sacred "Four" by which the 
Pythagoreans swore, this being their most binding oath. It has a very 
mystic and varied signification, being the same as the Tetragrammaton. 
First of all it is Unity, or the ' ' One ' ' under four different aspects ; then 
it is the fundamental number Four, the Tetrad containing the Decad, or 
Ten, the number of perfection; finally it signifies the primeval Triad 
(or Triangle) merged in the divine Monad. Kircher, the learned Kab- 
balist-Jesuit, in his (Edipus yEgypticus (II., p. 267), gives the Ineffable 
Name IHVH — one of the Kabbalistic formula of the 72 names — arranged 
in the shape of the Pythagorean Tetrad. Mr. I. Myer gives it in this 
wise : 



1 




^ 




10 


2 


The Ineffable 


n^ 




15 


3 


Name thus 


1.T 




21 


4 




mn^ 




26 


10 








72 



He also shows that "the sacred Tetrad of the Pythagoreans appears to 
have been known to the ancient Chinese". As explained in Isis Unveiled 
(I, xvi.) : The mystic Decad, the resultant of the Tetraktys, or the 
1+24-3+4=10, is a way of expressing this idea. The One is the im- 
personal principle 'God'; the Two, matter; the Three, combining Monad 
and Duad and partaking of the nature of both, is the phenomenal world ; 
the Tetrad, or form of perfection, expresses the emptiness of all; and 
the Decad, or sum of all, involves the entire Kosmos. 
Thalassa (GrJ. The sea. (See "Thallath".). 

Thales (Gr.). The Greek philosopher of Miletus (circa 600 years 
B.C.) who taught that the whole universe was produced from water, 
while Heraclitus of Ephesus maintained that it was produced by fire, 
and Anaximenes by air. Thales, whose real name is unknown, took his 
name from Thallath, in accordance with the philosophy he taught. 

Thallath (Chald.). The same as Thalassa. The goddess personifying 
the sea, identical with Tiamat and connected with Tamti and Belita. 



GLOSSARY 303 

Tile goddess who gave birth to every variety of j^i-iinordial monster in 
Berosns' aeeount of cosmogony. 

Tharana (Sk.). "Mesmerism", or rather self-induced trance or self- 
hypnotisation ; an action in India, which is of magical character and a 
kind of exorcism. Lit., "to l)riish or sweep away" (evil influences, 
iharhn meaning a broom, and tharnhan, a duster) ; driving away the bad 
hhuts (bad aura and bad spirits) through the mesmeriser's beneficent 
will. 

Thaumaturgy. Wonder or "miracle-working"; the power of work- 
ing wonders with the help of gods. From the Greek words fhnvma, 
"wonder", and ihcurgia, "divine work". 

Theanthropism. A state of being botli god and man ; a divine Avatar 

(q.v.). 

Theiohel (Hch.). Tlie man-producing habitable globe, our earth in 
The Zohar. 

Theli (Chald.J. The great dragon said to environ the universe svm- 
bolieally. In Hebrew letters it is TLI=400-f 30+10=440: when "its 
crest [initial letter] is repressed", said the Rabbis, 40 remains, or the 
equivalent of Mem; M=Water, the waters above the firmament. Evi- 
dently the same idea as symbolised by Shesha — the Serpent of Vishnu. 

Theocrasy. Lit., "mixing of gods". The worship of various gods, as 
that of Jehovah and the gods of the Gentiles in the case of the idolatrous 
Jews. 

Theodicy. "Divine right", i.e., the privilege of an all-merciful and 
just God to affiict the innocent, and damn those predestined, and still 
remain a loving and just Deity : theologically — a mystery. 

Theodidaktos (Gr.). Lit., "God-taught". Used of Ammonius Saccas, 
the founder of the Neo-Platonic Eclectic School of the Philalethfe in the 
fourth century at Alexandria. 

Theogony. The genesis of the gods ; that branch of all non-Christian 
theologies which teaches the genealogy of the various deities. An 
ancient Greek name for that which was translated later as the "gene- 
alogy of the generation of Adam and the Patriarchs" — the latter being 
all "gods and planets and zodiacal signs". 

Theomachy. Fighting with, or against the gods, such as the "War 
of the Titans", the "War in Heaven" and the Battle of the Archangels 
(gods) against their brothers the Arch-fiends (ex-gods, Asuras, etc.). 

Theomancy. Divination through oracles, fi'om theos, a god, and 
Diantt id, divination. 

Theopathy. SuttVring for one's god. Religious fanaticism. 

Theophilanthropism (Gr.). Love to God and man, or rather, in the 
philosophical sense, love of God through love of Humanity. Certain 
persons who during the first revolution in France sought to replace 
Christianity by pure philanthropy and reason, called themselves theophi- 
lanthropists. 



304 THEOSOPHICAL 

Theophilosophy. Theism and philosopliy combined. 

Theopneusty. Revelation ; something given or inspired by a god 
or divine being. Divine inspiration. 

Theopoea (Gr.). A magic art of endowing inanimate figures, statues, 
and other objects, with life, speech, or locomotion. 

Theosophia (Gr.). AVisdom-religion, or "Divine Wisdom". The 
substratum and basis of all the world-religions and philosophies, taught 
and practised by a few elect ever since man became a thinking being. 
In its practical bearing, Theosophy is purely divine ethics ; the defini- 
tions in dictionaries are pure nonse;ise, based on religious prejudice and 
ignorance of the true spirit of the early Rosicrucians and mediaeval 
philosophers who called themselves Theosophists. 

Theosophical Society, or ''Universal Brotherhood". Founded in 1875 
at New York, by Colonel H. S. Olcott and H. P. Blavatsky, helped by 
W. Q. Judge and several others. Its avowed object was at first the 
scientific investigation of psycliic or so-called "spiritualistic" phenom- 
ena, after which its three chief objects were declared, namely (1) Broth- 
erhood of man, without distinction of race, colour, religion, or social 
position; (2) tht^ serious study of the ancient world-religions for pur- 
poses of comparison and the selection therefrom of universal ethics; (3) 
the study and development of the latent divine powers in man. At the 
present moment it has over 250 Branches scattered all over the world, 
most of which are in India, where also its chief Headquarters are estab- 
lished. It is composed of several large Sections — the Indian, the Ameri- 
can, the Australian, and the European Sections. 

Theosophists. A name by which many mystics at various periods of 
history have called themselves. The Neo-Platonists of Alexandria were 
Theosophists; the Alchemists and Kabbalists during the mediaeval ages 
were likewise so called, also the Martinists, the Quietists, and other kinds 
of mystics, whether acting independently or incorporated in a brother- 
hood or society. All real lovers of divine Wisdom and Truth had, and 
have, a right to the name, rather than tliose who, appropriating the 
qualification, live lives or perform actions opposed to the principles of 
Theosophy. As described by Brother Kenneth R. Mackenzie, the 
Theosophists of the past centuries — "entirely speculative, and founding 
no schools, have still exercised a silent influence upon philosophy ; and, 
no doubt, when the time arrives, many ideas thus silently propounded 
may yet give new directions to human thought. One of the ways in 
which these doctrines have obtained not only authority, but power, has 
been among certain enthusiasts in the higher degrees of Masonry. This 
power has, however, to a great degree died with the founders, and mod- 
ern Freemasonry contains few traces of theosophic influence. However 
accurate and beautiful some of the ideas of Swedenborg, Pernetty, Pas- 
chalis, Saint Martin, Marconis, Ragon, and Chastanier may have been, 
they have but little direct influence on society." This is true of the 
Theosophists of the last three centuries, but not of the later ones. For 



GLOSSARY 3Q5 

tlie Theosophists of the current century have already visibly impressed 
themselves on modern literature, and introduced the desire and craving 
for some philosophy in place of the blind dogmatic faith of yore, among 
the most intelligent portions of human-kind. Such is the difference 
between past and modern Theosophy. 

Therapeiitse (Gr.). or Therapeutes. A school of Esotericists, which 
was an inner group within Alexandrian Judaism and not, as generally 
believed, a "sect". They were "healers" in the sense that some "Chris- 
tian" and "Mental" Scientists, members of the T.S., are healers, while 
tliey are at the same time good Theosophists and students of the esoteric 
sciences. Philo Judfeus calls them "servants of god". As justly shown 
in Apictionari/ of . . . LitcraUire, Sects, and Doctrines (Vol. IV., 
art. "Philo Judc^us") in mentioning the Therapeutes— " There appears 
no reason to think of a special 'sect', but rather of an esoteric circle of 
illunnnati, of 'wise men' . . . They were contemplative Hellenistic 
Jews. ' 

Thermutis (Eg.). The asp-crown of the goddess Isis; also the name 
of the legendary daughter of Pharaoh who is alleged to have saved 
Moses from the Nile. 

Thero (Pali). A priest of Buddha. Thcrunnanse, also. 

Theurgia, or Theurgy (Gr.). A communication with, and means of 
bringing down to earth, planetary spirits and angels— the "gods of 
Light". Knowledge of the inner meaning of their hierarchies, and 
purity of life alone can lead to the acquisition of the powers necessary 
for communion with them. To arrive at such an exalted goal the as- 
pirant must be absolutely worthy and unselfish. 

Theurgist. The first school of practical theurgy (from Qeog, god, 
and hgyov, work,) in the Christian period, was founded by lamblichus 
among certain Alexandrian Platonists. The priests, however who were 
attached to tlie temples of Egypt, Assyria, Babvlonia and Greece, and 
whose business it was to evoke the gods during the celebration of the 
Mysteries, were known by this name, or its equivalent in other tono-ues 
trom the earliest archaic period. Spirits (but not those of the dead, the 
evocation of which was called Necromancy) were made visible to the eyes 
of mortals. Thus a theurgist had to be a liierophant and an expert in 
the esoteric learning of the Sanctuaries of all great countries. The Neo- 
platonists of the scliool of lamblichus were called theurgists for thev 
performed the so-called "ceremonial magic", and evoked the simulacra 
or the images of the ancient heroes, "gods", and daimonia ( ^auiovia 
divine spiritual entities). In the rare cases when the presence of a 
tangiUe and visible "spirit" was required, the theurgist had to furnish 
the weird apparition with a portion of his own flesh and blood— he had 
to pertorm the theopaa, or the "creation of gods", bv a mvsterious 
pi;ocess well known to the old, and perhaps some of the modern, 
lantrikas^^mX initiated Brahmans of India. Such is what is said in the 
Book of Evocations of the pagodas. It shows the perfect identity of rites 



306 THEOSOPHICAL 

and ceremonial between the oldest Bralimanic theurgy and that of the 
Alexandrian Platonists. 

The following is from I sis Unveiled: "The Brahman Grihasta (tlie 
evocator) must be in a state of complete purity before he ventures to call 
forth the Pitris. After having prepared a lamp, some sandal -incense, 
etc., and having traced the magic circles taught him by the superior 
Guru, in order to keep away had spirits, he ceases to breathe, and calls 
the fire (Knndalini) to his help to disperse his body." He pronounces a 
certain number of times the sacred word, and "his soul (astral body) 
escapes from its prison, his body disappears and the soul (image) of 
the evoked spirit descends into the doiiMe body and animates it". Then 
"his (the theurgist's) soul (astral) re-enters its body, whose subtile 
particles have again been aggregating (to the objective sense), after 
having formed for themselves an aerial body for the deva (god or 
spirit) he evoked". . . . And then, the operator propounds to the 
latter questions "on the mysteries of Being and the transformation of 
the imperishahle". The popular prevailing idea is that the theurgists, 
as well as the magicians, worked wonders, such as evoking the souls or 
shadows of the heroes and gods, and other thaumaturgic works, by super- 
natural powers. But this never was the fact. They did it simply by 
the liberation of their own astral body, which, taking the form of a god 
or liero, served as a medium or vehicle through which the special current 
preserving the ideas and knowledge of that hero or god could be reached 
and manifested. (See "lambliclms".) 

Thirty-two Ways of Wisdom (Kah.). The Zohar says that Chochmah 
or Hokhmah (wisdom) generates all things "by means of (these) thirty- 
two paths." {Zohar iii., 290a). The full account of them is found in 
the Sepher Yczirah, wherein letters and numbers constitute as entities 
the Thirty-two Paths of Wisdom, by which the Elohim built the whole 
Universe. For, as said elsewhere, the brain "hath an outlet from Zeir 
Anpin, and therefore it is spread and goes out to thirty-two ways". Zeir 
Anpin, the "Short Face" or the "Lesser Countenance", is the Heavenly 
Adam, Adam Kadmon, or Man. Man in the Zohar is looked upon as 
the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet to which the decad is 
added ; and hence the thirty-two symbols of his faculties or paths. 

Thohu-Bohu (Heh.). From Tohoo — "the Deep" and BoMt "primeval 
Space" — or tlie Deep of Primeval Space, loosely rendered as "Chaos", 
"Confusion" and so on. Also spelt and pronounced ^^tohu-hohu". 

Thomei (Eg.). The Goddess of Justice, with eyes bandaged and hold- 
ing a cross. The same as the Greek Themis. 

Thor (Scand.). From Thonar to "thunder". The son of Odin and 
Freya, and the chief of all Elemental Spirits. The god of thunder, 
Jupiter Tonans. The word Thursday is named after Thor. Among the 
Romans Thursday was the day of Jupiter, Jovis dies, Jeudi in French' — 
the fiftli day of the week, sacred also to the planet Jupiter. 

Thorah (Heh.). "Law", written down from the transposition of the 



GLOSSARY 3Q7 

letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Of the '■hidden Thorah" it is said that 
before At-tee-kah (the "Ancient of all the Ancients") had arranfjed 
Itself into limbs (or members) preparing: Itself to manifest, It willed to 
create a Thorah ; the latter upon being: produced addressed It in tliese 
words: "It, that wishes to arrange and to appoint other thinf::s, should 
tirst of all, arrang:e Itself in Its proper Forms". In other words, Thorah. 
the Law, snubbed its Creator from the moment of its birth, according to 
the above which is an interpolation of some later Talmudist. As it grew 
and developed, the mystic Law of the primitive Kabbalist was trans- 
formed and made by the Rabbins to supersede in its dead letter every 
metaphysical conception ; and thus the Rabbinical and Talmudistic Law 
makes Ain Soph and every divine Principle subservient to itself, and 
turns its back upon the true esoteric interpretations. 

Thor's Hammer. A weapon which had the form of the Svastika ; 
called by European Mystics and Masons the "Hermetic Cross", and 
also "Jaina Cross", croix crampon nl' e ; the most archaic, as the most 
sacred and universally respected symbol. (See "Svastika".) 

Thoth (Eg.). The most mysterious and the least understood of gods, 
whose personal character is entirely distinct from all other ancient 
deities. While the permutations of Osiris, Isis, Horus, and the rest, are 
so numberless that their individuality is all but lost, Thoth remains 
changeless from the first to the last Dynasty. He is the god of wisdom 
and of authority over all other gods. He is the recorder and the judge. 
His ibis-head, the pen and tablet of the celestial scribe, who records the 
thougiits, words and deeds of men and weighs them in the balance, liken 
him to the type of the esoteric Lipikas. His name is one of the first that 
appears on the oldest monuments. He is the lunar god of the first 
dynasties, the master of Cynocephalus — the dog-headed ape who stood 
in Egypt as a living symbol and remembrance of the Third Root-Race. 
(Secret Doctrine, II. pp. 184 and 185). He is the "Lord of Hermopolis" 
— Janus, Hermes and Mercury combined. He is crowned with an atef 
and the lunar disk, and bears the "Eye of Horus", the third eye, in his 
hand. He is the Greek Hermes, the god of learning, and Hermes 
Trismegistus, the "Thrice-great Hermes", the patron of physical sci- 
ences and the patron and very soul of the occult esoteric knowledge. 
As Mr. J. Bonwick, F.R.G.S., beautifully expresses it: "Thoth . . . 
has a powerful efit'eet on the imagination ... in this intricate j^et 
beautiful phantasmagoria of thought and moral sentiment of that 
shadowy past. It is in vain we ask ourselves however man, in the infancy 
of this world of humanity, in the rudeness of supposed incipient civiliza- 
tion, could have dreamed of such a heavenly being as Thoth. The lines 
are so delicately drawn, so intimately and tastefully interwoven, that 
we seem to regard a picture designed by the genius of a Milton, and 
executed with the skill of a Raphael." Verily, there was some truth in 
the old saying, "The wisdom of the Egyptians". . . . "When it is 
shown that the wife of Cephren, builder of the second Pyramid, was a 
priestess of Thoth, one sees that the ideas comprehended in him were 



308 THEOSOPHICAL 

fixed 6,000 years ago". According to Plato, " Thoth-Hermes was the 
discoverer and inventor of numbers, geometry, astronomy and letters". 
Proclus, the disciple of Plotinus, speaking of this mysterious deity, says : 
' ' He presides over every species of condition, leading us to an intelligible 
essence from this mortal abode, governing the different herds of souls". 
In other words Tlioth, as the Registrar and Recorder of Osiris in Amenti, 
the Judgment Hall of the Dead was a psychopompic deity ; while 
Tamblichus hints that "the cross with a handle (the than or tau) which 
Tot holds in his hand, was none other than the monogram of his name". 
Besides the Tau, as the prototype of Mercury, Thoth carries the serpent- 
rod, emblem of Wisdom, the rod that becomes the Caduceus. Says Mr. 
Bonwick, "Hermes was the serpent itself in a mystical sense. He glides 
like that creature, noiselessly, without apparent exertion, along the 
course of ages. He is ... a representative of the spangled heavens. 
But he is tlie foe of the bad serpent, for the ibis devoured the snakes of 
Egypt". 

Thothori Nyan Tsan (Tib.). A King of Tibet in the fourth century. 
It is narrated that during his reign he was visited by tive mysterious 
strangers, who revealed to him how he might use for his country's wel- 
fare four precious things which had fallen down from heaven, in 331 a.d., 
in a golden casket and "the use of which no one knew". These were 
(1) hands folded as the Buddhist ascetics fold them; (2) a be-jewelled 
Shorten (a Stupa built over a receptacle for relics) ; (3) a gem inscribed 
with the "Aum mani padme hum"; and (4) the Zamatog, a religious 
work on ethics, a part of the Kanjur. A voice from heaven then told 
the King that after a certain number of generations every one would 
learn how precious these four things were. The number of generations 
stated carried the world to the seventh century, when Buddhism became 
the accepted religion of Tibet. Making an allowance for legendary 
licence, the four things fallen from heaven, the voice, and the five 
mysterious strangers, may be easily seen to have been historical facts. 
They were without any doubt five Arhats or Bhikshus from India, on 
their proselytising tour. Many were the Indian sages who, persecuted 
in India for their new faith, betook themselves to Tibet and China. 

Thrsetaona (Mazd.). The Persian Michael, who contended with Zorak 
or Azhi-Dahaka, the destroying serpent. In the Avcsta Azhi-Dahaka is 
a three-headed monster, one of whose heads is human and the two others 
Ophidian. Dahaka, who is shown in the Zoroastrian Scriptures as com- 
ing from Babylonia, stands as the allegorical symbol of the Assyrian 
dynasty of King Dahaka (Az-Dahaka) which ruled Asia with an iron 
hand, and whose banners bore the purple sign of the dragon, purpureimi 
signum draconis. Metaphysically, however, the human head denotes the 
physical man, and the two serpent heads the dual manasic principles — 
the dragon and serpent both standing as symbols of Avisdom and occult 
powers. 

Thread Soul. The same as Sutrdtmd (q.v.). 



GLOSSARY 309 

Three Degrees (of Tnitiation). Every nation had its'exoteric and 
(,'soteric relipion, tlic one for the masses, tlie other for the learned and 
elect. For exanijile, the Hindus had three dej^rees with several sub- 
degrees. The Egyptians had also three preliminary degrees, personified 
under the "three guardians of the fire" in the Mysteries. The Chinese 
had their most ancient Triad Societ.y : and the Tibetans have to this day 
their "triple step"; which wls symbolized in the Vcdas by the three 
strides of Vishnu. Everywhere antiquity shows an unbounded reverence 
for the Triad and Triangle — the first geometrical hgure. The old 
Babylonians had their three stages of initiation into the priesthood 
(which was then esoteric knowledge) ; the Jews ,the Kabbalists and 
mystics borrowed them from the Chaldees, and the Christian Church 
from the Jews. "There are Two", says Rabbi Simon ben Jocliai, "in 
conjunction with One ; hence they are Three, and if they are Three, then 
they are One." 

Three Faces. The Trimurti of the Indian Pantheon ; tlie three j)ersons 
of the one godhead. Says the Book of Precepts : ' ' There are two Faces, 
one in Tushita (Devdchdn) and one in My alia (earth) ; and the Highest 
Holy unites them and finally absorbs both." 

Three Fires (Occult). The name given to Atma-Buddhi-Manas. which 
when united become one. 

Thsang Thisrong tsan (Tib.). A king who flourished between the 
years 728 and 787, and who invited from Bengal Pandit Rakshit, called 
for his great learning Bodhisattva, to come and settle in Tibet, in order 
to teach Buddhist philosophy to his priests. 

Thumi Sambhota (Sl\). An Indian mystic and man of erudition, tlie 
inventor of the Tibetan alphabet. 

Thummim (Hch.). "Perfections." An ornament on the breastplates 
of the ancient High Priests of Judaism. Modern Rabbins and Hebraists 
may well pretend they do not know the joint purposes of the Thummim 
and the JJrim; but the Kabbalists do and likewise the Occultists. They 
were the instruments of magic divination and oracular communication 
— theurgic and astrological. This is shown in the folloAving well-known 
facts: — (1) upon each of the twelve precious stones Avas engraved the 
name of one of the twelve sons of Jacob, each of these "sons" personat- 
ing one of the signs of the zodiac; (2) both were oracular images, like the 
tcraphim, and uttered oracles by a voice, and both were agents for hyp- 
notisation and throwing the priests who wore them into an ecstatic 
condition. The TJrim and Thummim were not original with the Hebrews, 
but had been borrowed, like most of their other religious rites, from the 
Egyptians, with whom the mystic scarab.neus, worn on the breast by the 
Hierophants, had the same functions. They were thus purely hcathcu 
and magical modes of divination; and when the Jewish "Lord God" was 
called upon to manifest his presence and speak out his will through the 
Urim by preliminary incantations, the modus operandi was the same as 
that u.sed l)y all the Gentile priests the Avorld over. 



310 THEOiSOPHICAL 

Thumos (Gr.). The astral, animal soul; the Kama-Manas; Thumos 
means passion, desire and confusion and is so used by Homer. The word 
is probably derived from the Sanskit Tamas, which has the same 
meaning. 

Tia-Huanaco (Peruv.). Most magnificent ruins of a pre-historic city 
in Peru. 

Tiamat (Chald.). A female dragon personifying the ocean; the 
"great mother" or the living principle of chaos. Tiamat wanted to 
swallow Bel, but Bel sent a wind which entered her open mouth and 
killed Tiamat. 

Tiaou (Eg.). A kind of Devachanic post morteyn state. 

Tien-Hoang (Chin.). The twelve hierarchies of Dhyanis. 

Tien-Sin (Chin.). Lit., "the heaven of mind", or abstract, subjective, 
ideal heaven. A metaphysical term applied to the Absolute. 

Tikkun (Chald.). Manifested Man or Adam Kadmon, the first ray 
from the manifested Logos. 

Tiphereth (Hch.). Beauty; the sixth of the ten Sephiroth, a mascu- 
line active potency, corresponding to the Vau, V, of the Tetragrammaton 
IHVH; also called Melekh or King; and the Son. It is the central 
Sephira of the six which compose Zauir Anpin, the Microprosopus, or 
Lesser Countenance. It is translated "Beauty" and "Mildness". 

Tirthakas, or T'lrtjiika and Tirthyas (8k.). "Heretical teachers." 
An epithet applied by the Buddhist ascetics to the Brahmans and cer- 
tain Yogis of India. 

Tirthankara (8k.). Jaina saints and chiefs, of which there are 
twenty-four. It is claimed that one of them was the spiritual Guru of 
Gautama Buddha. Tirthankara is a synonym of Jaina. 

Tiryaksrota (8k.). From tiryak "crooked", and srotas (digestive) 
"canal". The name of the "creation" by Brahma of men or beings, 
whose stomachs were, on account of their erect position as bipeds, in a 
horizontal position. This is a Puranic invention, absent in Occultism. 

Tishya (8k.). The same as Kaliyuga, the Fourth Age. 

Titans (Gr.). Giants of divine origin in Greek mythology who made 
war against the gods. Prometheus was one of them. 

Titiksha (8k.). Lit., "long-suffering, patience". Titiksha, daughter 
of Daksha and wife of Dharma (divine law) is its personification. 

To On (Gr.). The "Being", the "Ineffable All" of Plato. He 
"whom no person has seen except the Son". 

Tobo (Gnost.). In the Codex Nazaroeus, a mysterious being which 
bears the soul of Adam from Orcus to the place of life, and thence is 
called "the liberator of the soul of Adam". 

Todas. A mysterious people of India found in the unexplored fast- 
nesses of Nilgiri (Blue) Hills in the Madras Presidency, whose origin, 
language and religion are to this day unknown. They are entirely 



GLOSSARY 3-^-j^ 

distinct, etlinically. pliilolof^'ieally, and in vvery other Avay, from the 
Bddagas and the Mi(lakurii)nhas, two other races found on the same hills. 

Toom (Eg.). A g-od issued from Osiris in his character of the Great 
Deep Noot. He is tlie Protean god who f>enerates other gods, "assumino- 
the form he likes". He is Fohat. (Secret Doctrine, I., 673.) 

Tope. An artificial mound covering relics of Buddha or some other 
great Arhat. The Topes are also called Dagobas. 

Tophet (llch.). A place in the valley of Gehenna, near Jerusalem, 
where a constant fire was kept burning, in which children w^ere im- 
molated to Baal. The locality is thus the prototype of the Christian 
Hell, the fiery Gehenna of endless woe. 

Toralva, Dr. Eugene. A physician who lived in the fourteenth 
century, and wlio received as a gift from Friar Pietro, a great magician 
and a Dominican monk, a demon named Zequiel to be his faithful 
servant. (See Isis Unveiled II., 60.) 

Toyambudhi (Sk.). A country in the northern part of which lav the 
"White M'dnd"~Shveta Duupa—one of the seven Puranic islands or 
continents. 

Trailokya, or Trilokya (8k.). Lit., the "three regions" or worlds; the 
complementary triad to the Brahmanical quartenary of worlds named 
Bhuvanatraya. A Buddhist profane layman will mention only three 
divisions of every w^orld, while a non-initiated Brahman will maintain 
that there are four. The four divisions of the latter are purely phvsical 
and sensuous, the Trailokya of the Buddhist are purely spiritual and 
ethical. The Brahmanical division may be found fully described under 
the heading of Vyahritis, the difference being for the present sufificientlv 
shown in the following parallel : — 

Brahmanical Division of the Buddhist Division of the Re- 

Worlds, gions. 

1. World of Desire, Kduiadhdtii or 

1. Bhur, earth. Kdmaloka. 

2. Bhuvah, heaven, firmament. 2. World of foi-m, Rupa-dhdtu. 

3. Sivar, atmosphere, the sky. )o mi. i. 

4. Mahar, eternal luminous essence, j^* ^^® formless world, Artipadhdfn. 

All these are the worlds of post mortem states. For instance. 
Kdmaloka or Kamadhatu, the region of IMara. is tliat wliicJi median-al 
and modern Kabalists call the world of astral light, and the "world 
of shells". Kdmaloka has, like every other region, its seven divisions, 
the lowest of wliicli begins on earth or invisibly in its atmosphere ; the 
SIX others ascend gradually, the highest being tlie abode of those who liave 
died owing to accident, or suicide in a fit of temporary insanity, or were 
otherwise victims of external forces. It is a place where' all those 
who have died before the end of the term allotted to tnem, and whose 
higher principles do not, therefore, go at once into Devachanic state- 
sleep a dreamless sweet sleep of oblivion, at the termination of which 



312 THEOSOPHICAL 

they are either reborn immediately, or pass gradually into the Devach- 
anic state. Rupadkdtu is tlie celestial world of form, or what we call 
Devdchdn. With the uninitiated Brahmans, Chinese and other Budd- 
hists, the Rilpadhatu is divided into eighteen Brahma or Devalokas; 
the life of a soul therein lasts from half a Yuga up to 16,000 Yugas or 
Kalpas, and the height of the" Shades" is from half a Yojana up to 
16,000 Yojanas (a Yojana measuring from five and a half to ten miles! !), 
and such-like theological twaddle evolved from priestly brains. But the 
Esoteric Philosophy teaches that though for the Egos for the time being, 
everything or everyone preserves its form (as in a dream), yet as 
Rupadhatu is a purely mental regi&n, and a state, the Egos themselves 
have no form outside their own consciousness. Esotericism divides this 
"region" into seven Dhyanas, "regions", or states of contemplation, 
M^hich are not localities but mental representatives of these. Arupadhdtu : 
this "region" is again divided into seven Dhyanas, still more abstract 
and formless, for tliis "World" is without any form or desire whatever. 
It is the highest region of the 2^ost mortem, Trailokya; and as it is the 
abode of those who are almost ready for Nirvana, and is, in fact, the 
very threshold of the Nirvanic state, it stands to reason that in Arupad- 
hatu (or Arupavachara) there can be neither form nor sensation, nor 
any feeling connected witli our three dimensional Universe. 

Trees of Life. From the liighest antiquity trees were connected with 
the gods and mystical forces in nature. Every nation had its sacred 
tree, with its peculiar characteristics and attributes based on natural, 
and also occasionally on occult properties, as expounded in the esoteric 
teachings. Thus the peepul or AsJivattha of India, the abode of Pitris 
(elementals in fact) of a lower order, became the Bo-tree or ficns 
religiosa of the Buddhists the world over, since Gautama Buddha reached 
the highest knowledge and Nirvana under such a tree. The ash tree, 
Yggdrasil, is the world-tree of the Norsemen or Scandinavians. The 
banyan tree is the symbol of spirit and matter, descending to the earth, 
striking root, and then re-ascending heavenward again. The triple- 
leaved paldsa is a symbol of the triple essence in the Universe — Spirit, 
Soul, Matter. The dark cypress was the world-tree of Mexico, and is 
now with the Cliristians and Mahomedans the emblem of death, of peace 
and rest. The fir was held sacred in Egypt, and its cone was carried in 
religious processions, though now it has almost disappeared from the 
land of the mummies ; so also was the sycamore, the tamarisk, the palm 
and the vine. The sycamore was the Tree of Life in Egypt, and also in 
Assyria. It was sacred to Hathor at Heliopolis; and is now sacred in 
the same place to the Virgin Mary. Its juice was precious by virtue of 
its occult powers, as the Soma is with Brahmans, and Haoma with the 
Parsis. "The fruit and sap of the Tree of Life bestow immortality." 
A large volume might be written upon these sacred trees of antiquity, 
the reverence for some of which has survived to this day, without 
exhausting the subject. 

Trefoil. Like the Irish shamrock, it has a symbolic meaning, "the 



GLOSSARY 313 

three-in-oue mystery" as an author caUs it. It crowned the head of 
Osiris, and the wreath fell off when Typhon killed the radiant grod. Some 
see in it a phallic sif^nificance, but we deny this idea in Occultism. It 
was the plant of Spirit, Soul and Life. 

Treta Yuga (Sk.). The second age of the world, a period of 
] .296.000 years. 

Triad, or the Three. The ten Sephiroth are contemplated as a group 
of three triads : Kether, Chochmah and Binah form the supernal triad : 
Chesed, Gelmrah and Tiphereth, the second; and Netzach, Hod and 
Yesod, the inferior triad. The tenth Sephira, Malkuth, is beyond the 
three triads, [w.w.w.] 

The above is orthodox Western Kabalah. Eastern _^Occultists recog- 
nise but one triad — the upper one (corresponding to Atma-Buddhi and 
the "Envelope" which reflects their light, the three in onej— and count 
seven lower Sephiroth, every one of which stands for a "principle", 
beginning with the Higher Manas and ending with the Physical Body — 
of which Malkuth is the representative in the Microcosm and the Earth 
in the Macrocosm. 

Tri-bhuvana, or Tri-loka (Sk.). The three worlds— Swarga, Bhumi, 
p^tala— or, Heaven, Earth, and Hell in popular beliefs; esoterically, 
these are the Spiritual and Psychic (or Astral) regions, and the Terres- 
trial sphere. 

Tridandi (Sk.). The name generally given to a class or sect of 
Sanvasis, who constantly keep in the hand a kind of club (danda) 
branching off into three rods at the top. The word is variously ety- 
mologized, and some give the name to the triple Brahmanical thread. 

Tri-dasha (Sk.). Three times ten or "thirty". This is in round 
numbers the sum of the Indian Pantheon— the thirty-three erores of 
fleities — the twelve Adityas, the eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras and the 
two Ashvins, or thirty-three kotis, or 330 millions of gods. 

Trigunas (Sk.). The three divisions of the inherent qualities of dif- 
ferentiated matter — i.e., of pure quiescence (satva), of activity and de- 
sire (rajas), of stagnation and decay (tamas). They correspond with 
Vislmu, Brahma, and Shiva. (See "Trimurti".) 

Trijnana, (Sk.). Lit., ''triple knowledge". This consists of three 
degrees: (1) belief on faith; (2) belief on theoretical knowledge; and (3) 
belief through personal and practical knowledge. 

Trikaya (Sk.). Lit., three bodies, or forms. This is a most abstruse 
teaching which, however, once understood, explains the mystery of 
every triad or trinity, and is a true key to every three-fold metapliysical 
symbol. In its most simple and comprehensive form it is found in the 
human Entity in its triple division into spirit, soul, and body, and in 
the universe,' regarded pantheistically, as a unity composed of a Deifie. 
purelv spiritual Principle, Supernal Beings— its direct rays— and 
Huinanitv. The origin of this is found in the teachings of the pre- 



314 THEOSOPHICAL 

historic Wisdom Religion, or Esoteric Philosophy. The grand Panthe- 
istic ideal, of the unknown and unknowable Essence being transformed 
first into subjective, and then into objective matter, is at the root of all 
these triads and triplets. Thus we find in philosophical Northern Budd- 
hism (1) Adi-Buddha (or Primordial Universal Wisdom) ; (2) the 
Dyhani-Buddhas (or Bodhisattvas) ; (3) the IManushi (Human) Buddhas. 
In European conceptions we find the same : God, Angels and Humanity 
symbolized theologically by the God-Man. The Brahmanical Trimurfi 
and also the three-fold" body of Shiva, in Shaivism, have both been con- 
ceived on the same basis, if not altogether running on the lines of Esoteric 
teachings. Hence, no wonder if one finds this conception of the triple 
body— or the vestures of Nirmanakaya, Sambhogakaya and Dliarmakaya. 
the "grandest of the doctrines of Esoteric Philosophy— accepted in_ a 
more or less disfigured form by every religious sect, and explained quite 
incorrectly by the Orientalists. Thus, in its general application, the 
three-fold" body symbolizes Buddha's statue, his teachings and his stupas: 
in the priestly conceptions it applies to the Buddhist profession of faith 
called the Tr'iratna, which is the formula of taking "refuge in Buddha, 
Dharma, and Sangha". Popular fancy makes Buddha ubiquitous, 
placing him thereby on a par with an anthropomorphic god, and lowering 
him to the level of "a tribal deity ; and, as a result, it falls into flat contra- 
dictions, as in Tibet and China. Thus the exoteric doctrine seems to 
teacli that while in his Nirmanakaya body (which passed through 100,000 
kotis of transformations on earth), he, Buddha, is at the same time a 
Lochana (a heavenly Dhyani-Bodhisattva), in his Sambhogakaya "robe 
of absolute completeness", and in Dhyana, or a state wliich must cut him 
off from the world and all its connections ; and finally and lastly he^ is, 
besides being a Nirmanakaya and a Sambhogakaya, also a Dharmakaya 
"of absolute purity", a Vairotchana or Dhyani-Buddha in full Nirvana! 
(See Bitel's Sanskrit -Chinese Dictionary.) This is the jumble of con- 
tradictions, impossible to reconcile, which is given out by missionaries 
and certain Orientalists as the philosophical dogmas of Northern Budd- 
hism. If not an intentional confusion of a philosopliy dreaded by the 
upholders of a religion based on inextricable contradictions and guarded 
"mysteries", then it is the product of ignorance. As the Trailokya, the 
Trikaya, and the Triratna are the three aspects of the same conceptions, 
and have to be, so to say, blended in one, the subject is further explained 
under each of these terms. (See also in this relation the term "Tri- 
sharana".) 

Tri-kuta (Sk.). Lit., "three peaks". The mountain on which Lanka 
(modern Ceylon) and its city were built. It is said, allegorically,_ to be 
a mountain range running south from Meru. And so no doubt it was 
before Lanka was submerged, leaving now but the highest summits of 
that range out of the waters. Submarine topography and geological 
formation must have considerably changed since the Miocene period. 
There is a legend to the effect that Vayu, the god of the wind, broke 



GLOSSARY 315 

the summit off Merii and cast it into the sea, where it forthwith became 
Lanka. 

Trilcohana (Sk.). Lit., "three-eyed", an epitliet of Shiva. It is nar- 
rated tliat while the «:od was engaj^ed one day on a Himalayan summit 
in rigid austerities, his wife placed her hand lovingly on his third eye, 
which burst from Shiva's forehead with a great flame. This is the eye 
which reduced Kama, the god of lovr (as Mara, the tempter), to ashes, 
for trying to ins})ire him during his devotional meditation with thoughts 
of liis wife. 

Trimurti (Hk.). Lit., ''three faces", or "triple form"— the Trinity. 
In the modern Pantheon these three persons are Brahma, the creator, 
Vishnu, the preserver, and Shiva, the destroyer. But this is an after- 
thought, as in the Vcdas neither Brahma nor Shiva is known, and the 
Vedic trinity consists of Agni, Vayu and Surya; or as the Nirukta 
explains it, the terrestrial fire, the atmospheric (or aerial), and the 
heavenly fire, since Agni is the god of fire, Vayu of the air, and Surya 
is the sun. As the Padma PurCina has it: "In the beginning, the great 
Vishnu, desirous of creating the whole world, became threefold: creator, 
preserver, destroyer. In order to produce this world, the Supreme 
Spirit emanated from the right side of his body, himself, as Brahma ; 
then, in order to preserve the universe, he produced from the left side of 
his body Vishnu ; and in order to destroy the world he produced from the 
middle of his body the eternal Shiva. Some worship Brahma, some 
Vishnu, others Shiva; but Vishnu, one yet threefold, creates, preserves, 
and destroys, therefore let the pious make no difference between the 
three." The fact is that all the three "persons" of the Trimiirti are 
simply the three qualificative gunas or attributes of the universe of dif- 
ferentiated Spirit-Matter, self-formative, self-preserving and self- 
destroying, for purposes of regeneration and perfectibility. Tliis is the 
correct meaning; and it is shown in Brahma being made the personified 
embodiment of Eajoguna, the attribute or quality of activity, of desire 
for procreation, that desire owing to whicli the universe and everything 
in it is called into being. Vishnu is the embodied Sattvaguna, that 
])r()})erty of preservation arising from quietude and restful enjoyment, 
which characterizes the intermediate period between the full growth and 
the beginning of decay ; while Shiva, being embodied Tamaguna — Avhich 
is the attribute of stagnancy and final decay — becomes of course the 
destroyer. This is as highly philosophical under its mask of anthropo- 
morphism, as it is unphilosophical and absurd to hold to and enforce on 
the world the dead letter of the original conception. 

Trinity. Everyone knows the Christian dogma of the "three in one" 
and "one in three; therefore it is useless to repeat that which may be 
found in every catechism. Athanasius, the Church Father who defined 
the Trinity as a dogma, had little necessity of drawing upon inspiration 
or his ow^n brain power; he had but to turn to one of the innumerable 
trinities of the heathen creeds, or to the Egyptian priests, in Avhose 



316 THEOSOPHICAL 

country he had lived all his life. He modified slightly only one of the 
three "persons". All the triads of the Gentiles were composed of the 
Father, Mother and the Son. By making it "Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost", he changed the dogma only outwardly, as the Holy Ghost had 
always been feminine, and Jesus is made to address the Holy Ghost as 
his "mother" in every Gnostic Gospel. 

Tripada (Sk.). "Three-footed", fever, personified as having three 
feet or stages of development — cold, heat and sweat. 

Tripitaka (Sk.). Lit., "three baskets"; the name of the Buddhist 
canon. It is composed of three divisions: (1) the doctrine; (2) the 
rules and laws for the priesthood and ascetics; (3) the philosophical 
dissertations and metaphysics: to wit, the Abhidharma, defined by 
Buddhaghosa as that law (dharma) which goes beyond (abhi) the law. 
The Abhidharma contains the most profoundly metaphysical^ and phil- 
osophical teachings, and is the store-house whence the Mahayana and 
Hinayana Schools got their fundamental doctrines. There is a fourth 
division — the Samyakta Fifaka. But as it is a later addition by the 
Chinese Buddhists, it is not accepted by the Southern Church of Siam 
and Ceylon. 

Triratna, or Ratnatraya (Sk.). The Three Jewels, the technical term 
for the well-known formula "Buddlia, Dharma and Sangha'" (or 
Samgha), the two latter terms meaning, in modern interpretation, "re- 
ligious law" (Dharma), and the "priesthood" (Sangha). Esoteric 
Philosophy, however, would regard this as a very loose rendering. The 
words "Buddha, Dharma and Sangha", ought to be pronounced as in the 
days of Gautama, the Lord Buddha namely "Bodhi, Dharma^ and 
Sangha"; and interpreted to mean "Wisdom, its laws and priests", the 
latter in the sense of "spiritual exponents", or adepts. Buddha, liow- 
ever, being regarded as personified "Bodhi" on earth, a true avatar of 
Adi-Buddha, Dharma gradually came to be regarded as his own par- 
ticular law, and Sangha as his own special priesthood. Nevertheless, 
it is the profane of the later (now modern) teachings who have shown a 
greater degree of natural intuition than the actual interpreters of 
Dharma, the Buddhist priests. The people see the Triratna in the three 
statues of Ambitabha, Avalokiteshvara and Maitreya Buddha; *.e., in 
"Boundless Light" or Universal Wisdom, an impersonal principle 
which is the correct meaning of Adi-Buddha; in the "Supreme Lord" 
of the Bodhisattvas, or Avalokiteshvara; and in Maitreya Buddha, the 
symbol of the terrestrial and human Buddha, the "Manushi Buddha". 
Thus, even though the uninitiated do call these three statues "the 
Buddhas of the Past the Present and the Future", still every follower 
of true philosophical Buddhism — called "atheistical" by Mr. Eitel— 
would explain the term Triratna correctly. The philosopher of the 
Yogacharya School would say — as well he could — "Dharma is not a 
person but an unconditioned and underived entity, combining in itself 
the spiritual and material principles of tlie universe, whilst from Dharma 



GLOSSARY 317 

proceedi'd. by emanation. Buddha ['reflected' Bodhi rather], as tlu- 
creative energy wliich produced, in conjunction with Dharma, the third 
factor in the "trinity, viz., 'Saragha', which is the comprehensive sum 
total of all real life?' Samglia, then, is not and cannot be tliat which it 
is now understood to be, namely, the actual "priesthood": for the lattn- 
is not the sum total of all real life, but only religious life. The real 
primitive significance of the word Samgha or "Sangha" applies to the 
Arhats or Bhikslius, or the "initiates", alone, that is to say to the real 
exponents of Dharma— the divine law and wisdom, coming to them as a 
reflex light from the one "boundless light". Such is its philosophical 
meanino- And vet, far from satisfying the scholars of the Western 
races this seems* only to irritate them; for E. J. Eitel, of Hongkong, 
remarks, as to tlie above: "Thus the dogma of a Triratna, ongniatmg 
from three primitive articles of faith, and at one time culminating in tlie 
conception of three persons, a trinity in unity, has degenerated into a 
metaphysical theory of tlie evolution of three abstract^ principles"! And 
if one of the ablest European scholars will sacrifice every philosophical 
ideal to gross anthropomorphism, then what can Buddhism with it.s 
subtle metaphysics expect at the hands of ignorant missionaries? 

Trisharana (8k.). The same as "Triratna" and accepted by both the 
Northern and Southern Churches of Buddhism. After the death of the 
Buddha it was adopted bv the councils as a mere kind of formuUJidti. 
enjoining "to take refuge in Buddha", "to take refuge m Dharina , and 
"to take refuge in Sangha", or his Church in the sense in which it is 
now interpreted; but it is not in this sense that the "Light ot Asia 
would have taught the formula. Of Trikaya, ^Ir. E. J. Eitel, of Hong- 
kono- tells us in his Handbook of Chinese Buddism that tins tricho- 
tomism was taught with regard to the nature of all Buddhas. Bodhi 
being the characteristic of a Buddha"— a distinction was made between 
"essential Bodhi" as the attribute of the Dharmakaya, i.e., "essential 
body"- "reflected Bodhi" as the attribute of Sambhogakaya : and 
"practical Bodhi" as the attribute of Nirmanakaya. Buddha combining 
in himself these three conditions of existence, was said to be living at 
the same time in three different spheres. Now, this shows how greatly 
misunderstood is the purely pantheistical and philosophical teaching. 
Without stopping to enquire how even a Dharmakaya vesture can have 
any "attribute" in Nirvana, which state is shown, in philosophical 
Brahmanism as mucli as in Buddhism, to be absolutely devoid of any 
attribute as conceived bv human finite thought— it will be sufficient to 
point to the following:— (1) the Nirmanakaya vesture is preferred by 
the "Buddhas of Compassion" to that of the Dharmakaya state, pre- 
cisely because the latter precludes him who attains it from any com- 
munication or relation with the finite, i.e., with humanity; (2) it is not 
Buddha (Gautama, the mortal man, or any other personal Buddlia^ 
who lives ubiquitously in "three different spheres, at the same time . 
but Bodhi, the universal and abstract principle of divine wisdom. S}iii- 
bolised in philosophy l)v Adi-Buddlui. It is the latter that is ubiquitous 



318 THEOSOPHICAL 

because it is the universal essence or principle. It is Bodhi, or the 
Spirit of Buddhaship, which, having resolved itself into its primordial 
homogeneous essence and merged into it, as Brahma (the universe) 
merges into Parabrahm, the absoluteness^ — that is meant under the 
name of "essential Bodhi". For the Nirvanee, or Dhyani-Buddha, 
must be supposed — by living in Arupadhatu, the formless state, and 
in Dharmakaya — to be that "essential Bodhi" itself. It is the Dhyani 
Bodhisattvas, the primordial rays of the universal Bodhi, who live in 
"reflected Bodhi" in Rupadhatu, or the world of subjective "forms"; 
and it is the Nirmanakayas (plural) who upon ceasing their lives of 
"practical Bodhi", in the "enlightened" or Buddha forms, remain vol- 
untarily in the Kamadhatu (the world of desire), whether in objective 
forms on earth or in subjective states in its sphere (the second Buddhak- 
shetra). This they do in order to watch over, protect and help mankind. 
Thus, it is neither one Buddha who is meant, nor any particular avatar 
of the collective Dhyani Buddhas, but verily Adi-Bodhi — the first Logos, 
whose primordial ray is Mahabuddhi, the Universal Soul, Alaya, whose 
flame is ubiquitous, and whose influence has a different sphere in each of 
the three forms of existence, because, once again, it is Universal Being 
itself or the reflex of the absolute. Hence, if it is philosophical to speak 
of Bodhi, which "as Dhyani Buddha rules in the domain of the spiritual" 
(fourth Buddhakshetra or region of Buddha) ; and of the Dhyani Bodhi- 
sattvas ' ' ruling in the third Buddhakshetra ' ' or the domain of ideation ; 
and even of the Manushi Buddhas, who are in the second Buddhakshetra 
as Nirmanakayas — to apply the "idea of a unity in trinity" to three 
personalities — is liighly unphilosophical. 

Trishna (Sk.). The fourth Nidana; spiritual love. 

Trishula (Sk.). The trident of Shiva. 

Trisuparna (Sk.). A certain portion of the Veda, after thoroughly 
studying which a Brahman is also called a Trisuparna . 

Trithemius. An abbot of the Spanheim Benedictines, a very learned 
Kabbalist and adept in the Secret Sciences, the friend and instructor 
of Cornelius Agrippa. 

Triton (Gr.). The son of Poseidon and Amphitrite, whose body from 
the waist upM^ards was that of a man and whose lower limbs were those 
of a dolphin. Triton belongs in esoteric interpretation to the group 
of fish symbols — such as Oaymes (Dagon), the Matsya or Fish-avatar, 
and the Pisces, as adopted in the Christian symbolism. The dolphin is a 
constellation called by the Greeks Capricornus, and the latter is the 
Indian Makdra. It has thus an anagrammatical significance, and its in- 
terpretation is entirely occult and mystical, and is known only to the 
advanced students of Esoteric Philosophy. Suffice to say that it is as 
physiological as it is spiritual and mystical. (See Secret Doctrine II., 
pp. 578 and 579.) 

Trividha Dvara (Sk.). Lit., the "three gates", which are body. 



GLOSSARY 319 

mouth, and mind ; or purity of body, purity of speech, purity of thought 

the three virtues i-equisite for becoming a Buddha. 

Trividya (Sk.). Lit., "the three knowledges" or sciences". These 
are the three fundamental axioms in mysticism:— faj the impermanency 
of all existence, or Anitya; (h) suffering and misery of all that lives and 
is, or Dukha; and (c) all physical, objective existence as evanescent and 
unreal as a Avater-bubble in a dream, or AndUnd. 

Trivikrama (Sk.). An epithet of Vishnu used in the Rig Veda in re- 
lation to the "three steps of Vishnu". The first step he took on eajth, 
in the form of Agni ; the second in the atmosphere, m the form of Vayu. 
god of the air; and the tliird in the sky, in the shape of Surya, the sun. 
Triyana (Sk.). "The three vehicles" across Sansara— the ocean of 
births, deaths, and rebirths— are the vehicles called Sravaka, Pratycka 
Buddha and Bodhisattva, or the three degrees of Yogaship. The term 
Triyana is also ijsed to denote the tliree schools of mysticism— the 
Maiiayana, Madhyimavana and Hinayana schools; of which the first 
is the "Greater", the second the "Middle", and the last the "Lesser 
Vehicle All and everv system between the Greater and the Lesser 
Vehicles are considered "useless". Therefore the Pratyeka Buddha 
is made to correspond with the Madhyimayana. For, as explained, "this 
(the Pratveka Buddha state) refers to him who lives all for himself 
and very 'little for others, occupying the middle of the vehicle, filling 
it all and leaving no room for others". Such is the selfish candidate 
for Nirvana. 

Tsanagi-Tsanami (Jap.). A kind of creative god in Japan. 
Tsien-Sin (Chin.). The "Heaven of Mind", Universal Ideation and 
Mahat, when applied to the plane of differentiation: "Tien-Sin" (q.v.) 
Avhen referring to the Absolute. 

Tsien-Tchan (Ch.). The universe of form and matter. 
Tsi-tsai (Chin.). The "Self -Existent" or the "Unknown Darkness", 
the root of Wuliang Shcu, "Boundless Age", all Kabbalistic terms, which 
were used in China ages before the Hebrew Kabbalists adopted them, 
borrowing them from Chaldea and Egypt. 

Tubal-Cain (Hch.). The Biblical Kabir, "an instructor of every 
artificer in brass and iron", the son of Zillah and Lamech ; one with the 
Greek Hepha^stos or Vulcan. His brother Jubal, the son of Adah and the 
co-uterine brother of Jabal, one the father of those "who handle the 
harp and organ", and the other the father "of such as have cattle", are 
also Kabiri: for, as shown by Strabo, it is the Kabiri (or Cyclopes in 
one sense) who made the harp for Kronos and the trident for Poseidon, 
while some of their other brothers were instructors in agriculture. Tubal- 
Cain (or Thubal-Cain) is a word used in the Master-Mason's degree m 
the ritual and ceremonies of the Freemasons. 

Tullia (Lati.). A daughter of Cicero, in whose tomb, as claimed by 
several alchemists, was found burning a perpetual lamp, placed there 
more than a tliousand years previously. 



320 THEOSOPHICAL 

Turn, or Toom. The "Brothers of the Turn", a very ancient school 
of Initiation in Northern India in the days of Buddhist persecution. The 
''Turn B'hai" have now become the "Aum B'hai", spelt, however, dif- 
ferently at present, both schools having merged into one. The first was 
composed of Kshatriyas, the second of Brahmans. The word "Turn" 
lias a double meaning, that of darkness (absolute darkness), which as 
absolute is higher than the highest and purest of lights, and a sense 
resting on the mystical greeting among Initiates, "Thou art thou, thy- 
self", equivalent to saying "Thou art one with the Infinite and the All". 

Turiya (Sk.). A state of the deepest trance — -the fourth state of the 
Taraka Raja Yoga, one that corresponds with Atma, and on this earth 
with dreamless sleep — a causal condition. 

Turiya Avastha (Sk.). Almost a Nirvanic state in Samadhi, which 
is itself a beatific state of the contemplative Yoga beyond this plane. 
A condition of the higher Triad, quite distinct (thgugh still insepar- 
able) from the conditions of Jagrat (waking), Svapna (dreaming), and 
Sushupti (sleeping). 

Tushita A class of gods of great purity in the Hindu Pantheon. In 
exoteric or popular Northern Buddhism, it is a Deva-ioka, a celestial 
region on the material plane where all the Bodhisattvas are reborn, before 
they descend on this earth as future Buddhas. 

Tyndarus (Gr.). King of Lacedaemon, the fabled husband of Leda, 
the mother of Castor and Pollux and of Helen of Troy. 

Typhaeus (Gr.). A famous giant, who had a hundred heads like those 
of a serpent or dragon, and who was the reputed father of the Winds, 
as Siva was that of the Maruts — also "winds". He made war against 
the gods, and is identical with the Egyptian Typhon. . 

Typhon (Eg.). An aspect or shadow of Osiris. Typhon is not, as 
Plutarch asserts, the distinct "Evil Principle" or the Satan of the Jews; 
but rather the lower cosmic "principles" of the divine body of Osiris, 
the god in them — Osiris being personified universe as an ideation, and 
Typhon as that same universe in its material realization. The two in 
one are Vishnu-Siva. The true meaning of the Egyptian myth is that 
Typhon is the terrestrial and material envelope of Osiris, who is the 
indwelling spirit thereof. In chapter 42 of the Ritual ("Book of the 
Dead"), Typhon is described as "Set, formerly called Thoth". Orien- 
talists find themselves greatly perplexed by discovering Set-Typhon 
addressed in some papyri as "a great and good god", and in others as 
the embodiment of evil. But is not Siva, one of the Hindu Trimurti, 
described in some places as "the best and most bountiful of gods", and 
at other times "a dark, black, destroying, terrible" and "fierce god"? 
Did not Loki, the Scandinavian Typhon, after having been described in 
earlier times as a beneficent being, as the god of fire, the presiding genius 
of the peaceful domestic hearth, suddenly lose caste and become forth- 
with a power of evil, a cold-hell Satan and a demon of the worst kind ? 
There is a good reason for such an invariable transformation. So long 



GLOSSARY 321 

as these dual gods, symbols of good and necessary evil, of light and 
darkness, keep closely allied, i.e., stand for a combination of differen- 
tiated human qualities, or of the element they represent — they are simply 
an embodiment of the average personal god. No sooner, however, are 
they separated into two entities, each with its two characteristics, than 
they become respectively the two opposite poles of good and evil, of 
light and darkness; they become in short two independent and distinct 
entities or rather personalities. It is only by dint of sophistry that the 
Churches have succeeded to this day in preserving in the minds of the 
few the Jewish deity in his primeval integrity. Had they been logical 
they would have separated Christ from Jehovah, light and goodness 
from darkness and badness. And this was what happened to Osiris- 
Typhon; but no Orientalist has understood it, and thus their perplexity 
goes on increasing. Once accepted — as in the case of the Occultists— 
as an integral part of Osiris, just as Ahriman is an inseparable part of 
Ahura Mazda, and the Serpent of Genesis the dark aspect of the Eloliim, 
blended into our "Lord God" — every difficulty in the nature of Typhon 
disappears. Typhon is a later name of Set, later but ancient — as early 
in fact as the fourth Dynasty ; for in the Ritual one reads : "0 Typhoii- 
Set! I invoke thee, terrible, invisible, all-powerful god of gods, thou 
who destroyest and renderest desert". Typhon belongs most decidedly 
to the same symbolical category as Siva the Destroyer, and Saturn — 
the "dark god". In the Book of the Dead, Set, in his battle with Thoth 
(wisdom) — who is his spiritual counterpart — is emasculated as Saturn- 
Kronos was and Ouranos before him. As Siva is closely connected with 
the bull Nandi — an aspect of Brahma-Vishnu, the creative and preserving 
power*— so is Set-Typhon allied with the bull Apis, both bulls being 
sacred to, and allied with, their respective deities. As Typhon was 
originally worsliipped as an upright stone, the phallus, so is Siva to this 
day represented and worshipped as a lingham. Siva is Saturn. Indeed, 
Typhon-Set seems to have served as a prototype for more than one god 
of the later ritualistic cycle, including even the god of the Jews, some 
of his ritualistic observances having passed bodily into the code of laws 
and the canon of religious rites of the "cliosen people". Who of the 
Bible-worshippers knows the origin of the scape-goat (ez or aza) sent 
into the wilderness as an atonement? Do they know mat ages before 
the exodus of Moses the goat was sacred to Typhon, and that it is over 
the head of that Typhonic goat that the Egyptians confessed their sins, 
after which the animal was turned into the desert? "And Aaron sliall 
take the scapegoat (Azazel) .... and lay his hands upon the 
head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the child- 
ren of Israel . . . and shall send him away . . . into the wilder- 
ness" (Levit., xvi.). And as the goat of the Egyptians made an atone- 
ment with Typhon, so the goat of the Israelites "made an atonement 
before the Lord" (Ibid., v. 10). Tlius, if one only remembers that every 
anthropomorphic creative god was with the philosophical ancients the 
"Life-giver" and the "Death-dealer" — Osiris and Typhon, Ahura 



322 THEOSOPHICAL 

Mazda and Ahriman, etc., etc. — it will be easy for liim to comprehend 
the assertion made by the Occultists, that Typhon was but a symbol 
for the lower quaternary, the ever conflicting and turbulent principles of 
differentiated chaotic matter, whether in the Universe or in Man, while 
Osiris symbolized the higher spiritual triad. Tyhpon is accused in the 
Ritual of being one who ''steals reason from the soul". Hence, he is 
shown fighting with Osiris and cutting him into fourteen (twice seven) 
pieces, after which left without his couunterbalancing power of good and 
light, he remains steeped in evil and darkness. In this way the fable told 
by Plutarch becomes comprehensible as an allegory. He asserts that, 
overcome in his fight with Horus, Typhon "fled seven days on an ass, 
and escaping begat the boys lerosolumos and loudaios". Now as 
Typhon was worshipped at a later period under the form of an ass, and 
as the name of the ass is AO, or (phonetically) lAO, the vowels mimick- 
ing the braying of the animal, it becomes evident that Typhon was 
purposely blended with the name of the Jewish God, as the two names 
of Judea and Jerusalem, begotten by Typhon — sufficiently imply. 

Twashtri (8k.). The same as Vishwakarman, "the divine artist", 
the carpenter and weapon-maker of the gods. (See "Vishwakarman".) 

Tzaila (Heh.). A rib; see Genesis for the myth of the creation of the 
first woman from a rib of Adam, the first man. It is curious that no 
other myth describes anything like this "rib" process, except the He- 
brew Bible. Other similar Hebrew words are "Tzela, a "fall", and 
Tzelem, "the image of God". Inman remarks tliat the ancient Jews 
were fond of punning conceits, and sees one here — that Adam fell, on 
account of a woman whom God made in his image, from a fall in tlie 
man's side, [w.w.w.] 

Tzelem (Heh.). An image, a shadow. The shadow of the physical 
body of a man, also the astral body — Linga Sharlra. ( See ' ' Tzool-mah ". ) 

Tzim-tzum (Kah.). Expansion and contraction, or, as some Kabba- 
lists explain it — "the centrifugal and centripetal energy". 

Tziruph (Heh.). A set of combinations and permutations of the 
Hebrew letters, designed to show analogies and preserve secrets. For 
example, in the form called Atbash, A and T were substitutes, B and 
Sh, G and R, etc. [w.w.w.] 

Tzool-mah (Kah.) Lit., "shadoAv". It is stated in the Zohar (I.. 
218 a, I. fol. 117 a, col. 466.), that during the last seven nights of a man's 
life, the Neshamah, his spirit, leaves him and the shadow, tzool-mah. 
acts no longer, his body casting no shadow; and when the tzool-mah 
disappears entirely, then Buach and Nephesh — the soul and life — go with 
it. It has been often urged that in Kabbalistic philosophy there were 
but three, and, with the Body, Guff, four "principles". It can be easily 
shown there are seven, and several subdivisions more, for there are the 
"upper" and the "lower" Neshamah (the dual Manas) ; Buach, Spirit or 
Buddhi ; Nephesh (Kama) which "has no light from her own substance", 
but is associated with the Guff, Body; Tzelem, "Phantom of the Image" ; 



GLOSSAEY 323 

and D'yooknah, Shadow of the Phantom Image, or Mdydvi Rupa. Then 
come the Zurath, Prototj^pes, and Tab-nooth, Form; and finally, Tzurah, 
"the highest Principle (Atman) which remains above", etc., etc. (See 
Myer's Qahhalah, pp. 400 et. seq.) 

Tzuphon (Ilch.). A name for Boreas, the Northern Wind, which 
some of the old Israelites deified and worshipped. 

Tzurah (Heb.). The divine prototype in the Kabbalah. In Occultism 
it embraces Atma-Buddhi-Manas, the Highest Triad; the eternal divine 
Individual. The plural is tzurath. 

Tzure (Heb.). Almost the same as the above: the prototype of the 
*' Image" tzelem; a Kabbalistic term used in reference to the so-called 
creation of the divine and the human Adam, of which the Kabala (or 
Kabbalah) has four types, agreeing with the root-races of men. The 
Jewish Occultists knew of no Adam and, refusing to recognise in the 
first human race Humanity with its Adam, spoke only of "primordial 
.sparks". 



324 THEOSOPHICAL 



u. 



u. 



— The twenty-first letter of the Latin alphabet, which has no equiva- 
lent in Hebrew. As a number, however, it is considered very mystical 
both by the Pythagoreans and the Kabbalists, as it is the product of 
3X7. The latter consider it the most sacred of the old numbers, as 
21 is the sum of the numerical value of the Divine Name acie, or eiea, or 
again aheihc — thus (read backward, aheihe) : 

he i he a 
5+ 10-f 5+1=21. 

In Alchemy it symbolizes the twenty-one days necessary tor the trans- 
mutation of baser metals into silver. 

Uasar (Eg.). The same as Osiris, the latter name being Greek. Uasar 
is described as the "Egg-born", like Brahma. "He is the egg-sprung 
Eros of Aristophanes, whose creative energy brings all things into ex- 
istence ; the demiurge who made and animates the world, a being who is 
a sort of personification of Amen, the invisible god, as Dionysos is a 
link between mankind and the Zeus Hypsistos" (The Great Dionysiak 
Myth, Brown). Isis is called Vasi, as she is the Sakti of Osiris, his 
female aspect, both symbolizing the creating, energising, vital forces of 
nature in its aspect of male and female deity. 

Uchchaih-Sravas (Sk.). The model-horse ; one of the fourteen precious 
things or jewels produced at the Churning of the Ocean by the gods. 
The white horse of Indra, called the Raja of horses. 

Uchanicha, also Buddhochmcha (Sk.). Explained as "a protuber- 
ance on Buddha's cranium, forming a hair-tuft". This curious descrip- 
tion is given by the Orientalists, varied by another which states that 
Uchnicha was "originally a conical or flame-shaped hair tuft on the 
crown of a Buddha, in later ages represented as a fleshly excrescence on 
the skull itself". This ought to read quite the reverse; for esoteric 
philosophy would say : Originally an orb with the third eye in it, whicli 
degenerated later in the human race into a fleshly protuberance, to 
disappear gradually, leaving in its place but an occasional flame- 
coloured aura, perceived only through clairvoyance, and when the ex- 
uberance of spiritual energy causes the (now concealed) "third eye" 
to radiate its superfluous magnetic power. At this period of our racial 
development, it is of course the "Buddhas" or Initiates alone who 
enjoy in full the faculty of the ' ' third eye ' ', as it is more or less atrophied 
in everyone else. 

Udana (Sk.). Extemporaneous speeches; also Sutras. In philosophy 
the term applies to the physical organs of speech, such as tongue, mouth. 



GLOSSARY 325 

voice, etc. In sacred literature in g-eneral, it is the name of those Siitras 
wliich contain extemporaneous discourses, in distinction to the Sutras 
that contain only that subject matter which is introduced by questions 
put to Gautama the Buddha and his replies. 

Udayana (Sk.). Modern Peshawer. "The classic land of sorcery", 
according- to Hiouen-Thsang. 

Udayana Raja (Sk.). A Kinpr of Kausarabi, called Vatsaraja, who 
was the first to have a statue of Buddha made before his death ; in con- 
sequence of which, say the Roman Catholics, who build statues of Madon- 
nas and Saints at every street corner — he "became the originator of 
Buddhist idolatry". 

Udra Ramaputra (Sk.). TJdra, the son of Kama. A Brahman ascetic, 
wlio was for some years the Guru of Gautama Buddha. 

Udumbara (Sk.). A lotus of gigantic size, sacred to Buddha: the 
Nila Udurnhara or "blue lotus", regarded as a supernatural omen when- 
ever it blossoms, for it flowers but once every three thousand years. One 
such, it is said, burst forth before the birth of Gautama, another, near 
a lake at the foot of the Himalayas, in the fourteenth century, just be- 
fore the birth of Tsong-kha-pa, etc., etc. The same is said of the Udum- 
bara tree (ficus glomcrata) because it flowers at intervals of long cen- 
turies, as does also a kind of cactus, which blossoms only at extraordi- 
nary altitudes and opens at midnight. 

Ullambana (Sk.). The festival of "all souls", the prototype of All 
Souls' Day in Christian lands. It is held in China on the seventh moon 
annually, when both "Buddhist and Tauist priests read masses, to re- 
lease the souls of those who died on land or sea from purgatory, scatter 
rice to feed Pretas [thirty-six classes of demons ever hungry and thirsty] . 

consecrate domestic ancestral shrines recite Tantras . . . 

accompanied by magic finger-play (mudra) to comfort the ancestral 
spirits of seven generations in Naraka" (a kind of purgatory or Kama 
Loka). The author of the Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary thinks that this 
is the old Tibetan (Bhon) "Gtorma ritual engrafted upon Confucian 
ancestral worship," owing to Dharmaraksha translating the Ullamhana 
Sutra and introducing it into China. The said Sutra is certainly a 
forgery, as it gives these rites on the authority of Sakyamuni Buddha, 
and "supports it by the alleged experiences of his principal disciples. 
Ananda being said to have appeased Pretas by food otferings". But as 
correctly stated by Mr. Eitel, "the whole theory, with the ideas of inter- 
cessory prayers, priestly litanies and requiems, and ancestral worship, is 
entirely foreign to ancient and Southern Buddhism". And to the 
Northern too, if we except the sects of Bhootan and Sikkim, of the Bhon 
or Dugpa persuasion — the red caps, in short. As the ceremonies of 
All Saints' Day, or days, are known to have been introduced into China 
in the third century (265-292), and as tlic same Roman Catholic cere- 
monial and ritual for the dead, held on November 2nd, did not exist 
in those early days of Christianity, it cannot be the Chinese who bor- 



326 THEOSOPHICAL ■ 

rowed this religious custom from the Latins, but rather the latter who 
imitated the Molgolians and Chinese. 

Uller (Scand.). The god of archery, who "journeys over the silvery 
ice-ways on skates". He is the patron of the chase during that period 
when the Sun passes over the constellation of Sagittarius; and lives in 
the ''Home of the Light-Elves" which is in the Sun and outside of 
Asgard. 

Ulom (Phanic). The intelligible deity. The objective or material 
Universe, in the theogony of Mochus. The reflection of the ever- 
concealed deity; the Pleroma of the Gnostics. 

Ulphilas (Scand.). A schoolman who made a new alphabet for the 
Goths in the fourth century — a union of Greek letters with the form of 
the runic alphabet, since which time the runes began to die out and 
their secret was gradually lost. (See "Runes".) He translated the 
Bible into Gothic, preserved in the Codex Argenteus. 

Uliipi (Sk.). A daughter of Kaurav;y'a, King of the Ndgas in Patala 
(the nether world, or more correctly, the Antipodes, America). Exoter- 
ically, she was the daughter of a king or chief of an aboriginal tribe of 
the Nagas, or Nagals (ancient adepts) in pre-historic America — Mexico 
most likely, or Uruguay. She was married to Arjuna, the disciple of 
Krishna, whom every tradition, oral and written, shows travelling five 
thousand years ago to Patala (the Antipodes). The Puranic tale is based 
on a historical fact. Moreover, Ulupi, as a name, has a Mexican ring in 
it, like "Atlan", "Alco", etc. 

Uma-Kanya (Sk.). Lit., "Virgin of Light"; a title ill-befitting its 
possessor, as it was that of Durga Kali, tlie goddess or female aspect of 
Siva. Human flesh was offered to her every autumn ; and, as Durga, she 
was the patroness of the once murderous Thugs of India, and the special 
goddess of Tantrika sorcery. But in days of old it was not as it is now. 
The earliest mention of the title "Uma-Kanya" is found in the Kena- 
Upanishad; in it the now blood-thirsty Kali, was a benevolent goddess, 
a being of light and goodness, who brings about reconciliation between 
Brahma and the gods. She is Saraswati and she is Vach. In esoteric 
symbology, Kali is the dual type of the dual soul — the divine and the' 
human, the light and the dark soul of man. 

Umbra (Lat.). The shadow of an earth-bound spook. The ancient 
Latin races divided man (in esoteric teachings) into seven principles, as 
did every old system, and as Theosophists do now. They believed that 
after death Anima, the pure divine soul, ascended to heaven, a place of 
bliss; Manes (the Kama Eupa) descended into Hades (Kama Loka) ; 
and Umbra (or astral double, the Linga Shanra) remained on earth 
hovering about its tomb, because the attraction of physical, objective mat- 
ter and affinity to its earthly body kept it within the places which that 
body had impressed with its emanations. Therefore, they said that noth- 
ing but the astral image of the defunct could be seen on earth, and even 



GLOSSARY 327 

that faded out witli the disintegration of tlie last particle of the body 
which had been so long its dwelling. 

Una (Sk.). Something underlying; subordinate; secondary also, and 
material. 

Undines (Lat.). Water nymphs and spooks. One of the four prin- 
cipal kinds of elemental spirits, which are Salamanders (fire), Sylphs 
(air). Gnomes (earth), and Undines (water). 

Upadana (Sk.). Material Cause; as flax is the cause of linen. 

Upadana Karanam (Sk.). The material cause of an effect. 

Upadhi (Sk.). Basis; the vehicle, carrier or bearer of something less 
material than itself: as the human body is the upadhi of its spirit, ether 
the upadhi of light, etc.; a mould; a defining of limiting substance. 

Upadvipas (Sk.). The root (underlying) of islands; dry land. 

Upanishad (Sk.). Translated as "esoteric doctrine", or interpreta- 
tion of the Vedas by the Veddnta methods. The third division of the 
Vedas appended to the Brdhmanas and regarded as a portion of Sruti or 
"revealed" w^ord. They are, however, as records, far older than the 
Brdhmayias— with the exception of the two, still extant attached to the 
Rig-Veda of the Aitareyins. The term Upanishad is explained by the 
Hindu pundits as "that which destroys ignorance, and thus produces 
liberation" of the spirit, through the knowledge of the supreme though 
hidden truth; the same, therefore, as that which was hinted at by Jesus, 
when he is made to say, "And ye shall know the truth, and the truth 
shall make you free" (John viii. 32). It is from these treatises of the 
Upanishads — themselves the echo of the primeval Wisdom-Religion — 
that the Vedanta system of philosophy has been developed. (See 
"Vedanta".) Yet old as the Upanishads may be, the Orientalists will 
not assign to the oldest of them more than an antiquity of 600 years B.C. 
The accepted number of these treatises is 150, though now no more than 
about twenty are left unadulterated. They treat of very abstruse, meta- 
physical questions, such as the origin of the Universe; the nature and the 
essence of the Unmanifested Deity and the manifested gods; the con- 
nection, primal and ultimate, of spirit and matter; the universality of 
tnind and the nature of the human Soul and Ego. 

The Upanishads must be far more ancient than the days of Buddhism, 
as they show no preference for, nor do they uphold, the superiority of the 
Brahmans as a caste. On the contrary, it is the (now) second caste, the 
Kshatriya. or warrior class, who are exalted in the oldest of them. As 
stated by Professor Cowell in Elphinstone's History of India — "they 
breathe a freedom of spirit unknown to any earlier work except theRig- 
Veda. . . The great teachers of the higher knowledge and Brahmans 
are continually represented as going to Kshatriya Kings to become their 
pupils." The "Kshatriya Kings" were in the olden times, like the 
King-Hierophants of Egypt, the receptacles of the highest divine knowl- 
edge and wisdom, the Elect and the incarnations of the primordial divine 
Instructors— the Dhyani Buddhas or Kuniaras. There was a time, «ons 



328 THEOSOPHICAL 

before the Brahinans became a caste, or even the Upanishads were writ- 
ten, when there was on earth but one "lip", one religion and one 
science, namely, the speech of the gods, the Wisdom-Religion and Truth. 
This was before the fair fields of the latter, overrun by nations of many 
languages, became overgrown with the weeds of intentional deception, 
and national creeds invented by ambition, cruelty and selfishness, broke 
the one sacred Truth into thousands of fragments. 

Upanita (Sk.). One who is invested with the Brahmanical thread; 
lit., "brought to a spiritual teacher or Guru". 

Uparati (Sk.). Absence of outgoing desire; a Yoga state. 

Upasaka (Sk.). Male chelas or rather devotees. Those who without 
entering the priesthood vow to preserve the principal commandments. 
Upasika (Sk.). Female chelas or devotees. 

Upasruti (Sk.). According to Orientalists a ''supernatural voice 
which is heard at night revealing the secrets of the future". According 
to the explanation of Occultism, the voice of any person at a distance^ — 
generally one versed in the mysteries of esoteric teachings or an adept- 
endowed with the gift of projecting both his voice and astral image to 
any person whatsoever, regardless of distance. The upasruti may "reveal 
the secrets of the future ' ', or may only inform the person it addresses of 
some prosaic fact of the present; yet it will still be an upasruti — the 
"double" or the echo of the voice of a living man or woman. 

Upeksha (Sk.). Lit., Renunciation. In Yoga a state of absolute 
indifference attained by self-control, the complete mastery over one's 
mental and physical feelings and sensations. 

Ur (Chald.). The chief seat of lunar worship; the Babylonian city 
where the moon was the chief deity, and whence Abraham brought the 
Jewish god, who is so inextricably connected with the moon as a creative 
and generative deity. 

Uraeus (Gr.). In Egyptian Urhek, a serpent and a sacred symbol. 
Some see in it a cobra, while others say it is an asp. Cooper explains 
that "the asp is not a uraeus but a cerastes, or kind of viper, i.e., a two- 
horned viper. It is the royal serpent, wearing the pschent . . . the 
■naya hdje." The urseus is "round the disk of Horus and forms the 
ornament of the cap of Osiris, besides overhanging the brows of other 
divinities" (Bonwick). Occultism explains that the urjeus is the sym- 
bol of initiation and also of hidden wisdom, as the serpent always is. 
The gods were all patrons of the hierophants and their instructors. 

Uragas (Sk.). The Nagas (serpents) dwelling in Patala, the nether 
world or hell, in popular thought ; the Adepts, High Priests and Initiates 
of Central and South America, known to the ancient Aryans; where 
Arjuna wedded the daughter of the king of the Ndgas — -Ulupi. Nagalism 
or Naga-worship prevails to this day in Cuba and Hayti, and Voodooism, 
the chief branch of the former, has found its way into New Orleans. In 
Mexico the chief "sorcerers", the "medicine men", are called Nagals 



GLOSSARY 329 

to this day ; just as thousands of years ago the Chaldean and Assyrian 
High Priests were eaUcd Nargals, they being chiefs of the Magi (Rab- 
Mag) , the office held at one time by the prophet Daniel. The word Ndga, 
"wise serpent", has become universal, because it is one of the few words 
that have survived the wreck of the first universal language. In South 
as well as in Central and North America, the aborigines use the word, 
from Behring Straits down to Uruguay, where it means a "chief", a 
"teacher", and a "serpent". Tlie very word Uraga may have reached 
India and been adopted through its connection, in prehistoric times, 
with South America and Uruguay itself, for the name belongs to the 
American Indian vernacular. The origin of the Uragas, for all that the 
Orientalists know, may have been in Uruguai, as there are legends about 
them which locate their ancestors the Nagas in Pdtdla, the antipodes ,or 
America. 

Uranides (Gr.). One of the names of the divine Titans, those who 
rebelled against Kronos, the prototypes of the Christian ' ' fallen ' ' angels. 

Urim (Heh.). See "Thummim". The "Urim and Thummim" origi- 
nated in Egypt, and symbolized the Tivo Truths, the two figures of Ra 
and Thmci being engraved on the breastplate of the Hierophant and 
worn by him during the initiation ceremonies. Diodorus adds that this 
necklace of gold and precious stones was worn by the High Priest when 
delivering judgment. Thme (plural Thmin) means "Truth" in Hebrew. 
"The Septuagint translates thummim, as Truth" (Bonwick). The late 
Mr. Proctor, the astronomer, shows the Jewish idea "derived directly 
from the Egyptians". But Philo Judgeus alarms that Urim and Thum- 
mim were "the two small images of Revelation and Truth, put between 
the double folds of the breastplate", and passes over the latter, with 
its twelve stones typifying the twelve signs of the Zodiac, witliout ex- 
planation. 

Urlak (Scand.). The same as "Orlog" (q.v.). Fate; an impersonal 
power bestowing gifts ' ' blindly ' ' on mortals ; a kind of Nemesis. 

Urvasi (Sk.). A divine nymph, mentioned in the Rig-Veda, whose 
beauty set the whole heaven ablaze. Cursed by the gods she descended 
to earth and settled there. The loves of Pururavas (the Vikrama), and 
the nymph Urvasi are the subject of Kalidasa's world-famous drama, 
the Vikramorvasi. 

Usanas (Sk.). The planet Venus or Sukra; or rather the ruler and 
governor of that planet. 

Ushas (Sk.). The dawn, the daughter of heaven; the same as the 
Aurora of the Latins and tlie >7wg of the Greeks. She is first 
mentioned in the Vedas, wherein her name is also Ahand and Dyotand 
(the illuminator), and is a most poetical and fascinating image. She is 
the ever-faithful friend of men, of rich and poor, though she is believed 
to prefer the latter. She smiles upon and visits the dwelling of every 
living mortal. She is the immortal, ever-youthful virgin, the light of thc^ 
poor, and the destroj'er of darkness. 



330 THEOSOPHICAL 

Uttara Mimansa (Sk.). The second of the two Mimansas — the first 
being Purva (first) Mimansa, which form respectively the fifth and 
sixth of the Darslianas or schools of philosophy. The Mimansa are in- 
cluded in the generic name of Veddnta, though it is the Uttara (by 
Vyasa) which is really the Veddnta. 

Uzza (Heb.). The name of an angel who, together with Azrael, op- 
posed, as the Zohar teaches, the creation of man by the Elohim, for 
which the latter annihilated both. 



GLOSSARY 331 



V. 



V. 



. — The twenty-second letter of the Latin alphabet. Numerically it 
stands for 5; hence the Roman V (with a dash) stands for 5,000. The 
Western Kal3balists have connected it with the divine Hebrew name 
IHVH. The Hebrew Vav, however, being; number 6, it is only by being 
identical with the W, that it can ever become a proper symbol for the 
male-female, and spirit-matter. The equivalent for the Hebrew Van is 
YO, and in numerals 6. 

Vach (Sk.). To call Vach "speech" simply, is deficient in clearness. 
Vach is the mystic personification of speech, and the female Logos, being- 
one with Brahma, who created her out of one-half of his body, which he 
divided into two portions; she is also one with Viraj (called the "female" 
Viraj) who was created in her by Brahma. In one sense Vach is 
"speech" bj- which knowledge was taught to man; in another she is 
the "mystic, secret speech" which descends upon and enters into the 
primeval Rishis, as the "tongues of fire" are said to have "sat upon" 
the apostles. For, she is called "the female creator", the "mother of 
the Vedas", etc., etc. Esoterically, she is the subjective Creative Force 
which, emanating from the Creative Deity (the subjective Universe, its 
"privation", or ideation) becomes the manifested "world of speech", i.e., 
the concrete expression of ideation, hence the "Word" or Logos. Vach is 
"the male and female" Adam of the first chapter of Genesis, and thus 
called "Vach-Viraj" by the sages. (See Atharva Veda.) She is also 
"the celestial Saraswati produced from tlie heavens", a "voice derived 
from speechless Brahma" (Maliabhdrata) ; the goddess of wisdom and 
eloquence. She is called Sata-rupa, the goddess of a hundred forms. 

Vacuum (Lat.). The symbol of the absolute Deity or Boundless 
Space, esoterically. 

Vahana (Sk.). A vehicle, the carrier of something immaterial and 
formless. All the gods and goddesses are, therefore, represented as 
using vdhanas to manifest themselves, which vehicles are ever symbolical. 
So, for instance, Vishnu has during Pralayas, Ananta "the infinite" 
(Space), symbolized by the serpent Sesha, and during the Manvantaras 
— Garuda the gigantic half-eagle, half-man, the symbol of the great 
cycle ; Brahma appears as Brahma, descending into the planes of mani- 
festations on Kdlahamsa, the ' ' swan in time or finite eternity ' ' ; Siva 
(phonet, Shiva) appears as the bull Nandi; Osiris as the sacred bull 
Apis; Indra travels on an elephant ; Karttikeya on a peacock ; Kamadeva 
on Makdra, at other times a parrot ; Agni,, the universal (and also solar) 
Fire-god, who is, as all of them are, "a consuming Fire", manifests 



332 THEOSOPHICAL 

itself as a ram and a lamb, Ajd, ^'the unborn"; Varuna, as a fish; etc., 
etc., while the vehicle of Man is his body. 

Vaibhachikas (Sk.). The followers of the Vihhdcha Shdstra, an 
ancient school of materialism ; a philosophy that held that no mental 
concept can be formed except through direct contact between the mind, 
via the senses, such as sight, touch, taste, etc., and external objects. 
There are Viabhachikas, to this day in India. 

Vaidhatra (Sk.). The same as the Kumaras. 

Vaidyuta (8k.) . Electric fire, the same as Pdvaka, one of the three 
tires which, divided, produce forty-nine mystic fires. 

Vaihara (Sk.). The name of a cave-temple near Rajagriha, whereinto 
the Lord Buddha usually retired for meditation. 

Vaijayanti (Sk.). The magic necklace of Vishnu, imitated by certain 
Initiates among the temple Brahmans. It is made of five precious stones, 
each symbolizing one of the five elements of our Round; namely, the 
pearl, ruby, emerald, sapphire and diamond, or water, fire, earth, air 
and ether, called "the aggregate of the five elemental rudiments" — 
the word "powers" being, perhajDS, more correct than "rudiments". 

Vaikhari Vach (Sk.). That which is uttered; one of the four forms 
of speech. 

Vaikuntha (Sk.). One of tlie names of the twelve great gods, whence 
V aikunthaloka the abode of Vishnu. 

Vairajas (Sk.). In a popular belief, semi-divine beings, shades of 
saints, inconsumable by fire, impervious to water, who dwell in Tapo- 
loka with the hope of Ijeing translated into Satya-loka — a more purified 
state which answers to Nirvana. The term is explained as the aerial 
bodies or astral shades of "ascetics, mendicants, anchorites, and peni- 
tents, who have completed their course of rigorous austerities". Now 
in esoteric philosophy they are called Nirmdnakdyas, Tapo-loka being on 
the sixth plane (upward) but in direct communication with the mental 
plane. The Vairajas are referred to as the first gods because the Mdnasa- 
putras and the Kumaras are the oldest in theogony, as it is said that even 
the gods worshipped them (Matsya Purdna) ; those whom Brahma "with 
the eye of Yoga beheld in the eternal spheres, and who are the gods of 
gods" (Vdyn Purdna). 

Vairochana (Sk.). "All-enlightening". A mystic symbol, or rather 
a generic personification of a class of spiritual beings described as the 
embodiment of essential wisdom (bodJii) and absolute purity. They 
dwell in the fourth Arupa Dhdtu (formless world) or Buddhakshetra, 
and are the first or the highest hierarchy of the five orthodox Dhyani 
Buddhas. There was a Sramana (an Arhat) of this name (see Eitel's 
Sansk. Chin. Diet.), a native of Kashmir, "who introduced Buddhism 
into Kustan and laboured in Tibet" (in the seventh century of our era). 
He was the best translator of the semi-esoteric Canon of Northern Bud- 
dhism, and a contemporarj^ of the great Samantabhadra (q.v.). 



GLOSSARY 333 

Vaisakha (Sk.). A celebrated female ascetic, born at Sravasti, and 
called S^idatta, "virtuous donor". She was the mother-abbess of a 
Vihara, or convent of female Upasikas, and is known as the builder of 
a Vihara for Sakyamuni Buddha. She is I'egarded as the patroness of 
all the Buddhist female ascetics. 

Vaisheshika (Sk.). One of the six Darshanas or schools of philosophy, 
founded by Kanada. It is called the Atomistic School, as it teaches the 
existence of a universe of atoms of a transient character, an endless 
number of souls and a fixed number of material principles, by the 
correlation and interaction of which periodical cosmic evolutions take 
place without any directing Force, save a kind of meelianical law in- 
herent in tlie atoms; a very materialistic school. 

Vaishnava (Sk.). A follower of any sect recognising and worshipping 
Vishnu as the one supreme God. The worshippers of Siva are called 
Saivas. 

Vaivaswata ^S'^-.;. The name of the Seventh Manu, the forefather of 
the post-diluvian race, or our own fifth humankind. A reputed son of 
Surva (the Sun), he became, after having been saved in an ark (bui'..t by 
the order of Vishnu) from the Deluge, the father of Ikshwaku. tlie 
founder of the solar race of kings. (See "Suryavansa".) 

Vajra (Sk.). Lit., "diamond club" or sceptre. In the Hindu works 
Tht' scepter of Indra. similar to the thunderbolts of Zeus, with wliich 
this deity as the god of thunder, slays his enemies. But in mystical 
Buddhism, the magic sceptre of Priest-Initiates, exorcists and adepts— 
the symbol of the possession of Siddhis or superhuman powers, wielded 
during certain ceremonies by the priests and theurgists. It is also the 
symbol of Buddha's power' over evil spirits or elementals. The pos- 
sessors of this wand are called Vajrapdni (q.v.). . 

Vajracharya (Sk..) The spiritual acharya (guru, teacher) of the 
Yogacharyas. The "Supreme Master of the Vajra". 

Vajradhara (Sk.). The Supreme Buddlia witli the Northern Bud- 
dhists. 

Vajrapani (Sk.), or Manjushri, the Dhyani-Bodhisattva (as the 
spiritual reflex, or the son of the Dhyani-Buddhas, on earth) born di- 
rectly from the subjective form of existence ; a deity worshipped by the 
profane as a god, and by Initiates as a subjective Force, the real nature 
of which is known only "to, and explained by, the highest Initiates of the 
Yogacharya School. 

Vajrasattva (Sk.) The name of the sixth Dhyani-Buddha (of whom 
there are but five in the popular Northern Buddhism)— in the Yoga- 
charva school, the latter counting seven Dliyani-Buddhas and as many 
Bodiiisattvas— the "mind-sons" of the former. Hence, the Orientalists 
refer to Vajrasattva as "a fjctitious Bodhisattva". 

Vallabacharya (Sk.). The name of a mystic who was the chela 
(disciple) of Vishnu Swami, and the founder of a sect of Vashnavas. His 



334 THEO'SOPHICAL 

descendants are called Goswami Maharaj, and have much landed prop- 
erty and numerous mandirs (temples in Bombay. They have degenerated 
into a shamefully licentious sect. 

Vamana (8k.). The fifth avatar of Vishnu, hence the name of the 
Dwarf whose form was assumed by that god. 

Vara (Mazd.). A term used in the Vendiddd, where Ahura-mazda 
commands Yima to build Vara. It also signifies an enclosure or vehicle, 
an ark (argha), and at the same time Man (verse 30). Vara is the 
vehicle of our informing Egos, ie., the human body, the soul in which is 
typified by the expression a "window self -shining within". 

Varaha (8k.). The boar-avatar of Vishnu; the third in number. 

Varna (Sk.). Caste; lit., ''colour". The four chief castes named 
by Manu — the Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaisya and Sudra — are called 
Chatur-varna. 

Varsha (Sk.). A region, a plain; any stretch of country situated 
between the great mountain-ranges of the earth. 

Varuna (Sk.). The god of water, or marine god, but far different 
from Neptune, for in the case of this oldest of the Vedic deities. Water 
means the "Waters of Space", or the all-investing sky, Akdsa, in one 
sense. Varuna or Ooaroona (phonetically), is certainly the prototype of 
the Ouranos of the Greeks. As Muir says: "The grandest cosmical 
functions are ascribed to Varuna. Possessed of illimitable knowledge 
. . . . he upholds heaven and earth, he dwells in all w^orlds as 
sovereign ruler. . . . He made the golden . . . sun to shine in 
the firmament. The wind which resounds through the atmosphere is his 
breath. . . . Through the operation of his laws the moon walks in 
brightness and the stars . . . mysteriously vanish in daylight. He 
knows the flight of birds in the sky, the paths of ships on the ocean, the 
course of the far travelling wind, and beholds all the things that have 
been or shall be done. ... He witnesses men's truth and false- 
hood. He instructs the Rishi Vasishta in mysteries ; but his secrets and 
those of Mitra are not to be revealed to the foolish." . . . "The 
attributes and functions ascribed to Varuna impart to his character a 
moral elevation and sanctity far surpassing that attributed to any other 
Vedic deity." 

Vasishta (Sk.). One of the primitive seven great Risliis, and a most 
celebrated Vedic sage. 

Vasudeva (8k.). The father of Krishna. He belonged to the Yadava 
branch of the Somavansa, or lunar race. 

Vasus (Sk.). The eight evil deities attendant upon Indra. Personi- 
fied cosmic phenomena, as their names show. 

Vayu (Sk.). Air: the god and sovereign of the air; one of the five 
states of matter, namely the gaseous; one of the five elements, called, as 
wind, Vdta. The Vishnu Purdna makes Vayu King of the Gandharvas. 
He is the father of Hanuman, in the Rdnidyana. The trinity of the 



GLOSSARY 335 

mystic gods in Kosmos closely related to each other, are "Agni (fire) 
\vhose place is on earth ; Vayu (air, or one of the forms of Indra), whose 
place is in the air; and Surya (the sun) wliose place is in the air". 
(Nirukta.) In esoteric interpretation, these three cosmic principles, 
correspond with the three human principles, Kama, Kama-Manas and 
Manas, the sun of the intellect. 

Vedana (^k.). The second of tlie five Skandhas (perceptions, senses). 
The sixtli Nidana. 

Vedanta (Sk.). A mystic system of philosophy which has developed 
from the efi:"orts of generations of sages to interpret the secret meaning 
of the Upanishads (q.v.). It is called in the Shad-Dcirshanas (six schools 
or systems of demonstration). Uttara Mimdnm, attributed to Vyasa, the 
compiler of the Vcdas, wlio is thus referred to as the founder of the 
Vedanta. The orthodox Hindus call Vedanta— a term meaning literally 
the "end of all (Vedic) 'knowledge''— Brahma -j nana, or pure and spirit- 
ual knowledge of Brahma. Even if we accept the late dates assigned to 
various Sanskrit schools and treatises by our Orientalists, the Vedanta 
must be 3,300 years old as Vyasa is said to have lived 1,400 years B.C. 
If, as Elphinstone has it in his History of India, the Brdhmanas are the 
Talmud of the Hindus, and the Vcdas the Mosaic books, then the 
Vedanta may be correctly called the Kahalah of India. But how vastly 
more grand! Sankaracharya, who was the popularizer of the Vedantic 
system, and the founder of the Adivaita philosophy, is sometimes called 
the founder of tlie modern schools of the Vedanta. 

Vedas (8k.). The "revelation", the scriptures of the Hindus, from 
the root vid, "to know", or "divine knowledge". They are the most 
ancient as well as tlie most sacred of the Sanskrit works. The Vedas— 
on the date and antiquity of which no two Orientalists can agree, are 
claimed by the Hindus themselves, whose Brahmans and Pundits ought 
to know best about their own religious works, to have been first taught 
orally for thousands of years and then compiled on the shores of Lake 
Manasa-Sarovara (phonetically, Mdnsarovara) beyond the Himalayas, m 
Tibet. When was this done? While their religious teachers, such as 
Swami Dayanand Saraswati, claim for them an antiquity of many 
decades of ' ages, our modern Orientalists will grant them no greater 
antiquity in their present form than about between 1,000 and 2,000 
B.C. As compiled in their final form by Veda-Vyasa, however, the 
Brahmans themselves unanimously assign 3,100 years before the Cliris- 
tian era, the date when Vyasa flourished. Therefore the Vedas must 
be as old as this date. But their antiquity is sufficiently proven by the 
fact that they are written in such an ancient form of Sanskrit, so 
different from the Sanskrit now used, tliat there is no other work like 
them in the literature of tliis eldest sister of all the known languages, as 
Prof. Max ^liiller calls it. Only the most learned of the Brahman 
Pundits can read the Vedas in their original. It is urged that Cole- 
brooke found the date 1400 b.c. corrol)orated absolutely by a passage 



336 THEOSOPHICAL 

which he discovered, and which is based on astronomical data. But if. 
as shown unanimously by all the Orientalists and the Hindu Pundits 
also, that (a) the Vedas are not a single work, nor 3'et any one of the 
separate Vcdas; but that each Veda, and almost every hymn and divi- 
sion of the latter, is the production of various authors ; and that (h) 
these have been written (wdiether as sruti, "revelation", or not) at vari- 
ous periods of the ethnological evolution of 1^ie Indo-Aryan race, then — 
what does Mr. Colebrooke's discovery prove? Simply that the Vedas 
were finally arranged and compiled fourteen centuries before our era ; 
but this interferes in no way with their antiquity. Quite the reverse ; 
for, as an offset to Mr. Colebrooke's passage, there is a learned article, 
written on purely astronomical data by Krishna Shastri Godbole (of 
Bombay), which proves as absolutely and on the same evidence that the 
Vedas must have been taught at least 25,000 years ago. (See Theoso- 
phist, Vol. II., p. 238 et seq., Aug., 1881.) This statement is, if not sup- 
ported, at any rate not contradicted by what Prof. Cowell says in Ap- 
pendix VII., of Elphinstone 's History of India: "There is a difference 
in age between the various hymns, which are now united in their present 
form as the Sanhita of the Rig-Veda; but we have no data to determine 
their relative antiquity, and purely subjective criticism, apart from solid 
data, has so often failed in other instances, that we can trust but little 
to any of its inferences in such a recently opened field of research as 
Sa"nskrit literature. [Not a fourth part of the Vaidik literature is as 
yet in print, and very little of it has been translated into English 
(1866).] The still unsettled controversies about the Homeric poems 
may well warn us of being too confident in our judgments regarding the 
yet earlier hymns of the Big-Veda. . . . When we examine these 
hymns . . . they are deeply interesting for the history of the human 
mind, belonging as they do to a much older phase than the poems of 
Homer or Hesiod. " The Vedic writings are all classified in two great 
divisions, exoteric and esoteric, the former being called Karma-Kdnda, 
"division of actions or works", and the Jndna-Kanda, "division of (di- 
vine) knowledge", the Upanishads (q.v.) coming under this last classi- 
fication. Both departments are regarded as Sruti or revelation. To 
each hymn of the Big-Veda, the name of the Seer or Rishi to whom it 
was revealed is prefixed. It, thus, becomes evident on the authority of 
these very names (such as Vasishta, Viswamitra, Narada, etc.), all of 
which belong to men born in various manvantaras and even ages, that 
centuries and perhaps millenniums, must have elapsed between the dates 
of their composition. 

Veda-Vyasa (Sk.). The compiler of the Vedas (q.v.). 

Veddhas (Sing.). The name of a wild race of men living in the for- 
ests of Ceylon. They are very difficult to find. 

Vehicle of Life (Mystic). The "Septenary" Man among the Pytha 
goreans, "number seven" among the profane. The former "explained 
it by saying, that the human body consisted of four principal elements 



GLOSSARY 337 

(prnciples), and that the soul is triple (the higher triad)". (See Isis 
Unveiled, Vol. II., p. 418, New York, 1877.) It has been often remarked 
that in the earlier works of tlie Theosophists no septenary division of 
man was mentioned. The above quotation is sufficient warrant that, 
although with every caution, the subject was more than once approached, 
<".nd is not a new-fangled theory or invention. 

Vendidad (Paklavi). The first book (Nosk) in the collection of Zend 
fragments usually known as the Zend-Avesta. The Vendidad is a cor- 
ruption of the compound-word "Vidaevo-datem", meaning "the anti- 
demoniac law ' ', and is full of teachings how to avoid sin and defilement 
by purification, moral and physical — each of which teaeliings is based on 
Occult laws. It is a pre-eminently occidt treatise, full of symbolism and 
often of meaning quite the reverse of that which is expressed in its 
dead-letter text. The Vendidad, as claimed by tradition, is the only one 
of the twenty-one Nosks (works) that has escaped the auto-da-fe at the 
hands of the drunken Iskander the Rumi, he whom posterity calls 
Alexander the Great — though the epithet is justifiable only when applied 
to the brutality, vices and cruelty of this conqueror. It is through the 
vandalism of tliis Greek that literature and know^ledge have lost much 
priceless lore in the Nosks burnt by him. Even the Vendidad has 
reached us in only a fragmentary state. The first chapters are very 
mystical, and therefore called "mythical" in the renderings of Euro- 
pean Orientalists. The two "creators" of "spirit-matter" or the world 
of differentiation — Ahura-Mazda aand Angra-]\Iainyu (Ahriman) — are 
introduced in them, and also Yima (the first man, or mankind personi- 
fied). The work is divided into Fargards or chapters, and a portion of 
these is devoted to the formation of our globe, or terrestrial evolution. 
(See Zend-Avesta.) 

Vetala (Sk.). An elemental, a spook, which liaunts burial grounds 
and animates corpses. 

Vetala Siddhi (Sk.). A practice of sorcery; means of obtaining 
jjower over tlie living by black magic, incantations, and ceremonies per- 
formed over a dead human body, during which process the corpse is 
desecrated. (See "Vetala".) 

Vibhavasu (Sk.). A mystic fire connected with the beginning of 
pralaya, or the dissolution of the universe. 

Vibhutayah (Sk.). The same as Siddhis or magic powers. 

Vidya (Sk.). Knowledge, Occult Science. 

Vidya-dhara (Sk.). And Vidya-dhari, male and female deities. Lit., 
"possessors of knowledge". They are also called Nahhas-chara, "mov- 
ing in the air", flying, and Priyam-vada, "sweet-spoken". They are the 
Sylphs of the Rosicrucians; inferior deities inhabiting the astral sphere 
between the eartli and ether; believed in popular folk-lore to be benefi- 
cent, but in reality they are cunning and mischievous, and intelligent 
Elementals, or "Powers of the air". They are represented in the East, 
and in the West, as having intercourse with men ("intermarrying", as 



338 THEOSOPHICAL 

it is called in Rosicrucian parlance; see Count de Gabalis). In India 
they are also, called Kdma-rupins, as they take shapes at will. It is 
among these creatures that the "spirit-wives" and "spirit-husbands" 
of certain modern spiritualistic mediums and hysteriacs are recruited. 
These boast with pride of having such pernicious connexions (e.g., the 
American "Lily", the spirit-wife of a well-known head of a now scat- 
tered community of Spiritualists, of a great poet and well-known 
writer), aand call them angel-guides, maintaining that they are the 
spirits of famous disembodied mortals. These "spirit-husbands" and 
"wives" have not originated with the modern Spiritists and Spiritual- 
ists, but have been known in the East for thousands of years, in the 
Occult philosophy, under the names above given, and among the profane 
as — Pishdchas. 

Vihara (Sk.).< Any place inhabited by Buddhist priests or ascetics; 
a Buddhist temple generally a rock-temple or cave. A monastery, or 
a nunnery also. One finds in these days Viharas built in the enclosures 
of monasteries and academies for Buddhist training in towns and cities ; 
but in days of yore they were to be met with only in unfrequented wild 
jungles, on mountain tops, and in the most deserted places. 

Viharas wamin (Sk.). The superior (whether male or female) of a 
monastery or convent, Vihara. Also called Karmaddna, as every teacher 
or guru, having authority, takes upon himself the responsibility of 
certain actions, good or bad, committed by his pupils or the flock en- 
trusted to him. 

Vijnanam (Sk.). The Vedantic name for the principle which dwells 
in the Vijndnamaya Kosha (the sheath of intellect) and corresponds to 
the faculties of the Higher Manas. 

Vikarttana (Sk.). Lit., "shorn of his rags"; a name of the Sun, and 
the type of tlie initiated neophyte. (See Secret Doctrine, I., p. 322, n.) 
Vimoksha (Sk.). The same as Nirvana. 

Vina (Sk.). A kind of large guitar used in India and Tibet, whose 
invention is attributed variously to Siva, Narada, and others. 

Vinata (Sk.). A daughter of Daksha and wife of Kashyapa (one of 
the "seven orators" of the world). She brought forth the egg from 
which Garuda the seer was born. 

Viprachitti (Sk.). The chief of the Danavas — the giants that warred 
with the gods : the Titans of India. 

Virabhadra (Sk.). A thousand-headed and thousand-armed monster, 
"born of the breath" of Siva Eudra a symbol having reference to the 
"sweat-born", the second race of mankind (Secret Doctrine, II., jd. 182). 

Viraj (Sk.). The Hindu Logos in the Purdnas; the male Manu, 
created in the female portion of Brahma's body (Vach) by that god. 
Says Manu : ' ' Having divided his body into two parts, the lord 
(Brahma) became with the one half a male and with the other half a 
female; and in her he created Viraj". The Rig-Veda makes Viraj 



GLOSSARY 



339 



spring from Puruslia, and Purusha spring from Viraj. The latter is tlic 
type of all male beings, and Vach, Sata-rupa (she of the hundred forms), 
the type of all female forms. 

Vishnu (SkJ. The second person of the Hindu Trimurti (trinity), 
composed of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva. From the root vish, to pervade ' '. 
In the Rig-Veda, Vishnu is no high god, but simply a manifestation 
of the solar energy, described as "striding through the seven regions 
of the Universe in three steps and enveloping all things with the dust 
(of his beams".) Whatever may be the six other occult significances of 
the statement, this is related to the same class of types as the seven and 
ten Sephiroth, as the seven and three orifices of the perfect Adam Kad- 
mon, as the seven "principles" and the higher triad in man, etc., etc. 
Later on this mystic type becomes a great god, the preserver and the 
renovator, he "of a thousand names— Sahasranama". 

Vishwakarman (Sk.). The "Omnificent". A Vedic god, a personi- 
fication of the creative Force, described as the One "all-seeing god. 
.... the generator, disposer, who ... is bevond the compre- 
hension of (uninitiated) mortals". In the two hymns of the Rig-Veda 
specially devoted to him, he is said "to sacrifice himself to himself". 
The names of his mother, "the lovely and virtuous Yoga-Siddhd" 
(Purdnas), and of his daughter Sanjnd (spiritual consciousness), show 
his mystic character. (See Secret, Doctrine, sub voc.) As the artificer 
of the gods and maker of their weapons, he is called Kdru, "workman", 
Takshaka "carpenter", or "wood-cutter", etc., etc. 

Vishwatryarchas (Sk.). The fourth solar (mystic) rav of the seven. 
(See Secret Doctrine, I., p. 515, n.) 

Vivaswat (Sk.). The "bright One", the Sun. 

Viwan (Sk.). Some kind "of air-vehicle", like a balloon, mentioned 
but not described in the old Sanskrit works, which the Atlanteans and 
the ancient Aryas seem to have known and used. 

Voluspa (Scand.). A poem called "The Song of the Prophetess" or 
"Song of Wala". 

Voodooism, or Voodoos. A system of African sorcery ; a sect of black 
magicians, to which the New Orleans negroes are much addicted. It 
flourishes likewise in Cuba and South America. 

_ Voordalak (Slav.). A vampire; a corpse informed by its lower prin- 
ciples, and maintaining a kind of semi-life in itself by raising itself 
during the niglit from the grave, fascinating its living victims and suck- 
ing out their blood. Roumanians, Moldavians, Servians, and all the 
Slavonian tribes dwelling in the Balkans, and also the Tchechs (Bohe- 
mians), Moravians, and others, firmly believe in the existence of such 
ghosts and dread them accordingly. 

Votan (3Icx.). The deified hero of the Mexicans and probablv the 
same as Quetzal-Coatl; a "son of the snakes", one admitted "to the 
snake's hole", whieli means an Adept admitted to the Initiation in the 



340 THEOSOPHICAL 

secret chamber of the Temple. The missionarj- Brasseiir de Bonrbourg, 
seeks to prove him a descendant of Ham, the accursed son of Noah. 
(See Isis Unveiled, I., pp. 545 et seq.) 

Vrata (Sk.). Law, or power of the gods. 

Vratani (8k.). Varuna's "active laws", courses of natural action. 
(See Rig-Vedic Hymns, X., 90-1.) 

Vriddha Garga (Sk.). From Vriddha, "old", and Garga, an ancient 
sage, one of the oldest writers on astronomy. 

Vriddha Manava (8k.). The laws of Manu. 

Vritra (8k.). The demon of drought in the Vedas, a great foe of 
Indra, with whom he is constantly at war. The allegory of a cosmic 
phenomenon. 

Vritra-han (Sk.). An epithet or title of Indra, meaning "the slayer 
of Vritra". 

Vyahritis (Slav.). Lit., "fiery," words lit hy and horn of fire. The 
three mystical, creative words, said by Manu to have been milked by the 
Prajapati from the Vedas: hhur, from the Rig-Veda; hJiuvah, from the 
Yajur-Veda; and Swar, from the Sama-Veda (Manu II., 76). All three 
are said to possess creative powers. The Satapatha Brdhmana explains 
that they are "the three luminous essences" extracted from the Vedas 
by Prajapati ("lords of creation", progenitors), through heat. "He 
(Brahma) uttered the word bhur, and it became the earth ; hhuvah, and 
it became the firmament; and sivar, which became heaven". Mahar is 
the fourth "luminous essence", and was taken from the Atharva-Veda. 
But, as this word is purely mantric and magical, it is one, so to say, kept 
apart. 

Vyasa (Sk.). Lit., one who expands or amplifies; an interpreter, or 
rather a revealcr; for that which he explains, interprets and amplifies 
is a mystery to the profane. This term was applied in days of old to the 
highest Gurus in India. There were many Vyasas in Aryavarta; one 
was the compiler and arranger of the Vedas; another, the author of 
the Mahabharatfi — the twenty -eighth Vydsa or revealer in the order of 
succession — and the last one of note was the author of TJttara Mimdnsd, 
the sixth school or system of Indian philosophy. He was also the 
founder of the Vedanta system. His date, as assigned by Orientalists 
(see Elphinstone, Cowell, etc.), is 1,400 B.C., but this date is certainly too 
recent. The Purdnas mention only twenty-eight Vyasas, who at various 
ages descended to the earth to promulgate Vedic truths — -but there were 
manv more. 



GLOSSAHY 341 



(' 



w. 

W. — The 23rd letter. Has no equivalent in Hebrew. In Western 
Occultism some take it as the s^-mbol for celestial water, whereas M 
stands for terrestrial water. 

Wala (Scancl). A prophetess in the songs of the Edda (Norse myth- 
ology). Through the incantations of Odin she was raised from her 
grave, and made to prophesy the death of Baldur. 

Walhalla (Scand.). A kind of paradise (Devachan) for slaughtered 
warriors called by the Norsemen "the hall of the blessed heroes"; it 
has five hundred doors. 

Wall (Scand.). The son of Odin who avenges tlie death of Baldur, 
"the well-beloved". 

Walkyries (Scand.). Called the "choosers of the dead". In th 
popular poetry of the Scandinavians, these goddesses consecrate the 
fallen heroes with a kiss, and bearing them from the battle-field carry 
them to the halls of bliss and to the gods in Walhalla. 

Wanes (Scand.). A race of gods of great antiquity, worshipped at 
the dawn of time by the Norsemen, and later by the Teutonic races. 

Wara (Scand.). One of the maidens of Northern Freya ; "the wise 
Wara", who watches the desires of each human heart, and avenges 
every breach of faith. 

Water. The first principle of things, according to Thales and other 
ancient philosophers. Of course this is not water on the material plane, 
but in a figurative sense for the potential fluid contained in boundless 
space. This was symbolised in ancient Egypt by Kncph, the "unre- 
vealed" god, who was represented as the serpent — the emblem of eter- 
uity — encircling a ivatcr-um, with his head hovering over the waters, 
which he incubates with his breath. "And the Spirit of God moved 
upon the face of the waters." {Gen. i.) The honey-dew, the food of 
tlie gods and the creative hecs on the Yggdrasil, falls during the night 
upon the tree of life from the "divine waters," the birth-place of the 
gods". Alchemists claim that when pre-Adamic earth is reduced by the 
Alkahest to its first substance, it is like clear ivater. The Alkahest is 
"the one and the invisible, tlic water, the first principle, in tlie second 
transformation". 

We (Scand.). One of the three gods— Odin, Wili and We— who kill 
the giant Ymir (chaotic force), and create the world out of his body, the 
primordial substance. 



342 THEOSOPHICAL 

Werdandi (Scand.). See "Norns", the three sister-goddesses who 
represent the Past, the Present and the Future. Werdandi represents 
the ever-present time. 

Whip of Osiris. The scourge which symbolises Osiris as the "judge 
of the dead". It is called the nckliekh, in the papyri, or the flagellum. 
Dr. Pritchard sees in it a fan or van, the winnowing instrument. Osiris, 
"whose fan is in his hand and who purges the Amenti of sinful hearts 
as a winnower sweeps his floor of the fallen grains and locks the good 
wheat into his garner". (Compare Mattheiv, iii. 12.) 

WTiite Fire (Kah.). The Zohar treating of the "Long Face" and 
"Short Face", the symbols of Macrocosm and Microcosm, speaks of the 
hidden White Fire, radiating from these night and day and yet never 
seen. It answers to vital force (beyond luminiferous ether), and elec- 
tricity on the higher and lower planes. But the mystic "White Fire" 
is a name given to Ain-Soph. And this is the difference between the 
Aryan and the Semitic philosophies. The Occultists of the former speak 
of the Black Fire, which is the symbol of the unknown and unthinkable 
Brahm, and declare any speculation on the "Black Fire" impossible. 
But the Kabbalists who, owing to a subtle permutation of meaning, en- 
dow even Ain-Soph with a kind of indirect will and attributes, call its 
"fire" white, thus dragging the Absolute into the world of relation and 
finiteness. 

White Head. In Hebrew Rcslia Hivra, an epithet given to Sephira. 
the highest of the Sephiroth, whose cranium "distils the dew which will 
call the dead again to life". 

White Stone. The sign of initiation mentioned in St. John's 
Revelation. It had the word prize engraved on it, and was the symbol 
of that word given to the neophjd^e who, in his initiation, had success- 
fully passed through all the trials in the Mysteries. It was the potent 
white cornelian of the mediseval Eosicrucians, who took it from the 
Gnostics. "To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden 
manna (the occult knowledge which descends as divine wisdom from 
heaven), and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name 
written (the 'mystery name' of the inner man or the Ego of the new 
Initiate), which no man knoweth saving him that receive th it." 
{Revelation, ii. 17.) 

Widow's Son. A name given to the French Masons, because the 
Masonic ceremonies are principally based on the adventures and death 
of Hiram Abif, "the widow's son", who is supposed to have helped to 
build the mythical Solomon's Temple. 

Wili (Scand.). See "We." 

Will. In metaphysics and occult philosophy. Will is that which 
governs the manifested universes in eternity. Will is the one and sole 
principle of abstract eternal Motion, or its ensouling essence. "The 
will, ' ' says Van Helmont, ' ' is the first of all powers. . . . The will is 
the property of all spiritual beings and displays itself in them the more 



GLOSSARY 343 

actively tlie more they are freed from matter." And Paracelsus teaches 
that "determined will is the beginning; of all magical operations. It is 
because men do not perfectly imagine and believe the result, that the 
(occult) arts are so uncertain, while they might be perfectly certain." 
Like all the rest, the Will is septenary in its degrees of manifestation. 
Emanating from the one, eternal, abstract and purely quiescent Will 
(Atma in Lavam), it becomes Buddhi in its Alaya state, descends lower 
as Mahat (Manas), and runs down the ladder of degrees until the divine 
Eros becomes, in its lower, animal manifestation, erotic desire. Will as 
an eternal principle is neither spirit nor substance but everlasting idea- 
tion. As well expressed by Schopenhauer in his Parcrga, "in sober 
reality there is neither matter nor spirit. The tendency to gravitation in 
a stone is as unexplainable as thought in the human brain. ... If 
matter can— no one knows whj^ — fall to the ground, then it can also— 
no one knows why— think. ... As soon even in mechanics, as we 
trespass beyond tlie purely mathematical, as soon as we reach the inscru- 
table adhesion, gravitation, and so on, we are faced by phenomena which 
are to our senses as mysterious as the will." 

Wisdom. The "very essence of wisdom is contained in the Non- 
Being", say the Kabbalists; but they also apply the term to the Word 
or Logos, tiie Demiurge, by which the universe was called into existence. 
"The one Wisdom is in the Sound", say the Occultists^ the Logos again 
being meant by Sound, which is the substratum of Akasa. Says the 
Zohar, the "Book of Splendour": "It is the Principle of all the Prin- 
ciples, the mvsterious Wisdom, the crown of all that which there is of the 
most High"!! (Zohar, iii., fol. 288, Myer's Qdblalah.) And it is ex- 
plained, "Above Kether is the Ayin, or Ens, i.e., Ain, the Nothing". 
"It is so named because we do not know, and it is impossible to know. 
that which there is in that Principle, because . . . it is above Wisdom 
itself." (iii., fol. 288.) This shows that the real Kabbalists agree with 
the Occultists that the essence, or that which is in the principle of Wis- 
dom, is still above that highest Wisdom. 

Wisdom Religion. The one religion which underlies all the now- 
existing creeds. That "faith" which, being primordial, and revealed 
directlv to human kind by their progenitors and informing Egos 
(though the Church regards them as the "fallen angels"), required no 
"grace", nor Uind faith to believe, for it was knowledge. (See "Gupta 
Vidya", Hidden Knowledge.) It is on this Wisdom Religion that 
Theosophy is based. 

Witch. From the Anglo-Saxon word wicce, German ivissen, "to 
know", and ivikJcen, "to divine". The witches were at first called 
"wise women", until the day the Church took it unto herself to follow 
the law of Moses, which put' every "witch" or enchantress to death. 

Witchcraft. Sorcery, enchantment, the art of throwing spells and 
using black magic. 

Witches' Sabbath. Tlie supposed festival and gathering of witches 



344 THEOSOPHICAL 

in some lonely spot, where the witches were accused of conferring 
directly with the Devil. Every race and people believed in it, and some 
believe in it still. Thus the chief headquarters and place of meeting of 
all the witches in Russia is said to be the Bald Mountain (Lyssaya 
Gord), near Kief, and in Germany the Brocken, in the Harz Mountains. 
In old Boston. U.S.A., they met near the "Devil's Pond", in a large 
forest which has now disappeared. At Salem, they were put to death 
almost at the will of the Church Elders, and in South Carolina a witch 
was burnt as late as 1865. In Germany and England they were mur- 
dered by Church and State in thousands, being forced to lie and confess 
under torture their participation in the "Witches' Sabbath". 

Wittoba (8k.). A form of Vishnu. Moor gives in his Hindu 
Pantheon the picture of Wittoba crucified in Space; and the Rev. Dr. 
Lundy maintains (Monumental Christianity) that this engraving is 
anterior to Christianity and is the crucified Krishna, a Saviour, hence 
a concrete prophecj^ of Christ. (See Isis Unveiled, II., 557, 558.) 

Wizard. A wise man. An enchanter, or sorcerer. 

Wodan (Saxon). The Scandinavian Odin, Votan, or Wuotan. 

World. As a prefix to mountains, trees, and so on, it denotes a uni- 
versal belief. Thus the "World-Mountain" of the Hindus was Meru. 
As said in Isis Unveiled: "All the world-mountains and mundane eggs. 
the mundane trees, and the mundane snakes and pillars, may be shown 
to embody scientifically demonstrated truths of natural philosophy. All 
of these mountains contain, with verj^ trifling variations, the allegori- 
cally-expressed description of primal cosmogony; the mundane trees. 
that of subsequent evolution of spirit and matter; the mundane snakes 
and pillars, symbolical memorials of the various attributes of this double 
evolution in its endless correlation of cosmic forces. Within the mys- 
terious recesses of the mountains — the matrix of the universe — the gods 
(powers) prepare the atomic germs of organic life, and at the same time 
the life-drink, which, when tasted, awakens in man-matter the man- 
spirit. The Soma, the sacrificial drink of the Hindus, is that sacred 
beverage. For at tlie creation of tlie prima materia, while the grossest 
portions of it were used for the physical embryo-world, its more divine 
essence pervaded tlie universe, invisibly permeating and enclosing within 
its ethereal waves the newly-born infant, developing and stimulating it 
to activity as it slowly evolved out of the eternal chaos. From the 
poetry of abstract conception, these mundane myths gradually passed 
into the concrete images of cosmic symbols, as archaeology now finds 
them." Another and still more usual prefix to all these objects is 
"Mundane". (See "Mundane Egg". "Mundane Tree'', and 
"Yggdrasil".) 

Worlds, the Four. The Kabbalists recognise Four Worlds of Exist- 
ence : viz., Atziluth or archetypal ; Briah or creative, the first reflection 
of the highest ; Yetzirah or formative ; and Assiah, the World of Shells 
or Klippoth, and the material universe. The essence of Deity concen- 



GLOSSARY 



345 



trating into the Sephiroth is first manifested in the Atziluthic World, 
and their reflections are produced in succession in each of the four 
planes, with gradually lessening radiance and purity, until the material 
universe is arrived at. Some authors call these four planes the In- 
tellectual, Moral, Sensuous, and Material Worlds, [w.w.w.] 

Worlds, Inferior and Superior. Tlie Occultists and the Kabbalists 
agree in dividing the universe into superior and inferior worlds, the 
worlds of Idea and the worlds of Matter. "As above, so below", states 
the Hermetic philosophy. This lower world is formed on its prototype 
—the higher world; and ''everything in the loM^er is but an image (a 
reflection) of the higher". (Zohar, ii.,.fol. 20a.) 



346 THEOSOPHICAL 



X. 

-<^« — This letter is one of the important symbols in the Occult phil- 
osophy. As a numeral X stands, in mathematics, for the unknown 
quantity; in occult numerals, for the perfect number 10; when placed 
liorizontally, thus X', it means 1,000; the same with a dash over it x 
for 10,000; and by itself in occult symbolism, it is Plato's logos (man as 
a microcosm) decussated in space in the form of the letter X . The 0, 
or cross within the circle, has moreover a still clearer significance in 
Eastern occult philosophy : it is Man within his own spherical envelope. 

Xenophilus. A Pythagorean adept and philosopher, credited by 
Lucian (dc Macroh.), Pliny and others with having lived to his 170th 
.year, preserving all his faculties to the last. He wrote on music and was 
surnamed the "Musician". 

Xisusthrus (Gr.). The Chaldean Noah, on the Assyrian tablets, \yho 
is thus described in the history of the ten kings of Berosus, according 
to Alexander Polyhistor: "After the death of (the ninth) Ardates, his 
son Xisusthrus reigned eighteen sari. In his time happened a great 
deluge." Warned by his deity in a vision of the forthcoming cataclysm, 
Xisusthrus was ordered by that deity to build an ark, to convey into it 
his relations, together with all the different animals, birds, etc.,_ and 
trust himself to the rising waters. Obeying the divine admonition. 
Xisusthrus is shown to do precisely what Noah did many thousand 
years after him. He sent out birds from the vessel which returned 
to him again; then a few days after he sent them again, and they 
returned with their feet coated with mud ; but the third time they came 
back to him no more. Stranded on a high mountain of Armenia. 
Xisusthrus descends and builds an altar to the gods. Here only, comes 
a divergence between the pol\i:heistic and monotheistic legends. Xisus- 
thrus, having worshipped and rendered thanks to the gods for his 
salvation, disappeared, and his companions "saw him no more." The 
story informs us that on account of his great piety Xisusthrus and his 
family were translated to live ivith the gods, as he himself told the sur- 
vivors. For though his body was gone, his voice was heard in the air, 
which, after apprising them of the occurrence, admonished them to 
return to Babylon, and pay due regard to virtue, religion, and the gods. 
This is more meritorious than to plant vines, get drunk on the juice of 
the grape, and curse one's own son. 



GLOSSARY 34Y 



Y. 

Y 

A • — The twenty-fifth letter of the Eiifrlish alphabet, and the tenth of 
the Hebrew — the Yod. It is the litera Pytliagorce, the Pythagorean let- 
ter and symbol, signifying the two branches, or paths of virtue and vice 
respectively, the right leading to virtue, the left to vice. In Hebrew 
Kabbalistic mysticism it is the phallic male member, and also as number 
ten, the perfect number. Symbolically, it is represented by a hand with 
bent forefinger. Its numerical equivalent is ten. 

Yadava (8k.). A descendant of Yadu; of the great race in which 
Krishna was born. The founder of this line was Yadu, the son of King 
Yayati of the Somavansa or Lunar Race. It was under Krishna — cer- 
tainly no mythical personage— that the kingdom of Dwaraka in Guzerat 
was established ; and also after the death of Krishna (3102 B.C.) that all 
the Yadavas present in the city perished, when it was submerged by the 
ocean. Only a few of the Yadavas who were absent from the town at 
the time of the catastrophe, escaped to perpetuate this great race. The 
Rajas of Vijaya-Nagara are now among the small number of its repre- 
sentatives. 

Yah (Heh.). The word, as claimed in the Zohar, through which the 
Elohim formed the worlds. The syllable is a national adaptation and 
one of the many forms of the ''Mystery name" Iao. (See "laho" and 
"Yaho".) 

Yaho (Heh.). Fiirst shows this to be the same as the Greek Iao. 
Yaho is an old Semetic and very mystic name of the supreme deity, 
while Yah (q.v.) is a later abbreviation which, from containing an ab- 
stract ideal, became finally applied to, and connected with a phallic 
symbol— the lingham of creation. Both Yah and Yaho were Hebrew 
"mystery names" derived from Iao, but the Chaldeans had a Yaho be- 
fore the Jews adopted it, and with them, as explained by some Gnostics 
and Neo-Platonists, it was the highest conceivable deity enthroned above 
the seven heavens and represnting Spiritual Light (Atman, the uni- 
versal), whose ray was Nous, standing both for the intelligent Demiurge 
of the Universe of Matter and the Divine ]\Ianas in man. both being 
Spirit. The true key of this, communicated to the Initiates only, was 
that the name of Iao was "triliteral and its nature secret", as explained 
by the Hierophants. The Phoenicians too had a supreme deity whose 
name was triliteral, and its meanings secret, tliis was also Iao; and 
Y-ha-ho was a sacred word in the Egyptian mysteries, which signified 
''the one eternal and concealed deity" in nature and in man; i.e., the 
"universal Divine Ideation", and the human Manas, or the higher Ego. 



348 THEOSOPHICAL 

Yajna (Sk.). "Sacrifice", whose symbol or representation is now 
the constellation Mriga-shiras (deer-head), and also a form of Vishnu. 
"The Yajna", say the Brahmans, "exists from eternity, for it proceeded 
from the Supreme, in whom it lay dormant from no beginning". It is 
the key to the Trai-Yidya, the thrice sacred science contained in the Rig- 
Veda verses in his Introduction to the Aitareya Brdhmana — the Yajna 
exists as an invisible presence at all times, extending from the AJiavaniya 
or sacrificial fire to the heavens, forming a bridge or ladder by means 
of which the sacrificer can communicate with the world of devas, "and 
even ascend when alive to their abodes". It is one of the forms of Akasa, 
within which the mystic Word (or its underlying "Sound") calls it into 
existence. Pronounced by the Priest-Initiate or Yogi, this Word 
receives creative powers, and is communicated as an impulse on the 
terrestrial plane through a trained Will-power. 

Yakin and Boaz (Heh.). A Kabbalistic and Masonic symbol. Tlie 
two pillars of bronze (Yakin, male and white; Boaz, female and red). 
cast by Hiram Abif of Tyre, called "the Widow's Son", for Solomon's 
supposed (Masonic) Temple. Yakin was the symbol of Wisdom 
(Chokmah), the second Sephira ; and Boaz, that of Intelligence (Binah) ; 
the temple between the two being regarded as Kether, the crown, Father- 
Mother. 

Yaksha (Sk.). A class of demons, who, in popular Indian folk-lore, 
devour men. In esoteric science they are simply evil (elemental) influ- 
ences, who in the sight of seers and clairvoyants descend on men, when 
open to the reception of such influences, like a fiery comet or a shooting 
star. 

Yama (Heh.). The personified third root-race in Occultism. In the 
Indian Pantheon Yama is the subject of two distinct versions of the 
myth. In the Vedas he is the god of the dead, a Pluto or a Minos, with 
whom the shades of the departed dwell (the Kamarupas in Kamaloka). 
A hymn speaks of Yama as the first of men that died, and the first that 
departed to the world of bliss (Devachan). This, because Yama is the 
embodiment of the race which was the first to be endowed with consciovs- 
ness (Manas), without which there is neither Heaven nor Hades. Yama 
is represented as the son of Vivaswat (the Sun). He had a twin-sister 
named Yami, who was ever urging him, according to another hymn, to 
take her for his wife, in order to perpetuate the species. The above has 
a very suggestive symbolical meaning, which is explained in Occultism. 
As Dr. Muir truly remarks, the Rig-Veda — the greatest authority on the 
primeval myths which strike the original key-note of the themes that 
underlie all the subsequent variations — nowhere shows Yama "as having 
anything to do with the punishment of the wicked". As king and judge 
of the dead, a Pluto in short, Yama is a far later creation. One has to 
study the true character of Yama-Yami throughout more than one 
hymn and epic poem, and collect the various accounts scattered in dozens 
of ancient works, and then he will obtain a consensus of allegorical 



GLOSSARY 349 

statements which will be found to corroborate and justify the Esoteric 
teaching, that Yama-Yami is the symbol of the dual Manas, in one of its 
mystical meanings. For instance, Yami-Yami is always represented of 
a green colour and clothed with red, and as dwelling in a palace of 
copper and iron. Students of Occultism know to wliich of the human 
"principles" the green and the red colours, and by correspondence the 
iron and copper are to be applied. The "twofold-ruler"— the epithet 
of Yama-Yami— is regarded in the exoteric teachings of the Chino- 
Buddhists as both judge and criminal, the restrainer of his own evil 
doings and the evil-doer himself. In the Hindu epic poems Yama-Yami 
is the twin-child of the Sun (the deity) by Sanjna (spiritual conscious- 
ness) ; but while Yama is the Aryan "lord of the day", appearing as 
the symbol of spirit in the East, Yami is the queen of the night (dark- 
ness, ignorance) "who opens to mortals the path to the West" — the em- • 
blem of evil and matter. In the Purdnas Yama has many wives (many 
Yamis) who force him to dwell in the lower world (Patala, Myalba, 
etc. ,etc.) ; and an allegory represents him with his foot lifted to kick 
Chhmjd, the hand-maiden of his father (the astral body of his mother, 
Sanjna, a metaphysical aspect of Buddhi or Alaya). As stated m the 
Hindu Scriptures, a soul when it quits its mortal frame, repairs to its 
abode in the lower regions (Kamaloka or Hades). Once there, the 
Recorder, the Karmic messenger called Chitragupta (hidden or con- 
cealed brightness), reads out his account from the Great Register, 
wherein during the life of the human being, every deed and thought are 
indelibly impressed— and, according to tlie sentence pronounced, the 
"soul" either ascends to the abode of the Pitris (Devachan), descends 
to a "hell" (Kamaloka), or is reborn on earth in another human form. 
The student of Esoteric philosophy will easily recognise the bearings 
of the allegories. 

Yamabooshee, or Yamahusi (Jap.). A sect in Japan of very ancient 
and revered mystics. They are monks "militant" and warriors, if 
needed, as are certain Yogis in Rajputana and the Lamas in Tibet. This 
mystic brotherhood dwell chiefly near Kioto, and are renowned for their 
healing powers, says the Encyclopedia, which translates the name 
"Hermit Brothers": "They pretend to magical arts, and live in the 
recesses of mountains and craggy steeps, whence they come forth to tell 
fortunes (?), write charms and sell amulets. They lead a mysterious life 
and admit no one to their secrets, except after a tedious and difficult 
preparation by fasting and a species of severe gymnastic exercise" (! !). 

Yasna, or Yagna (Pahl.). The third portion of the first of the two 
parts of the Avesta, the Scripture of the Zoroastrian Parsis. The Yasna 
is composed of litanies of the same kind as the Visperad (the second por- 
tion) and of five hymns or gdthas. These gdthas are the oldest fragments 
of Zoroastrian literature known to the Parsis, for they are written "in a 
special dialect, older than the general language of the Avesta" (Darmes- 
teter). (See "Zend".) 



350 THEOSOPHICAL 

Yati (8k.). A measure of three feet. 

Yatus, or Ydtudhdnas (8k.). A kind of animal-formed demons. Eso- 
terically, human animal passions. 

Yazathas (Zend). Pure celestial spirits, Avhom the Vendidad shows 
once upon a time sharing their food with mortals, who thus participate in 
their existence. 

Years of Brahma. The whole period of "Brahma's Age" (100 
Years). Equals 311,040,000,000,000 years. (See "Yuga".) 

Yeheedah (Heh.). Lit., "Individuality"; esoterically, the highest 
individuality or Atma-Buddhi-Manas when united in one. This doctrine 
is in the Chaldean Book of Numhers, which teaches a septenary division 
of human "principles", so-called, as does the Kahalah in the Zohar, 
according to the Book of Solomon (iii., 104a, as translated in I. Myer's 
Qahhalah). At the time of the conception, the Holy "sends a d'yook- 
nah, or the phant&ni of a shadow image "like the fa£e of a man. It is 
designed and sculptured in the divine tzelem, i.e., the shadow image of 
the Elohim. "Elohim created man in his (their) tzelem'' or image, says 
Genesis (i. 27). It is the tzelem that awaits the child and receives it 
at the moment of its conception, and tliis tzelem is our linga sharira. 
"The Rua'h forms with the Nephesh the actual personality of the man", 
and also his individuality, or, as expressed by the Kabbalist, the com- 
bination of the two is called, if he (man) deserves it, Yeheedah. This 
combination is that which the Theosophist calls the dual Manas, the 
Higher and the Lower Ego, united to Atma-Buddhi and become one. 
For as explained in the Zohar (i., 205&, 206o, Brody Ed.) : "Neshamah, 
soul (Buddhi), comprises three degrees, and therefore she has three 
names, like the mystery above: that is, Nephesh, Rua'h, Neshamah", or 
the Lower Manas, the Higher Ego, and Buddhi, the Divine Soul. "It 
is also to be noted that the Neshamah has three divisions;" says Myer's 
Qahhalah, "the highest is the Ye-hee-dah" — or Atma-Buddhi-Manas, the 
latter once more as a unit; "the middle principle is Hay -yah" — -or 
Buddhi and the dual Manas; "and the last and third the Neshamah, 
properly speaking" — or Soul in general. "They manifest themselves 
in Ma'hshabah, thought, Tzelem, phantom of the image, Zurath, proto- 
types (mayavic forms, or rupas), and the D'yooknah, shadow of the 
phantom image. The D'mooth, likeness or similitude (physical body), 
is a lower manifestation" (p. 392). Here then, we find the faithful echo 
of Esoteric science in the Zohar and other Kabbalistic works, a perfect 
Esoteric septenary division. Every Theosophist who has studied the 
doctrine sketched out first in Mr. Sinnett's Occult World and Esoteric 
Buddhism, and later in the Theosophist, Lucifer, and other ^vritings, 
will recognise them in the Zohar. Compare for instance what is taught 
in Theosophical works about the pre- and post-mortem states of the three 
higher and the four lower human principles, with the following from the 
Zohar: "Because all these three are one knot like the above in the 
mystery of Nephesh, Rua'h, Neshamah, they are all one, and bound in 



GLOSSARY 



351 



1 



one. Nepkesh (Kama-Manas) has no light from her own substance ; and 
it is for this reason that she is associated with the mystery of guff, the 
body, to procure enjoyment and food and everything which it needs. 
. . . Rua'h (the Spirit) is that which rides on that Nephesh (the lower 
soul) and rules over her and lights (supplies) her with everything she 
needs [i.e., with the light of reason], and the Nepkesh is the throne 
[vehicle] of that Ru'ah. Ncshamah (Divine Soul) goes over to that 
Rua'%, and she rules over that Rva'h and lights to him with that Light 
of Life, and that Rua'h depends on the Neshamah and receives light 
from her, which illuminates him, . . . When the 'upper' Neshamah 
ascends (after the death of the body) she goes to . . . the Ancient of 
the Ancient, the Plidden of all the Hidden, to receive Eternity. The 
Rua'h does not [yet] go to Gan Eden [Devachan] because he is 
[mixed up with] Nephesh . . . the Rua'h goes up to Eden, but not 
so high as the soul, and Nephesh [the animal principle, lower soul] 
remains in the grave below [or Kamaloka]." (Zohar, ii., 142a, Cremona 
Ed., ii., fol.^63&, col. 252). It would be difficult not to recognise in the 
above our Atma (or the "upper" Neshamah), Buddhi (Neshamah), 
Manas {Rua'h), and Kama-Manas (Nephesh) or the lower animal soul; 
the first of which goes after the death of man to join its integral whole' 
the second and the third proceeding to Devachan, and the last, or the 
Kamarupa, "remaining in its grave", called otherwise the Kamaloka 
or Hades. 

Yene Anganta. The meaning of the Anganta Yene is known to all 
India. It is the action of an elemental (hhut), who, drawn into the 
sensitive and passive body of a medium, takes possession of it. In other 
words, anganta yene means literally "obsession". The Hindus dread 
such a calamity now as strongly as they did thousands of years ago. 
"No Hindu, Tibetan, or Sinhalese, unless of the lowest caste and intel- 
ligence, can see, without a shudder of horror, the signs of 'mediumship' 
manifest themselves in a member of his family, or Avithout saying, as a 
Christian would do now, 'he hath the devil'. This 'gift, blessing, and 
holy mission', so called in England and America, is, among the older 
peoples, in the cradle-lands of our race, where longer experience than 
ours has taught them more spiritual wisdom, regarded as a dire mis- 
fortune." 

Yesod (Heh.). The ninth Sephira; meaning Basis or Foundation. 

Yetzirah (Hcl.). The third of the Four Kabbalistic Worlds, referred 
to the Angels; the "World of Formation", or Olam Yetzirah. It is also 
called Malahayah, or "of the Angels". It is the abode of all the ruling 
Genii (or Angels) who control and rule planets, worlds and spheres. 

Yeu (Chin.). "Being", a synonym of Siibhdva; or "the Substance 
giving substance to itself". 

Yggdrasil (Scand.). The "World Tree of the Norse Cosmogony; the 
ash Yggdrasil; the tree of the Universe, of time and of life". It has 
three roots, which reach down to cold Hel, and spread thence to Jotun- 



352 THEOSOPHICAL 

heim, the land of the Hrimthurses, or "Frost Giants", and to Midgard, 
the earth and dwelMng of the children of men. Its upper houghs stretch 
out into heaven, and its highest branch overshadows Walhalla, the 
Devachan of the fallen heroes. The Yggdrasil is ever fresh and green, 
ds it is daily sprinkled by the Norns, the three fateful sisters, the Past, 
the Present, and the Future, with the waters of life from the fountain 
of Urd that flows on our earth. It wall wither and disappear only on 
the day when the last battle between good and evil is fought ; when, 
the former prevailing, life, time and space pass out of life and space 
and time. 

Every ancient people had their world-tree. The Babylonians had 
their "tree of life" Avhich was the world-tree, whose roots penetrated 
into the great lower deep or Hades, whose trunk was on the earth, and 
whose upper boughs reached Zikum, the highest heaven above. Instead 
of in Walhalla, they placed its upper foliage in the holy house of Dav- 
kina, the "great mother" of Tammuz, the Saviour of the world — the 
Sun-god put to death by the enemies of light. 

Yi-King (Chin.). An ancient Chinese work, written by generations 
of sages. 

Yima (Zend). In the Vendklad, the first man, and, from his aspect 
of spiritual progenitor of mankind, the same as Yama (q.v.). His fur- 
ther functions are not given in the Zend books, because so many of 
these ancient fragments have been lost, made away with, or otherwise 
prevented from falling into the hands of the profane. Yima was not 
horn, for he represents the first three human Root-races, the first of 
Avhich is "not born"; but he is the "first man wlio dies", because the 
third race, the one which was informed by the rational Higher Egos^vfas 
the first one whose men separated into male and female, and "man lived 
and died, and was reborn". (See Secret Doctrine, II., pp. 609 et seq.) 

Ymir (Scand.). The personified matter of our globe in a seething 
condition. The cosmic monster in the form of a giant, who is killed in 
the cosmogonical allegories of the Eddas by the three creators, the sons 
of Bor, Odin, Will and We, who are said to have conquered Ymir and 
created the world out of his body. This allegory shows the three prin- 
cipal forces of nature — separation, formation and growth (or evolution) 
— conquering the unruly, raging "giant" matter, and forcing it to be- 
come a world, or an inhabited globe. It is curious that an ancient, 
primitive and uncultured pagan people, so philosophical and scientific- 
ally correct in their views about the origin and formation of the earth, 
should, in order to be regarded as civilized, have to accept the dogma 
that the world was created out of nothing! 

Yod (Heh.). The tenth letter of the alphabet, the first in the four- 
fold symbol of the compound name Jah-hovah (Jehovah) or Jah-Eve, 
the hermaphrodite force and existence in nature. Without the later 
vowels, the M^ord Jehovah is written IHVH (the letter Yod standing 
for all the three English letters y, i, or j, as the case may require), and is 



GLOSSARY 353 

male-female. The letter Yod is the symbol of the lingham, or male 
organ, in its natural triple form, as the Kahalah shows. The second 
letter He, has for its symbol the yoni, the womb or ''window-opening", 
as the Kahalah has it ; the symbol of the third letter, the Vau, is a crook 
or a nail (the bishop's crook having its origin in this), another male 
letter and the fourtli is the same as the second — the whole meaning to he 
or to exist under one of these forms or both. Thus the word or name is 
pre-eminently phalUc. It is that of the fighting god of the Jews, "Lord 
of Hosts"; of the "aggressive Yod" or Zodh, Cain (by permutation), 
who slciv his female hrothcr, Abel, and spilt his (her) blood. This name, 
selected out of many by the early Christian writers, was an unfortunate 
one for their religion on account of its associations and original signif- 
icance ; it is a numhe)' at hcst, an organ in reality. This letter Yod has 
passed into God and Gott. 

Yoga (8k.). (1) One of the six Darshanas or schools of India; a 
school of philosophy founded by Patanjali, though the real Yoga doc- 
trine, the one that is said to have helped to prepare the world for the 
preaching of Buddha, is attributed with good reasons to the more ancient 
sage Yajnawalkya, the writer of the Shatapatha Brdhmana, of Yajur 
Veda, the Brihad Aranyaka, and other famous works. (2) The practice 
of meditation as a means of leading to spiritual liberation. Psycho- 
spiritual powers are obtained thereby, and induced ecstatic states lead 
to the clear and correct perception of the eternal truths, in both the 
visible and invisible universe. 

Yogacharya (Sk.). (1) A mystic school. (2) Lit., a teacher (achdrya) 
of Yoga, one who has mastered the doctrines and practices of ecstatic 
meditation — the culmination of which are the Mahdsiddhis. It is incor- 
rect to confuse this school with the Tantra, or Mahatantra school founded 
by Samantabhadra, for there are two Yogacharya Schools, one esoteric, 
the other popular. The doctrines of the latter were compiled and glossed 
by Asamgha in the sixth century of our era, and his mystic tantras and 
mantras, his formularies, litanies, spells and mudras, would certainly, 
if attempted without a Guru, serve rather purposes of sorcery and black 
magic than real Yoga. Those who undertake to write upon the subject 
are generally learned missionaries and haters of Eastern philosophy in 
general. From these no unbiassed views can be expected. Thus when 
we read in the Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary of Eitel, that the reciting 
of mantras (which he calls "spells"!) "should be accompanied by music 
and distortions of the fingers (mudrd), that a state of mental fixity 
(Samddhi) might be reached" — one acquainted, however slightly, with 
the real practice of Yoga can only shrug his shoulders. These distortions 
of the fingers or mudrd are necessary, the author thinks, for the reaching 
of Samadhi, "cluiracterized by there being neither thought nor annihila- 
tion of thought, and consisting of six-fold hodily (sic) and mental hap- 
piness (yogi) whence woidd result endowment with supernatural miracle- 
working power". Theosophists cannot be too much warned against such 
fantastic and prejudiced explanations. 



354 THEOSOPHICAL 

Yogi (Sk.). (1) Not "a state of six-fold bodily and mental ]iapj)iness 
as the result of ecstatic meditation" (Eitel) ; but a state which, when 
reached, makes the practitioner thereof absolute master of his six "prin- 
ciples", he now heing merged in the seventh. It gives him full control, 
owing to his knowledge of Self and Self, over his bodily, intellectual 
and mental states, which, unable any longer to interfere with, or act 
upon, his Higher Ego, leave it free to exist in its original, pure, and 
divine state. (2) Also the name of the devotee who practises Yoga. 

Yong-Griib (Tib.). A state of absolute rest, the same as Paranirvana. 

Yoni (Sk.). The womb, the female principle. 

Yudishthira (Sk.). One of the heroes of the Mahdbharata. The eld- 
est brother of the Pandavas, or the five Pandu princes who fought 
against their next of kin, the Kauravas, the sons of their maternal uncle. 
Arjuna, the disciple of Krishna, was his younger brother. The 
Bhagavad Gttd gives mystical particulars of this war. Kunti was the 
mother of the Pandavas, and Draupadi the wife in common of the five 
brothers — an allegory. But Yudishthira is also, as well as Krishna, 
Arjuna, and so many other heroes, an historical character, who lived 
some 5,000 years ago, at the period when the Kali Yuga set in. 

Yuga (Sk.). A 1,000th part of a Kalpa. An age of the World of 
which there are four, and the series of which proceed in succession 
during the manvantaric cycle. Each Yuga is preceded by a period 
called in the Purdnas Sandhya, twilight, or transition period, and is 
followed by another period of like duration called Sandhyansa, "portion 
of twilight". Each is equal to one-tenth of the Yuga. The group of 
four Yugas is first computed by the divine years, or "years of the gods" 
— each such year being equal to 360 years of mortal men. Thus we 
have, in "divine" years: 

1. Krita or Satya Yuga - - - 4,000 
Sandhya . . . . 400 
Sandhyansa - . _ . 400 

4,800 

2. Treta Yuga - . _ _ 3,000 
Sandhya , . . _ . _ 300 
Sandhyansa . . . . 300 

3,600 

3. Dwapara Yuga . _ . . 2,000 
Sandhya . - . . 200 
Sandhyansa . _ . _ 200 

2,400 



Kali Yuga - - - - 1,000 

Sandhya . . . . lOO 

Sandhyansa . _ . _ lOO 



Total 12,000 



1,200 



GLOSSARY 355 



This rendered in years of mortals equals: 

4800 X 360 = 1,728,000 

3600 X 360 = 1,296,000 

2400 X 360 = 864,000 

1200 X 360 = 432,000 



Total 4,320,000 

The above is called a Mahayuga or Manvantara. 2,000 such Maha- 
yugas, or a period of 8,640,000,000 years, make a Kalpa: the latter 
being only a "day and a night", or twenty-four hours, of Brahma. Thus 
an "age of Brahma", or one hundred of his divine years, must equal 
311,040,000,000,000 of our mortal years. The old Mazdeans or Magi 
(the modern Parsis) had the same calculation, though the Orientalists 
do not seem to perceive it, for even the Parsi Mobeds themselves have 
forgotten it. But their "Sovereign Time of the Long Period" (Zervan 
Daregho Hvaddta) lasts 12,000 years, and these are the 12,000 divine 
.years of a Mahayuga as shown above, whereas the Zervan Akarana 
(Limitless Time), mentioned by Zarathustra, is the Kdla, out of space 
and time ; of Parabrahm, 

Yurbo Adonai. 'A contemptuous epithet given by the followers of 
the Nazarcnc Codex, the St. John Gnostics, to the Jehovah of the Jews. 

Yiirmungander (Scand.). A name of the Midgard snake in the Edda, 
whose brother is Wolf Fenris, and whose sister is the horrible monster 
Hel — the three children of wicked Loki and Angurboda (carrier of 
anguish), a dreaded giantess. The mundane snake of the Norsemen, the 
monster created by Loki but fashioned by the constant putrid emana- 
tions from the body of the slain giant Ymir (the matter of our globe), 
and producing in its turn a constant emanation, which serves as a veil 
between heaven and earth, i.e., the Astral Light. 



356 THEOSOPHICAL 



z. 



^» — The 26th letter of the English alphabet. It stands as a numeral 
for 2,000, and with a dash over it thus, Z, equals 2,000,000. It is the 
seventh letter in the Hebrew alphabet — zayin, its symbol being a kind of 
Egyptian sceptre, a weapon. The zayin is equivalent to number seven. 
The number twenty-six is held most sacred by the Kabbalists, being equal 
to the numerical value of the letters of the Tetragrammaton — thus : 

he vau he yod 

5 -f 6 + 5 + 10 = 26. 

Zabulon (Heh.). The abode of God, the tenth Devachan in degree. 
Hence Zabulon the tenth son of Jacob. 

Zacchai (Heh.). One of the deity-names. 

Zadok (Heh.). According to Josephus (see Antiquities, x., 8, §6), 
Zadok was the first High-Priest Hierophant of Solomon's High Temple. 
Masons connect him with some of their degrees. 

Zalmat Gaguadi (Akkad.). Lit., "the dark race", the first that fell 
into generation in the Babylonian legends. The Adamic race, one of the 
two principal races that existed at the time of the "Fall of Man" (hence 
our third Root-race), the other being called Sarku, or the "light race". 
(Secret Doctrine, II., 5.) 

Zampnn (Tih.). The sacred tree of life, having many mystic meanings. 

Zarathustra (Zend). The great lawgiver, and the founder of the 
religion variously called Mazdaism, Magism, Parseeism, Fire-Worship, 
and Zoroastrianism. The age of the last Zoroaster (for it is a generic 
name) is not known, and perhaps for that very reason. Xanthus of 
Lydia, the earliest Greek writer who mentions this great lawgiver and 
religious reformer, places him about six hundred years before the Trojan 
War. But where is the historian who can now tell when the latter took 
place ? Aristotle and also Eudoxus assign him a date of no less than 6,000 
years before the days of Plato